Projecto QREN RemotePV. ANEXO ao Relatório Técnico Final. Elementos Adicionais Tarefas

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1 Projecto QREN RemotePV ANEXO ao Relatório Técnico Final Elementos Adicionais Tarefas

2 Índice Estado da arte Exemplos de Estudos e Relatórios Exemplo de Concorrentes... 4 Feedback ONGS Feedback Moçambique e Angola Feedback - Peru Feedback Nigéria e Angola Feedback Moçambique Feedback Moçambique II Feedback: PALOPs Feedback: Guiné Comunidades Locais Peru India Moçambique Angola Brasil Produto Prépago Fotos Testes para material de de promoção Produto PVBrain Fotos Testes para material de de promoção Serviço Solar Academy Descrição Final Relatórios Internos Development of Monitoring and fault detection for Off-Grid System Report: study of equipment development for remote photovoltaics installations: RemotePV Market Opportunities Report: Cape Verde Phovoltaic Market... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5. Projecto India com ONG - SAPANA Estudo de rentabilidade Apresentações Públicas Pay-per-Use Moçambique Produtos Remote PV Moçambique Stratety for Local Partners... 71

3 Estado da arte 1. Exemplos de Estudos e Relatórios 1. Energy solutions in rural Africa: mapping electrification costs of distributed solar and diesel generation versus grid extension* S Szab o, K B odis, T Huld and M Moner-Girona 2. Using Microfinance to Expand Access to Energy Services: Summary of Findings by Ellen Morris, Jacob Winiecki, Sonali Chowdhary, Kristen Cortiglia 3. Energy Poverty: How to make modern energy access universal? Special early excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2010 Richard H. Jones Deputy Executive Director, International Energy Agency 4. THE SECRETARY-GENERAL S ADVISORY GROUP ON ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE (AGECC) Energy for a Sustainable Future REPORT AND RECOMMENDATIONS 28 April 2010 New York 5. SIMbaLink: Towards a Sustainable and Feasible Solar Rural Electrification System by Nahana Schelling, Meredith J. Hasson, Sara Leeun Huong, Ariel Nevarez, Wei-Chih Lu, Matt Tierney, Lakshminarayanan Subramanian, Harald Sch utzeichel 6. PLANO ESTRATÉGICO PROVINCIAL NIASSA 2017 REPÚBLICA DE MOÇAMBIQUE PROVÍNCIA DO NIASSA 7. SM2: SOLAR MONITORING SYSTEM IN MALAWI by Mayamiko Nkoloma, Marco Zennaro, Antoine Bagula 8. Escaping the Vicious Cycle of Poverty: Towards Universal Access to Energy in Developing Countries by Arno Behrens, Glada Lahn, Eike Dreblow, Jorge Núñez Ferrer, Mathilde Carraro & Sebastian Veit No.363/March 2012

4 2. Exemplo de Concorrentes

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7 Feedback ONGS 1. Existe electricidade nas comunidades? Como? 2. Que tipo de equipamentos eléctricos é que eles usam? 3. Que tipo de comunicações existe nas comunidades? GSM, Satélite, Internet, Rede fixa 4. Tipo de pagamento? Moedas, Cartão MB, VISA, Telemóvel, Produtos 5. É necessário um tipo especial de protecção para os sistemas? Chuva, Lama, Roubo, Animais. Robustez de Equipamento electrónico em Africa. Alguns cuidados especiais? 6. Eles percebem alguma língua ou é melhor fazer tudo com sinalética intuitiva? 1. Feedback Moçambique e Angola 1. Centros urbanos têm electricidade através de geradores podem ser enormes (tamanho campo de futebol). Também têm através das barragens, MZ Chora Bassa e Angola outras. Nos centros rurais só há geradores nas mercearias, casas das ONG s, etc.. 2. Em zonas pequenas não existe frigorífico, eles secam os alimentos. Em zonas urbanas, há frigoríficos. Há muitas ventoinhas chinesas, pequenos electrodomésticos (TODOS 220 volts); Rádio com baterias chinesas que se gastam muito rapidamente qualquer família tem um rádio, há em todo o lado (gostam muito de música), gravador de K7 e cd. 3. Sinal mau em MZ e ANG Vodafone, há telefones públicos/cabines, existem em cada distrito. Internet nas cidades há (móvel ou pela rede), nas áreas rurais não há muito. 4. Cartão usa-se nas cidades mas é novidade; dinheiro comanda (meticais ou kwanzas); nas áreas rurais se têm dinheiro guardam em casa, nas cidades começam a abrir contas. 5. Fixação é importante, em termos comunitários há sempre vigilância porque é do interesse de todos. No norte de MZ há ventos muito fortes; em ANG o problema pode ser mais o roubo. 6. Há sempre alguém que fala português, deve ser simples e muito directo, os sinais ajudam. Há um serviço das Nações Unidas de tradução gratuito (buscar por free translation UN ) COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Angola pode ser mercado a explorar, mas têm petróleo, é muito barato, por isso podem não estar muito preocupados com a poupança. ONGs usam painéis solares. Luzes nos municípios em Angola (Kwanza, p.e.) são com painéis solares. Chineses têm mini-eólicas que custam 1.000$ e dão uma energia formidável, as ONGs têm isso nas escolas. Microcrédito acha interessante, as pessoas fazem km s para ir à vila usar a energia e há vontade de melhorar o nível de vida, portanto, investir um X e que dê resultados, é interessante Moçambique é a menina dos olhos bonitos das ONGs Associar um pacote/ ideias bem preparadas da empresa às ideias da ONG, trabalhando em conjunto pode ser uma forma de entrar no terreno. As ONGs abrem portas, as que já estejam no terreno e sejam conceituadas. Existe um conselho de ONGs nos países. Sugeriu contactar: 2. Feedback - Peru 1. Comunidades com 500 habitantes não há electricidade As cidades têm sempre electricidade, mesmo que sejam pequenas 2. Rádio, TV há quem compre combustível para depois colocar no gerador e ver TV, frigorífico é uma moda, nos Andes é frio (em qualquer mês) n é Nec, TLM usam muito, vão à cidade carregar, fica em 0,5 p/ carregar o TLM nas lojas que oferecem serviços de chamadas. O telemóvel usa-se muito ; Os quiosques precisam de energia, no verão, para os frigoríficos, e sempre para o rádio 3. Na cidade há internet nas comunidades não. TLM há. 4. Moedas, notas em todo o lado. Cartão só nas cidades. 5. Chuva e trovoada 6. Normalmente sabem ler e em espanhol mas ajuda bonecos e sinais.

8 COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Há muitos projectos da UE, Alemanha, as empresas mineiras têm interesse em desenvolver projectos porque têm Money mesmo para esse fim É necessário ensinar a utilizar a tecnologia, como é nova as pessoas não estão habituadas a usar As comunidades isoladas não têm sequer geradores, utilizam pilhas para ouvir rádio A actividade mineira é obrigada a atribuir um X à comunidade envolvente. Assim, há muitas comunidades que têm que apresentar projectos para poder justificar esta entrada de dinheiro, no entanto, muitas vezes não arranjam projectos suficientes e o dinheiro tem que ser devolvido acha que até agora não há projectos de energia solar Papel das ONGs: Tem muito interesse em difundir a ES, se se recorrer ao governo é muito burocrático; Há orçamento do Peru para apoiar a ES Através das ONGs é possível chegar às comunidades, sobretudo as mais estabelecidas Pode haver ligação entre uma empresa E uma ONG através do intercambio de estudantes/voluntários ou através de financiamento 3. Feedback Nigéria e Angola COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Na Nigéria falta a luz muito frequentemente e há cerca de 20 horas por dia com luz. Os negócios precisam do gerador para funcionar. A iluminação pública é feita através de painéis solares. Necessitam de luz, muita gente tem gerador (um pequenito p/ uma casa fica em gasolina q custa 0,3 /l) e não têm consciência ambiental portanto só se queixam quando há greve das gasolineiras. Os hotéis na Nigéria são muito caros porque gastam muito de geradores e gasolina. ONGs: As embaixadas também dão financiamentos e ela conheceu que era para construir um poço q funcionar c gerador e a embaixada da suíça sugeriu que deveria ser com energia solar. Já ouvir falar em cozinhas solares na Nigéria, sabe que a organização dava formação às ONGs sobre estas cozinhas para que estas depois divulgassem as cozinhas nas localidades. As comunidades muito pequenas não têm dinheiro para pagar, é mais fácil apanhar lenha e queimar do que pagar para ter ES. Angola tem salários + altos. 4. Feedback Moçambique 1. Zona urbana tem electricidade. Zona rural não há o que comer, não têm dinheiro para pagar. Há uma crise alimentar neste momento, a água e comida é prioritário, a energia não sabe 2. Telemóvel, gravadores em muitos sítios. Computador e frigoríficos só em zonas urbanas e mesmo assim, em poucos sítios. 3. Podem ser roubados porque pensam poder comercializar os materiais. Chove muito. Os animais são diferentes dos de aqui mas não sabe o impacto que pode ter 4. Nas zonas rurais podem não saber português, só se usa o dialecto. Os desenhos, sinais, ajudam. COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Deve fazer-se primeiro um diagnóstico no terreno para perceber as necessidades das populações. Selecciona-se um país e faz-se o diagnóstico. Ter cuidado com as tecnologias, há que ensinar a utilizar, manter. Não vê o projecto nada fácil, trabalhar em Moçambique é muito difícil. Os poços de água são uma prioridade para as populações e mesmo assim é muito difícil gerir estes projectos, porque é difícil ensinar as pessoas, que se juntem, organizar grupos, etc

9 Para as ONGs moçambicanas a cooperação e a ajuda internacional é um negócio, a cultura moçambicana diz que sim a tudo. As ONGs daqui só vão dar um parecer positivo caso vá ao encontro de uma linha estratégica, se houver um diagnóstico antes. Os Engenheiros Sem Fronteiras da Catalunha não trabalham com empresas, por princípio, os de Madrid, sim. A linha da água e da soberania alimentar são as prioritárias. A loja Natura está a vender uns equipamentos pequenitos, muito baratos, que carregam TLMs, PCs, 5. Feedback Moçambique II 1. As pessoas podem estar interessadas em comprar electricidade mas depende do preço. Nas cidades já há electricidade através da rede, nas zonas rurais não chega. A comunidade indiana pode ter interesse em ter painéis solares em casa. Nas zonas rurais não há dinheiro, não têm electricidade e não vão ter durante mais uns largos anos. Também não têm água canalizada nem saneamento. Em Moçambique a electricidade funciona através de um sistema de crédito. Colocam um contador em cada casa e as pessoas compram um plafond (p.e. 500 meticais dá para X watts), quando acaba o plafon que a pessoa contratou, acaba a luz cada um compra o que consome. 2. Utilizam muito o telemóvel. Costumam carregar o TLM por 5 meticais (40 meticais é 1 euro). Para carregar podem ir à cidade, ou a cafés/ casas onde a electricidade tenha chegado. Usam rádio também. É um negócio, as pessoas alugam os telemóveis, 3. 3G, GSM nas cidades. Quando se começa a sair pode ser GPRS. Em Maputo há cabo, internet; em Nampula, a internet é através da linha de telefone. 4. Uso do cartão nas cidades. Os funcionários públicos já recebem os salários através de transferências bancárias. No resto do país é tudo através de dinheiro. 5. Roubos são o mais importante. Antes de decidir onde se constrói, há que reunir com a comunidade, encontrar pessoas que se responsabilizem em vigiar o equipamento (fazem-no a preços mínimos). Há um período de chuvas muito forte. Ilha de Moçambique ventos muito fortes Moçambique tem grandes diferenças de clima ao longo do território. 6. Quanto mais simples melhor. Tem que se arranjar uma pessoa responsável, esta fala sempre bem português. COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Há muitas empresas que fazem programas de microcrédito e têm muita dificuldade em receber o dinheiro de volta. Deve fazer-se um estudo detalhado e conversar com as pessoas, tem que ser muito bem decidido onde vão apostar, há comunidades muito trabalhadoras e outras não o são. Acha que um projecto de crédito de energia solar é interessante mas importa saber a que preço ser-lhes-á apresentado. 6. Feedback: PALOPs 1. Comunidades rurais não existem electricidade, não existe nada, há carências de tudo, não têm água, saneamento, vivem da agricultura de subsistência. 2. Tv, rádio, frigorífico. Rádios dínamo que são distribuídos gratuitamente. 3. Nas cidades usam TLM, tv por cabo. Nas zonas rurais não têm nada, porque depois não têm como carregar. Mais necessário que um telemóvel, seria algo para conservar alimentos. Nos limbos há mecanismos comunitários para conservar alimentos. 4.

10 5. Tem que haver uma fase de consciencialização da comunidade para perceber o que é e para que funciona e o que se pretende. Há que ensinar como se utiliza o que equipamento. Se a população estiver envolvida e vir utilidade, não destroem. Organização local ou autoridades locais deviam receber formação com a WS Energia para depois fazerem a manutenção. 6. Algumas comunidades não falam português, em Angola, mas o soba (responsável do kimbo) fala sempre. COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS A Actuar trabalha em: Países de expressão portuguesa, com ONGDs locais; Áreas como a segurança alimentar, no combate à fome mulheres, agricultores Tecnologias sociais pequenas inovações simples e a baixo custo que trazem melhorias à comunidade, trata de resíduos, saneamento, letrinas, energia fotovoltaica A Actuar pode ser um contributo no apoio à empresa para trabalhar com comunidades locais, reunir com as comunidades e os chefes locais. Em Angola e Moçambique existe um sistema que se designa de Fundos rotativos que consiste na venda de produtos agrícolas e em que parte das receitas reverte para um fundo comunitário. Com este fundo realizam o que consideram pertinente para a comunidade. Possíveis formas de colaboração com ONGs: Sondar um doador e apresentar a iniciativa; Actuar e WS Energia trabalham em conjunto para apresentar projecto à UE; Averiguar com governos locais se há via orçamento geral do Estado alguma fatia dedicada a ES. Era bom fazer uma experiência piloto, p.e. no sul de Angola e em Moçambique. Caso corra bem, já existe um modelo para mostrar a um potencial doador e replicar noutros locais. Os projectos variam consoante o destino, por exemplo: No caso de São Tomé, a proteína animal mais consumida é o peixe, assim estão a desenvolver um projecto de empoderamento das comunidades de pescadores a utilizar câmara de refrigeração, caso contrário estas não têm como conservar o peixe, o que leva a que se estrague e mais dificulta a venda. Angola: pode-se fazer alguma coisa através do trabalho comunitário, melhorando assim a produtividade agrícola, o processo de transformação, de conservação dos alimentos. 7. Feedback: Guiné COMENTÁRIOS GERAIS Há que fazer uma primeira fase em que há uma identificação das necessidades das comunidades, estudo de caracterização socioeconómico das comunidades, em que se identifica a capacidade para pagar, etc As comunidades desconhecem esta tecnologia. O retalho desta tecnologia está mais focado em segmentos da população com um nível de vida mais elevado.

11 Comunidades Locais 1. Peru ENERGIAS RENOVÁVEIS EM CAJAMARCA I. DESCRIÇÃO DA REALIDADE ELÉCTRICA DAS ZONAS RURAIS 1.1. Panorama geral da geração de energia eléctrica no Peru Em termos de energia eléctrica o Peru conta com o Sistema Eléctrico Interconectado Nacional SEIN, formado pelas plantas hidroeléctricas e termoeléctricas (diesel e gás natural) que geram quase o 100% da energia eléctrica, em segundo nível Sistemas Isolados conformado por pequenas hidroeléctricas e em terceiro e quarto nível as energias solares e eólicas, que representam um número insignificante, estas duas últimas com um alto potencial no futuro Cobertura eléctrica A relação da cobertura eléctrica peruana frente a sua população é de 78% o que significa que dos mais de 28 milhões de peruanos um 6.5 milhões não contam com electricidade, concentrando-se a falta de energia eléctrica num valor de 16% em sectores neta mente rurais. A ração principal para aquilo é a barreira geográfica, económica e de densidade populacional. Em outras palavras o Peru é um país cortado de norte a sul pela cordilheira dos Andes o que determina que hajam cidades desde os 0 metros ao nível do mar até os 5000 metros de altitude, o qual gerou a existência de comunidades rurais muito dispersas umas das outras por todos os andes, facto que encarece os projectos de inversão em o tendido de redes eléctricas Situação eléctrica em Cajamarca Cajamarca é um departamento situado no extremo norte dos andes peruanos, conta com uma população de 1 milhão 400 mil habitantes aproximadamente dos quais 75% pertencem à população rural. Em termos de electrificação Cajamarca ocupa os últimos lugares com um 40% de electrificação, que se concentra nas capitais de província e centros populosos menores. Populacional mente quer dizer que aproximadamente 500 mil habitantes não contam com energia eléctrica por estar dispersos e situados longe das redes eléctricas Niveis de electrificação em Cajamarca departamento Cidades População Rural Electrificação San Ignacio 86% 18.9% Jaen 53% 45.6% Cutervo 82.9% 17.4% Chota 82.5% 29.7% Santa Cruz 81.1% 24.5%

12 Hualgayoc 85.7% 14.2% Celendin 79.3% 20.9 San Miguel 85.7% 20.6% San Pablo 86.1% 17.7% Cajamarca 49.8% 58.4% San Marcos 84.4% 19.1% Cajabamba 78.5% 23.6% Contumaza 60.3% 38.7% Das análises do quadro podemos concluir que o nível de electrificação de Cajamarca é propício à implementação de outras formas de geração de energias que não seja a convencional pelos custos que significa levar as redes eléctricas a cada casa Tipo de energia usada nas vivendas Tipo de energia % Electricidade 40 * Kerosene 36.8 Gasóleo GPL 0.5 Bela 11 Gerador 0.4 Outro 0.7 Não tem 0.2 Total 100 * Este combustível derivado do petróleo foi proibido a partir do 2010 por ser matéria-prima na elaboração de pasta básica de cocaína. II. PROJECTOS DESENVOLVIDOS EM ENERGIA SOLAR Os projectos existentes no Peru em quanto a energias renováveis são poucos, e os poucos que se estão a desenvolver-se actualmente se encontram na etapa piloto o de proba. Algo que é um grão aporte às líneas de base para a elaboração de projectos com energia solar é a elaboração do Atlas de Energia Solar do Peru, estúdio desenvolvido pelo Ministério de Energia e Minas do Peru, e financiado pelo Fundo Mundial para o Médio Ambiente e das Nações Unidas, basicamente é o levantamento de una ficha técnica do território peruano, onde se expõem os níveis de radiação solar com informação dos níveis mensais e anuais, informação que foi projectada para servir de base para construção de sistemas fotovoltaicos coerentes com a climatologia do Peru. O resultado deste estúdio em termos generais determino que a radiação solar no Peru é mais alta na zona da Serra (5-6 KWh/m2-día) que na selva e a costa (4-5 Kwh/m2-día) com uma variação de +/- 20% durante o ano. Dentro das zonas prioritárias para a implementação de energias renováveis são as situadas nas zonas de fronteira e selva.

13 2.1. Projectos Os projectos-pilotos desenvolvidos no Peru se traduzem na instalação de 4200 sistemas fotovoltaicos em Cajamarca, Pasco, Loreto e Ucayali com o fim de realizar réplicas em todo o território peruano destinado ao uso familiar e produtivo. a. Programa fotovoltaico produtivo Estes fotovoltaicos tem uma potência de 2 kwp que gera uma energia máxima de 12 kwh/dia a 220 VAC, 60 Hz pensado como gerador de energia para a operação dum atelier de tecidos, onde logra-se operar maquinarias de esquila, tecer e rematar; entre outro tipo de ateliers. b. Programa euro solar Este programa introduziu um sistema híbrido de captação de energia eólicofotovoltaico, composto por um gerador fotovoltaico de 1000 Wp mais um aerogerador de 400 W, para a operação duma antena satélite, telefone IP, equipas informáticos, equipas multimédia, carregador de pilhas e baterias, refrigerador de vacinas e filtro da água. Tudo aquilo destinado a centros educativos e de saúde 2.2. Políticas de electrificação rural A nível governamental central desde o ano 2006 se vem incentivando o desenvolvimento da energia solar a nível do Projecto de melhoramento da Electrificação Rural mediante Fundos Concursales o que quer dizer que se esta descentralizando a planificação de projectos, introduzindo concessiones com regulações específicas para ampliar o uso de energias novas, tudo aquilo com a participação do sector público e privado. O seu principal garante económico é o Banco Mundial e o Global Environment Facility. A este projecto se destinou 144 milhões de dólares entre o 2006 e Uno dos objectivos destas políticas são fomentar o aproveitamento de fontes de energia renovável em sistemas de geração distribuída, integrados nas redes de distribuição eléctrica. A sua estratégia para alcançar este objectivo é elaborar estudos que permitam o desenvolvimento das energias renováveis; dar prioridade aos projectos mediante a utilização de fontes de energias renováveis nas áreas pertinentes. Paralelamente ao governo central, já desde o 2004 se vem realizando projectos de electrificação rural por iniciativa privada de diferentes ONGs e dos governos regionais e locais Energias renováveis em Cajamarca Projectos existentes Actualmente ao nível piloto já se encontra em marcha 20 sistemas híbridos no Centro Povoado Campo Alegre em Namora, Cajamarca. O sistema é composto por um aerogerador de 100W e um módulo fotovoltaico de 50 Wp, além de um sistema

14 para monitorar e registrar a velocidade e direcção do vento, irradiação, irradiância e temperatura do ambiente, assim como um medidor de consumos eléctricos. O 03 de Novembro do 2010, a Fundação Acciona Microenergía de origem espanhol mediante a Associação peruana Peru Microenergía inaugurou o programa Luz em Casa beneficiando a pessoas, o que representa cobrir o 3% da falta de electrificação do sector rural em Cajamarca. Esta iniciativa foi co financiada pelo Banco Mundial. O seu método de trabalho consiste em identificar populações onde não se tem planificado tender redes eléctricas pelos seguintes 20 anos, uma vez identificados os interessados, deverão pagar una quota mínima mensal para o mantimento do projecto. Finalizada a negociação instala-se um gerador fotovoltaico de 60Wp e uma bateria de 100 Ah, capaz de por a funcionar 4 focos, um carregador de telemóvel, rádio e a televisão durante 4 horas por dia; o que significa dispor de uma energia media de 86 KWh por ano. A quota pelo uso desta energia fotovoltaico logo dum estúdio é menor á media do que a população gastava para ter energia de outras fontes. A quota é de 15 soles (3.5 euros) por mês. Com as diferentes subvenções do estado peruano as tarifas poderiam chegar ao custo de 10 soles cada sistema instalado. Noutras localidades de Cajamarca como San Ignacio e Jaen também se há implementado o uso de fotovoltaicos, beneficiando-se 49 localidades, 8000 beneficiados com um gasto de milhões de soles (1.milhão 350 mil euros) Crescimento da demanda eléctrica insatisfeita Outro factor para ter em conta no departamento de Cajamarca, é a exploração mineira, basicamente extracção de ouro, que indirectamente a incrementado o poder aquisitivo da população, consequentemente a aquisição de artefactos eléctricos o que traz o aumento da necessidade do uso da energia eléctrica tanto dos sectores que já tinham o serviço, como dos sectores que não o tinham, devido a que muitas comunidades campesinas há recebido directa o indirectamente benefícios da exploração mineira aumentando o seu poder aquisitivo mas não o seu nível de vida. Se bem e verdade que muitos campesinos podem comprar artefactos eléctricos também é verdade que é extremamente caro poder por a funcionar ditos artefactos. III. ESTRATÉGIAS DE ABERTURA DO MERCADO As estratégias para que una empresa de energias renováveis estrangeira possa ter alguma presença no mercado peruano neste contexto de abertura podemos dividir em dois: 3.1. Inversão directa A seguir a uma prospecção do mercado peruano de forma directa se procura uma aliança de um sócio comercial dessa forma se introduz o produto mediante ferias tecnológicas, roda de negócios, participação de licitações públicas, etc Desenvolvimento de projectos de impacto social

15 a. Com instituições privadas Nesta modalidade é conveniente firmar convénios com instituições privadas com experiência no desenvolvimento de projectos sociais com o fim de prantear projectos onde o papel das energias renováveis é ser uma alternativa para melhorar a qualidade de vida das populações rurais a um custo menor que a energia convencional. O financiamento deste projecto, pode vir dos grandes capitais privados provenientes de empresas mineiras. Para lograr os objectivos a empresa estrangeira dentro do convénio deve outorgar a suficiente confiança para garantir que os projectos feitos conjuntamente com a instituição peruana no caso de adjudicação dum futuro projecto podem ser cumpridos até o fim. b. Com instituições públicas Estas instituições são aquelas conformadas pelos governos locais, municipalidades distritais que por beneficio do canon mineiro (taxa a favor dos povos perto duma zona mineira) recebem partidas económicas para traduzi-as em projectos em pró da sua comunidade, neste marco se procura assinar um convénio de características similares a do convénio privado mas com um carácter político, por tanto precisa-se de ter una representação (pessoa o instituição) ligada ao actual governo. IV. ANALISES DO MERCADO PERUANO DE ENERGIAS RENOVÁVEIS 4.1. FORÇAS - WS Energia é uma empresa consolidada no mercado nacional e internacional de energias renováveis com patentes devidamente inscritas. - WS Energia é una empresa com capacidade de produção por consequência com a capacidade de implementação de energias renováveis nos sectores onde lhe sejam requeridos OPORTUNIDADES - Mercado novo para a entrada de energias renováveis. - Incentivo por parte do governo peruano e de instituições internacionais como o Banco Mundial, Global Environment Facility, União Europeia, para a introdução de energias renováveis. - Existência dum Atlas de Energia Solar do Peru, que facilita a investigação na implementação de fotovoltaicos adequados. - Existência de grandes capitais mineiros obrigados a retribuir mediante projectos sociais o impacto da exploração e os níveis de contaminação ambiental. - Boas condições climatológicas para a adequação das energias renováveis DEBILIDADES - Desconhecimento do mercado peruano e a legislação peruana. - Falta de sócios estratégicos nas zonas mineiras.

16 4.4. AMEAÇAS - Lobbies de poder dentro da política peruana. - Distância da empresa matriz com as zonas de monitorização dos projectos. V. ANEXOS: 1. Atlas de Energia Solar do Peru. 2. Mapa Eléctrico do Peru. 3. Descrição dos fotovoltaicos introduzidos no plano piloto em Cajamarca. 4. Vídeo promocional da inauguração do projecto de fotovoltaicos luz em casa da empresa espanhola ACCIONA <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0a8s4- u5ca&feature=player_embedded#at=194>

17 2. India Fotografias e mapa da visita da ONG SAPANA à India

18 India Exemplo de levantamento das necessidades locais

19 3. Moçambique Contactos MOZ Nome empresa mail telef Bachiro Liasse MOZSECURITY Antonio Teixeira Somague Rocha Agencia de Pub Yoguesh Naguine LAM Antonio Fonseca Agencia Golo João Munhá de Sousa Gesto Energy Agostinho Mamade Aga Khan Rui Carimo Aga Khan Miguel Silva Diesel Electrica Ricardo Carvalho Fatima Bacelos Terradesign Raquel Neves Sapo MZ Helder Andrade Fundação Aurelio Sertorio Pedro Cruz Univ Lusofona João Silveira Delegação União europeia Leonor Assunção Nutriconsult Gabriel machado CTA- Confederação das Associações Económicas de +258 Moçambique Florian Geyer GIZ-AMES Contactos assegurados durante a visita da WS Energia a Moçambique Fotos da Visita da WS Energia a Moçambique

20 Script Business Mission to Mozambique 1. Info on my schedule there Morning Afternoon (from 14:00) Evening (from 19:00) 12 Nov. Monday 13 No. Tuesday 14 Nov. Wednesday 15 No. Thursday 16 Nov. Friday 17 Nov. Saturday Flight Maputo Maputo Nampula Nampula Flight Welcome Meetings Maputo -> Meetings Nampula From Lisbon to Maputo - Mozambique Meetings Meetings Meetings Meetings Briefing Briefing Briefing Briefing Nampula-> Maputo Maputo-> Lisbon 2. To be contacted - AICEP - - they have an office in MZ and they should work to help PT companies to do business there. - CAT - Confederacies das Associações Económicas de Moçambique explain to them what we are doing and that we want to meet companies interested in solar, energy, etc. next week (GET A LIST OF COMPANIES FROM THEM and ASK THEM TO ALSO CONTACT THE COMPANIES WE WANT TO CONTACT!) - Programme for Basic Energy & Conservation - it is an international organization working on energy in south saharina Africa try to see if they have contact of companies or if we can match with some of their projects (even outside Mozambique but I can meet a responsible there). Look for companies: - working in the solar/energy/diesel generator business, - construction companies, - hotel and resort (big energy user in remote area or with needs to have continuous and reliable energy) - universities and school, - Remote agriculture companies. Draft of the Script and bullet points I represent WS Energia: - Engineering European company leader for innovation and experience in the photovoltaic market, - With a big customer base in the Portuguese and Italian market. - We are in the ramp-up phase so we are client oriented and we have the resources to adapt to any challenge. - We offer a series of services for energy management, monitoring and sales support that come from our large background in Photovoltaic but can be applied to any energy source. - We are currently expanding our business providing off-grid photovoltaic systems and remote monitoring solutions for Sub-Saharan-African countries and India. Local presence: - We have an Agent in Mozambique for 2 months (Ramimo Mayet) and our Business Developer is fighting to Mozambique next week to hold meeting and build business relations. - We are collaborating with the Eduardo Mondlane University (www.uem.mz/), the biggest in Mozambique! (with Prof. Boaventura to build pilot projects of off-grid PV technology and to activate training courses in off-grid PV system monitoring and maintenance)

21 The products and services we offer: - PV Systems Design: Design of Off-grid, grid-connected and back-up energy system with the use of photovoltaic technology (we also have an innovative tracking system check the web site ) + talk about our extensive experience in PV in Europe we build many systems (say number or installed MW) we won these (list some) prizes - Remote Monitoring solution for PV Systems: to know how the PV system is performing and to promptly detect faults and solve them. - Innovative products: WS PrePago the innovative and flexible billing solution for prepaid energy form remote solar energy system (Working both on AC and DC), Solar Home energy systems, portable solar systems, etc (list the last two mainly to give an idea that we have everything and eventually everything can be develop). - Equipment Supply: we have close relation and we can access convenient prices for a wide range and the best component manufactures like the German SMA for inverters...list some producers and maybe give them an idea of the price/watt of the modules (if the guys seems interested), Schedule the Meeting: I really believe there is space for an interesting and fruitful collaboration to benefit of our extensive knowledge and experience in PV technology, system design and access our convenient component supply prices. We can schedule a meeting to discuss this business opportunity.

22

23 4. Angola Fotos de Casas prontas a receber sistema Prepago. Esquema Unifilar do sistema a instalar

24 Especificações do sistema para Angola Each individual system will have a timer control unit identified as LOCAL TIMER. This unit will turn-off the energy consumption after a pre-defined period (days) if does not receive a new code. Codes are inputted in a numeric pad ate the LOCAL TIMER. The LOCAL TIMER can switch ON/OFF the consumption of the installation either in DC (24V) or AC (220 V) with a maximum power of 1 KVA Each LOCAL TIMER has a visible number that represents the individual system. Codes are generated manually in a separated hardware called CENTRAL MANAGER. In order to generate a code the user should input the LOCAL TIMER number and press Generate. The CENTRAL MANAGER has communication capability (GSM) to remotely inform the number of codes generated and for what individual LOCAL TIMER. Codes are generated locally at the CENTRAL MANAGER. Even if no communications is present the system will be able to generate code. All system should be IP Class and ready to install Guide Lines 1 st : Robustness: the system should be highly robust and will be evaluated and selected on this main feature. This means electrical safety and no failure for users. 2 nd Ease of use: The system should have no use of letters or written commands. All information is numeric and interaction of the user should be kept at the minimum possible level. 3 rd Existent technologies: The use of proven technologies and products will be preferred. The development of new products will not be eligible for cost. Proposal Selection-phase: each company should present its solution and deliver 5 LOCAL TIMERS and 1 CENTRAL MANAGER. Final delivery: 600 LOCAL TIMERS and 5 CENTRAL MANAGERS

25 5. Brasil

26

27 1. Fotos Produto Pré-pago

28

29 2. Testes para material de promoção Cartazes explicativos

30

31

32 Produto PVBrain 1. Fotos Instalação com sistema anti-roubo incluído no PVBrain

33 2. Testes para material de promoção

34

35 1. Descrição Final Serviço Solar Academy ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ACADEMY FOR MOZAMBIQUE (AEAM) TRAINING OF TRAINERS PROGRAMME ON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION OBJECTIVE OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM This program aims to promote, contribute to and scale up the use of photovoltaic (PV) systems through the development of a certified qualification and training programme. This training program is comprehensive and covers all the knowledge areas related to the design, installation and the operation and maintenance (O&M) of PV systems. In this first phase, the program is oriented to the training of the trainers, but its ambition is to establish certified training directly for professionals. The project aims to generate the credibility and reliability necessary to disseminate this sustainable energy solution and to support the development of green jobs in Mozambique improving the quality of design, installation and O&M of PV systems throughout the country, through the proper training of trainers. ATTENDEES In this First Phase Attendees of this program will be: Employees of the Energy Fund (FUNAE) and/or of partner organizations such as Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, UEM, etc. Development of Selection Process Qualification 1. People with good technical background at higher education level in the area of Electrical Engineering, Electro/Mechanical Engineering or Mechanical Engineering OR 1. Have relevant in the field experience in working with relevant technical issues and a minimum of Secondary Technical School level education. Priority will go to People from the FUNAE regional district offices. This program is composed by three learning modules of one week each. Between one learning module and the following there is an interval of between one and two months, in this way, the selected trainer will be able to attend each of the three learning modules without a continuous absence from his/her job. In a period of nine months (from March to November) each learning module is repeated three times in order to allow three different groups of trainers (for a total of 45 people) to be trained on all the modules (see 5. Chronology and Activities).

36 Methodology of Delivery The Program is divided in 3 learning modules: 1) Basics of Photovoltaic and System design Objective: to be able to select and qualify components and to design systems 2) PV Systems Installation Objective: to be able to understand a PV system project and to perform the installation and the commissioning in complete security 3) PV Systems Monitoring and O&M Objective: to be trained on failure analysis to recognize the main causes of fault in a PV system and to effectively correct them Proposed class sizes: Minimum 10 people and a maximum of 15 people. Duration: The duration of each learning module: is of 5 days (one working week). Hours per day: 8 Theoretical: 4 Practical: 4 Local Site Visits: According to the training schedule The learning modules included a balance of both theoretical and a practical knowledge. The mornings will be dedicated to the theoretical component, while the afternoons to the practical one. In practical lessons the trainees will have hands on experience with PV systems and components and they will visit and train on the operation of actual PV equipment. During each learning module a number participant between 10 and 15 people will be trained in the related subject and also the capability to then train other beneficiaries on the same topics will be further developed and improved. In fact, additionally they will learn issues related to training cycle in order to enable them to transmit the knowledge acquired to others. The beneficiaries of the training will be selected among people with good technical background at higher education level and/or experience in working with these or similar technical issues. These individuals will be selected among the employees of FUNAE or other partner organization like UEM. Approved (by all the partners) active private sector companies will be invited to demonstrate their equipment and make short presentations on how they work, including design and sizing of their systems. Evaluation: Theoretical Work is assessed by exam and practical work on a continual performance assessment basis - marks allocated for each task. Each year end is accompanied by a student evaluation report, assessing starting skills and overall improvements as well as specific tasks, attendance and aptitude. Graduation: On successful completing of all three modals the beneficiary s course work and practical work scores will be compiled and score level allocated - this is not published but only used to identify the 5 most successful students. The 5 top students will be taken on a 2 or 3 day site visit to remote Solar Installation sites in Nampula Province

37 A Qualifying Diploma will be presented to all successful beneficiaries An annual graduation ceremony, for all beneficiaries, will take place at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane with invited representatives from FUNAE. The course diploma will be credited from and certified by the following organizations: - FUNAE, - Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, - X Academy Certified by the Portuguese Government (MTSS - MINISTÉRIO DO TRABALHO E SOLIDARIEDADE SOCIAL. DGERT - DIRECÇÃO GERAL DE EMPREGO E RELAÇÕES DO TRABALHO. DSQA - DIRECÇÃO DE SERVIÇOS DE QUALIDADE E ACREDITAÇÃO). Course Validation: The course will be delivered by fully qualified and/or in the field experienced trainers supplied by the Partners: Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, WS-Energy and Exergia (X Academy). And validated by FUNAE, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane and X Academy. Beneficiary feedback will be collated and the trainers reviewed at the end of each year. CONTENT OF THE PROGRAM: A1) Theoretical Lessons - Basics of Photovoltaic and System design 1) Solar Radiation a. Position of the sun; b. Mechanisms for production of solar radiation; c. Characteristics of solar radiation; d. Solar radiation measurement; e. Solar radiation in Mozambique; f. Solar radiation software and database. 2) Solar generator a. Functions and characteristics of solar cells; b. Kinds of solar cells; c. Interconnection of solar cells and design of solar generators. 3) PV System Components: a. Battery types and characteristics, b. Solar charge controllers; c. DC/DC converters; d. Inverters. 4) Photovoltaic systems a. Photovoltaic systems without storage of electricity; Small systems with displays; Water pumping systems; b. Photovoltaic systems with storage of electricity; DC Systems (without inverter), AC System (with inverter),

38 Back-up and Hybrid systems. 5) System design, sizing and simulation a. AC and DC systems; b. System voltage; c. Use of the design software: PVGIS, HOMER, SMA SunnyDESIGN, SMA Off- Grid Configurator. 6) The training cycle a. Training needs analysis; b. Training program design; c. Instructional materials; d. Teaching and learning; e. Evaluation. A2) Practical Lessons - Basics of Photovoltaic and System design 1) Solar Radiation a. Measurement of solar radiation; b. Work with radiation data 2) Solar generator a. Curve of the solar cell; b. Curve of serial and parallel connection; c. Partial shading and function of bypass diode d. Failure analysis at solar generators 3) PV System Components: a. Selection of the battery b. Sizing and function of solar charge controllers; c. Use of DC/DC converters; d. Use of inverters. 4) System design, sizing and simulation; a. Determination of energy needs; b. Exercises with the design software; 5) Training Cycle a. Group work on training needs analysis; b. Group work on program design; c. Individual exercise on lesson preparation 6) Local Site visits A field visit to installation(s) of photovoltaic systems will be organized according to availability of site locations.

39 B1) Theoretical Lessons - PV Systems Installation and commissioning 1) Recap of the main PV Systems typologies (on-grid, off-grid, back-up), integration of the different components, 2) Use and selection of efficient loads: a. Light (LED; CFL; FL); b. Communications appliances (TV, radio, cell phones); c. Refrigeration. 3) Safety rules and conduct in the installation of PV systems, 4) System installation and commissioning a. Installation methodology and practice; b. Recognize, avoid and correct the common mistakes in the PV installation; c. Commissioning methodology and practice. d. Use of installation and commissioning toolkits 5) The training cycle a. Training needs analysis; b. Training program design; c. Instructional materials; d. Teaching and learning; e. Evaluation. B2) Practical Lessons - PV Systems Installation and commissioning 1) Applications and efficient loads (installation; testing and failure analysis) a. Light (LED; CFL; FL) design and measurement; b. Communications appliances (TV, radio, cell phone); c. Water pumping d. Refrigeration. 2) System installation and commissioning a. Work with installation and commissioning instruments; b. Practical installation and commissioning; 3) First Aid in case of injuries from burns and electric shock 4) Training Cycle a. Group work on training needs analysis; b. Group work on program design; c. Individual exercise on lesson preparation 5) Local Site visits A field visit to installation(s) of photovoltaic systems will be organized according to availability of site locations.

40 C1) Theoretical Lessons - PV Systems Monitoring and O&M 1) PV System Faults and component degradation; a. PV panel aging and cell degradation, b. Inverter aging and faults, c. Battery Management and degradation, d. Cable and junction box faults, e. Common Faults resulting from an improper use of the PV system, 2) Ordinary Maintenance of PV system components; a. How to clean PV panels, b. How to replace batteries, c. How to replace inverters and other electronic components, d. How to replace cables. 3) PV System Monitoring and anti-theft solutions; a. Anti-theft solutions for PV panels, b. PV System Measurements and communication, c. Performance parameters and value comparison, d. Fault Detection methods. 4) The training cycle a. Training needs analysis; b. Training program design; c. Instructional materials; d. Teaching and learning; e. Evaluation. C2) Practical Lessons - PV Systems Monitoring and O&M 1) PV System Faults and component degradation; a. Recognize and analyze faulty systems and components. 2) Ordinary Maintenance of PV system components; a. Cleaning PV panels, b. Replacing batteries, c. Replacing inverters and other electronic components, d. Replacing cables. 3) PV System Monitoring and anti-theft solutions; a. Install (WS Energia) anti-theft solution, b. Install and set up PV sensors, c. Installation of monitoring solutions. 4) Training Cycle a. Group work on training needs analysis; b. Group work on program design; c. Individual exercise on lesson preparation 5) Local Site visits A field visit to installation(s) of photovoltaic systems will be organized according to availability of site locations.

41 VENUE The course will take place in Maputo. The theoretical and the practical lessons will be hosted at the Universidade Eduardo Mondlane. Some practical lessons and field visits will take place at Exergia PV installations or at the WS Energia PV pilot system in UEM. CHRONOLOGY AND ACTIVITIES

42 BUDGET

43 Relatórios Internos 1. Development of Monitoring and fault detection for Off-Grid System We want to develop a flexible monitoring solution for off-grid systems. So, it should have the capability to: - According to the system design different sensors are necessary and the system should be compatible (RS485 and Bluetooth connection) with different inverter or charge regulators when it is possible to obtain data directly from them. - Collect the data of sensors for currents (AC and DC), voltage (AC and DC) and temperature (temperature of the battery and of the PV panels), irradiance. - Store locally (SD Card of USB) the data and send them to an on-line database using GPRS/GSM or internet access. - Send SMS and s alarms and periodic report on the system status. - In general these sensors will be necessary: 1 DC Current sensor + 1 Voltage sensor (battery) if data not accessible form the charge regulator, 1 DC Current sensor + 1 Voltage Sensor (PV panels) 1 DC Current Sensor (DC Load) 1 AC Current Sensor (AC Load)! In the selection of the sensors and the configuration of the device it is important to consider the possibility of using also some DIN trail energy sensors (better for safety reason and more accurate) [good also for SMARTPV! ask Flukso guy if we can use them to solve the problem of a real value of the energy usage and easy to integrate in a switch board + can supply energy for the FLUKSO]. Devices that can be used for the development of the system: - Dragrove (Dragino + arduino) - - Flukso (Dragino+ current sensor communication board), - Waspmote by Libellium (interesting the possibility to power it with PV panel, its modularity and easy plugs or the sensors). 1) We can use Dragrove if we want to have a device more flexible and open source to actually develop a customize solution 2) We can use Flukso if we intend to just adapt an out of the shelf solution to our needs asking. I think we should go for the approach 1 and develop an innovative and really competitive product + gaining experience in the company of a platform (the arduino) that we can use to develop the capability to fast prototyping and innovate.

44 2. Report: study of equipment development for remote photovoltaic installations: This report is about the study of the technological solutions, and costs, on the development of equipment for the monitoring of photovoltaic installations in Africa. The technological solution must assure the following characteristics: Have a logging system, recording the voltage and current on the batteries of a photovoltaic installation. The system must send/receive information through SMS messages; these messages will carry to a server various measurements of the system, and will receive the configurations. It should have GPS position system. It should have an anti-theft system for the solar panels of the installation. Main board (and CPU) of the energy monitoring solution: Currently on WS energy there is also work being done with the Dragino and the Fluksometer which has a good price, and is specifically designed to read the sensors for current, and to the monitoring of power consumption/production. This hardware is also very flexible because it has a connector for daughterboard s, that board developed by third party that will connect directly to sensors connector, and will interface with the main CPU through a SPI interface. Fig. 1 Dragino+Dragove external view left, inside view right. The Fluksometer has been designed based on a device called Dragino+Dragrove; this device is equipment for the web of things, made on an open source development. This Dragove is that daughter board of the Dragino, it has much more connectors than Fluksometer daughter board. It has connectors for 6 ADC connectors, SPI bus, I2C bus, serial port, 2 pins of the available connectors are for timers/counter with external clock source. The current price of the Draguino+Dragrove is 85USD. The Dragrove daughterboard actually gives more options for implementing the desired functionalities, because of the higher number of connectors available., and available protocols on the connectors. Anti-theft alarm for the photovoltaic panels: Here there are various options that can be considered to implement the anti-theft alarm. Anti-theft Solution 1:

45 For the anti-theft alarm system, is used a wire with an electrical signal that will be transmitted along the cable. This cable will be attached to every solar panel with a crimp head. Another alternative is that the signal is transmitted along cable segment that connect between different panels. Each cable segment will have a flat terminal with hole. This terminal can be connected in the screws that fix the photovoltaic panel to the base frame. With this the various cables that carry the alarm signal will be connected with each other, and every time a panel is removed from the base support the connection will be broken because the fixing bolts were removed, or because the cable was cut. Another solution is to pass a cable trough the holes of the frame of the solar panels at the moment of the installation, so it s impossible to remove a panel without cutting the cable. So whenever a panel is removed the alarm, the cable with the signal will be interrupted and the alarm will be triggered. Fig. 2 Theft alarm solution 1, continuity wire through all panels. Anti-theft Solution 2: Is the use of an oscillating signal (probably sine wave or square wave) placed on the power cable connecting to the solar panel. This oscillating signal could be place by electromagnetic induction, with setup similar to a transformer setup. One the positive terminal of the panels would create a small coil with the wire. Another coil stimulated by an oscillating voltage connected magnetically to the coil of the wire by a ferromagnetic core. On the other end of the power cable (after passing through all the panels, would be placed a clamp current sensor with a good response only to the injected signal frequency. When one of the panels is removed from the installation, is expected a noticeable attenuation of the signal captured by the clamp AC current sensor.

46 Fig. 3 Theft alarm solution2, alternating signal placed on the power wire, module disconnected affects amplitude of signal. Measurement of photovoltaic parameters: Measurement of voltages: It is expected to measure battery voltage, solar panels voltage, and solar panels current. All of the parameters should be read without interfering with the operation of the photovoltaic installation. So at the current moment the solution found to measure DC voltages of the solar panels that can go as high as 500V, is the use of a voltage divider, made with high power dissipation resistors. The voltage divider will work as a voltage converter for the ADC. It might be important to add electronic circuit to protect the microprocessor, when two probe terminals are connected reversed because of mistake, or to a higher voltage than the dimensioned voltage. It is required 0V<V ADC_IN <4V. V ADC_IN =(R 2 /R 1 +R 2 )xv, V=(R 1 +R 2 )xi R. Placing a low current on the measurement resistors I=10mA, the panels voltage is V=500V that must correspond to V ADC_IN =4V. So (R 1 +R 2 )=50kohm, R 2 =400ohm. P R1 =4.96W, P R2 =0.04W. Fig. 4 Circuit for the measurement of voltage levels of the battery bank and the panels. It is important the resistors don t have a value too high, because the resistance of the voltage divider must be much lower than the input impedance of the ADC of the microprocessor, so won t happen a considerable current through the ADC end microprocessor. Resistors of 50K sold at Farnell, TE CONNECTIVITY / CGS - MPC52503J - RESISTOR, 5W 50K, 1.36EUR. Measurement of currents:

47 For measuring the DC current of the photovoltaic installation, it was selected a clamp hall effect DC current sensor. This sensor is economical and very easy and safe to install. This sensor is bidirectional, and depending on how is attached to the cable, the output can read positive or negative voltages. Because of this will require some additional protection when connecting to the ADC, to assure the ADC isn t under a negative voltage if the user would for mistake place the DC current sensor on the opposite direction (this is very easy to happen). The price for this sensor is 29USD. This sensor requires a +12V and -12V power supply, in order to obtain this voltages from the power storage batteries is required some switched power supplies. The best found at the moment were: DC Converter Positive Negative Dual output Step Up Boost Voltage3-6V to 5-32V, at sale on ebay 10.5USD, free shipping. DC-DC Step-Down module 12V switch to 5V 3.3V For LCD/Car/Radio/LED power supply This voltage supply at sale on ebay 2.88USD, free shipping. These 2 power supplies can convert the +12V from the batteries to regulated +12V and -12V needed by the DC current sensors. GSM interface: A serial GSM modem that supports AT commands to configure the network connection and send SMS messages can be interfaced with the Dragove daughterboard, through the serial interface. Doing the appropriate programming of the microprocessor, all the SMS traffic can be processed. It was found a GSM module with AT commands, with a reasonable price, SIERRA WIRELESS - Q2687RD - MODULE, GPRS, GSM, EDGE, and QUAD BAND, sold at Farnell by 47EUR. GPS module: A GPS module might be added to assure the location of the made measurements, the GPS module can be interface through a SPI bus or serial interface. For example the FASTRAX - IT430 - MODULE, GPS, SIRFSTAR1V, can be interface by SPI bus, I2C bus, UART, this GPS module is sold at Farnell by 37EUR. Total Estimated Cost for low volume production:

48 Component: Price: Draguino+Dragove: 85USD=64.5EUR SIERRA WIRELESS - Q2687RD - MODULE, 47EUR GPRS, GSM, EDGE, QUAD BAND DC Current Sensor + power supply for the 29USD+10.5USD+2.88USD=42.38USD=32.14EUR sensor(only needed 1 set of supplies for many sensors) Resistors for measuring the 2 DC voltages 2x 1.36EUR +5EUR = 7.72EUR up to 500V, (4xresistor), plus extra components for IC protection Plus cost for antennas, Box, cables, etc????? Total: EUR The Android Phone + IOIO Android Interface (USB PIC board): This solution is about a very cost effective and flexible hardware, although it would require some software development for the requirements of the project. This solution is based on the use of an Android Smart Phone, this integrates a powerful processor, GSM, GPRS, GPS. Any Android phone with GPS could be used, to make it part of the monitoring system it only be needed to install the appropriate software and connect the USB cable to the IOIO board. Fig. 5 IOIO board for Android, analogical and digital I/O for Android phone. The IOIO board is a small and low cost board with a Microchip PIC processor with USB interface, that can be interfaced to an Android Phone, the manufacturer of the board also supplies the example code, schematics, on Firmware for the PIC and software for the Android phone, on the operations of reading the ADC pins and I/O for the PIC. There is available much source code (in Java for the Eclipse Development Environment) on the internet about programming the IOIO with an Android phone. Links: https://github.com/ytai/ioio/tree/master/software/applications

49 Because of the many Analogue and digital I/O available on the IOIO board and all the hardware systems on the Android Phone, this solution is very flexible and allows the incorporation of extra features like: Incorporation of extra various sensors, implementation of more complex anti-theft systems, voice communications, voice warnings, video recording, implementing the remote communications protocol with GPRS communications, a display (the phone display) to show locally the measurements of the made by the equipment, Wi-Fi connection for the local interaction to the measurement of the system. This main cost of implement this solution and its extra features are the time and work to be done in the programming of the IOIO device and Android phone. A low cost phone with GSM and GPS is available on ebay from 45USD=34EUR. Brand: abo, Model: A810 This phone specs are: Platform: ST-E PNX 6715L, Operating system: android 2.1, Band (GSM), GPRS (GPRS Type), GPS, System memory 256 MB ROM+256 MB RAM, Bluetooth, (WIFI is not supported), Camera 3.0M, G-SENSOR. Fig. 6 Low cost Android smart phone with GPS. The price of the IOIO board for the Android phone is 50USD at Schematic of the IOIO board: Fig. 7 Schematic of the IOIO Android sensors board. It is also required the development of a simple board with connectors and some components (resistors, capacitors, diodes,) so some of the sensors can be connected to the device. But the board for connecting with the sensors will probably have to be developed in any hardware design because of the specific requirements placed by the tender for equipment.

50 Also there are other people that already implement similar systems (remote energy monitoring) with the IOIO hardware and Android phone that maybe can be contacted for collaboration. The IOIO and Android Solar Logging Project made by Brian Dorey: Android-Solar-Logging-Project.aspx Fig. 8 Project for monitoring a photovoltaic installation made with the IOIO board and an Android phone. Remote GSM/GPRS with GPS datalogger from King Pigeon. This is a remote data logger with all the required specifications for the remote photovoltaic monitoring project. It is not completely clear what are the development requirements for transforming the King Pigeon onto our required product. The product models available from King Pigeon suitable for the application in cause are S200,S220,and S240. Specifications: Setup Method- PC Configuration via USB Port and SMS Commands or GPRS via internet; Rated Voltage: 9-24VDC; Backup Battery: 7.2V 1200MAh LI-ION; GSM Frequency: 850/900/1800/1900Mhz. Fig. 9 S200 king Pigeon remote controller/logger. Model S200: Analog inputs: 4 (0V-5V, 12bit), Digital Inputs: 2 opt coupler, can used as Pulse Counter, Outputs: 2 relays., Price: 155USD. Model S220: Analog inputs: 6 0V-5V 12bit, Digital Inputs: 6 opt coupler, can used as Pulse Counter, Outputs: 4 relays. Price: 240USD. Model S240: Analog inputs: 10 0V-5V 12bit, Digital Inputs: 6 opt coupler, can used as Pulse Counter, Outputs: 4 relays. Price: 280USD. With the Software supplied by the manufacturer, called S200 GSM GPRS Remote Controller Configuration V It is easily visible the that the device can be easily configured for detecting changes in the input signals, and triggering alarms, that would be send by SMS.

51 Fig. 10 Software interface of the S200 King Pigeon. About the ability to monitor a photovoltaic production installation on produced energy, health of the system, operating conditions, the device must be able execute the following operations: Recording max, min, average value of a signal over a day. Calculate the sum of recorded values over a day. Make simple calculation with the measured values. About the ability on executing these operations is not so clear at the moment, only can discover this after testing on the device. There is a tab called: "I/O Port Parameter Settings"- >"DIN(Counter) Settings", but it is only displayed by the application after the App is connected to the device. Fig. 11 Diagram of the S200 King Pigeon for the monitoring of a photovoltaic installation. So probably the device will require custom programming to process correctly the values read from the sensors used on the project, and to report periodically by SMS these calculated measurements.

52 Comparison of options available: Equipment: Draguino+Dragove Price: EUR Android Phone + IOIO board Price : 72.5EUR (45USD+50USD=34EUR+37.5EUR) Remote logger, GSM, GPS, from King Pigeon Price: 116.1EUR (155USD) Features: GSM,WIFI, 6 analog input, SPI bus, I2C bus, serial port, 2 inputs for timers/counter. GSM, GPRS, GPS, 16 Analog input, 14 digital I/O, SPI, I2C, serial, PWM, inputs for timers/counter, battery 1000maH, microphone, speaker, 3M pixel camera, color LCD screen, Bluetooth GSM, GPRS, GPS, 9-24VDC; Backup Battery: 7.2V 1200MAh LI-ION, 4 analog inputs, 2 opt-coupler input, 2 relay outputs,

53 3. RemotePV Market Opportunities MARKET OVERVIEW: Sub-Saharan Africa has 9% of the world's population, and is responsible for 2.5% of world economic activity measured by volume. It comprises 47 countries, most of which have a high percentage of low income and largely rural agrarian communities. More than half of the countries of the region spend 20 to 35% of their total export earnings on petroleum. The main forces driving the demand for energy are population growth and economic development. Many countries in sub-saharan Africa have experienced unprecedented high, sustained economic growth over the last two decades. The sub-saharan region offers several promising sources of renewable energy. In addition to solar power, massive hydro potential is available in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia, for example. Geothermal power could be harnessed by countries such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, Uganda and Zambia. Wind is abundant across West Africa. In terms of off-grid applications, the most promising RE technologies are solar power, microhydro and biomass. Hybrid off-grid technologies tend to bring the best results in terms of economic integration in rural areas. Moreover, even without this transformation in funding and regulation, renewable energy can already undercut its traditional rivals such as diesel and kerosene. Sub-Saharan Africa extends an uneven welcome for renewables investment. Kenya has an outstanding and long-established reputation for independent power projects. With the World Bank s assistance, Tanzania is now increasingly open to power initiatives. But the entire region could still be categorized as challenging. An increase in private sector involvement and a reduction of the energy subsidies are widely seen as essential to unlocking Africa s potential in off-grid renewables. With the decrease of the European subsidies and of the gas price due to shale gas extraction the renewable off-grid power supply will be one of the dominating future PV markets. Further Info: ergy_access_in_sub-saharan_africa_en.pdf MARKET EXPLORATION: During the last six months, I had the occasion to focus my attention on the remote electrification and solar energy markets of South Africa, Mozambique and Cape Verde. These countries and consequently their markets are quite different but it is possible to identify some common characteristics and to highlight some common advisable procedures to start and run business there. For all these countries and for the Sub-Saharan countries in general, it is advisable to have a strong local presence, either directly opening a branch of the company there or through a

54 strong partnership with influent and reliable local players. In fact, local companies are better perceived by public institutions because they employ local labor and are linked to the idea that they enrich the country rather than exploit it. Moreover, it is essential to build and maintain strong relations with the local institutions and the local decision makers in order to have chances to succeed in the public bids, to win contracts and to be perceived as reliable. In fact, the participation to public tenders in SSA often require to comply with regulations that explicitly require to be a local enterprise and/or local labor empowerment and/or a local partner involved in the bid. At the same time, developing successfully projects in SSA region requires the capacity to effectively deal with unpredictable issues and problems that represent most of those obstacles requiring the physical presence of the company or of some agents in the country. On the other hand, open and operating a company in some of the SSA country can be extremely costly in particular if it is required to hire expats from western country and/or if the office of the company needed to be in the center of expensive and relatively unsafe capitals like Luanda, Johannesburg or Nairobi. So, it is advisable to start the market development process in the SSA region with a strong and reliable local partner whose offices can in a first moment hosts the legal residence of the company we intend to move to Africa and where some agents of some employees from the mother company can work. The local partner should ensure good connections with local institutions, known by the local players and with a strong presence in the market. In this way it is possible to limit the investment (and consequently the risk) and at the same time having a company operating locally whose employees can leverage the experience and the reputation of the local partner. This advice and procedures are valid also for (the few) countries like Cape Verde that require lower operational budgets and that are safer and nearer to Europe. Also for these countries it is advisable to build connection with local player to be perceived as more reliable but opening a company there is economically less demanding. BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES: In analyzing the business opportunities in the area of solar energy and remote electrification, it is possible to classify them according different parameters like: Type of Solution: Service Provider Product Supplier Hybrid Customers Segmentation: Geographic Economic Governmental/Non-Governmental Solar System Size: Pico-Solar (<100W) Solar Home Systems (<5kW)

55 Commercial Back-Up (<20kW) Mini Grid (2-100kW) Large PV System (up to MW) Energy Access/Energy Monitoring Solutions Etc Nevertheless, the first aspect to consider is the vision and the strengths of the company that intends to move his business (or part of it) to Africa and, it is also important to analyze which are the segment of the market and the opportunities available in the selected SSA countries. In the field of solar energy and Renewable energy solutions, it is first of all important to consider whether the energy market of the selected country is market-driven or high subsidies and influence by the government. Generally the energy markets in SSA countries are heavily subsidies and are characterize by a strong distortion driven by often unreliable and inefficient central or local government interests (like in Mozambique, Angola and South Africa). The main problems for the development of profitable renewable energy market in Africa are: High Subsidies of electricity from the grid and/or conventional energy source (like diesel), High taxation and complex duty rules for imported products like PV panels, inverters, etc. Distorted market for RE driven by NGO and donor agencies that purchase RE systems directly in EU and offer them at low price or for free to the beneficiary, Distorted market for RE due to the presence of local agency that manage international development or governmental funds (like FUNAE) in a way often un-reliable, questionable and highly discretionary, Lack of knowledge: it is necessary to train the technicians and the engineers locally to ensure a reliable (sufficient number) and cost competitive (local labor) maintenance and operations, Lack of a proper distribution network, in particular, for project in remote areas (common for Solar systems), Lack of proper financing solution for capital intensive projects combined with unstable political and social conditions that make more risky and costly the investments, Prevalence of low income social class with small disposable income. At the same time and in the same continent, there are encouraging signs for the development of RE projects all over the SSA area. The main aspects are: High economic growth in many SSA countries (like Angola, Mozambique, Kenya, South Africa, etc ) capital available and increase of the disposable income of the population, Prioritization of reforms and policies to ensure access to energy also in the most remote regions (generally it is not possible or convenient to extend the grid in all these areas), Drop in the cost of PV panels and other RE systems components, Growing interest of the SSA government in RE technologies and support of many RE projects (sometimes just to ensure consensus), High cost of the electricity in some of the SSA countries due to lack of natural resources, the general increase of the price of the oil in the international markets and the remote position of the energy users, Rising of awareness over the RE technologies potential applications and quality standards.

56 The business opportunities in the areas of Renewable Energy (in particular Solar Energy) can be identified mainly in the following areas: Solar Mini Grids (PV and Battery + Diesel Gen.), Hybrid Systems (Diesel Gen. combined with PV with/without battery) Solar Home Systems (PV and battery + LED lights, mobile charger and small loads), Pico-PV Systems (PV panel and battery with 3-6h autonomy + LED lights, mobile charger), PrePaid Energy Meters (for small SHS up to residential/commercial grid connected users), PV System Intelligence (PV forecast, monitoring and fault detection, anti-theft solutions, etc ). The following tables show recap of the PV and RE technology for remote electrification. In the following chapter, among the listed business opportunities the ones that fit the profile of WS Energia will be analyzed and organized in explanatory tables.

57 WS ENERGIA STRATEGY FOR SSA: IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL ANALYZE THE BUSINESS STRATEGY OF WS ENERGIA ENTERING THE SSA MARKET WITH REMOTE ELECTRIFICATION AND ENERGY SOLUTIONS. FIRST OF ALL IT IS IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER SOME OPERATIVE BUSINESS BORDERS (THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MARKET AND THE BUSINESS WE DECIDED TO BE INVOLVED IN): SSA COUNTRIES: SSA PORTUGUESE SPEAKING COUNTRIES, IN PARTICULAR: MOZAMBIQUE, ANGOLA, CAPE VERDE, AND GUINEA BISSAU; DEVELOPMENT OF ENERGY RELATED SOLUTIONS IMPROVING AND USING ALREADY DEVELOPED SOLUTIONS AND DEVICES TAKING CARE OF IDENTIFYING THE BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES AND OF PRODUCTS COMMERCIALIZATION; COLLABORATION WITH BIG/LOCAL COMPANIES RATHER THAN MOVING PART OF THE COMPANY DIRECTLY TO THE SSA COUNTRY. IN ORDER TO HAVE A CLEAR IDEA OF THE SSA MARKET FOR RE IT CAN BE USEFUL TO LOOK AT THE POLICIES OF SOME OF THE SSA COUNTRIES (IT IS ALSO IMPORTANT TO CONSIDER THESE POLICIES MAINLY AS A VISION OF THE SPECIFIC COUNTRY AND NOT ALWAYS AS SURE COMMITMENTS): SHS AND MINIGRID An Analysis of the IEA assesses that 27% of the new installed power until 2020 will be in form of minigrids (off-grid). SHS and even more mini-grids represent a growing market for RE. This growth is mainly originated by common efforts of all the developing countries to increase the electrification rate in a situation that combines: increasing price of diesel (its average price double between 2004 and 2010), weak and limited grid extension, disperse customers with low power requirements and decreasing price of RE (in particular Solar PV) technology. The following picture shows the result of a study that analyzes the suitability of diesel versus PV in the electrification of SSA:

58 Source: European Commission's Joint Research Centre and UNEP Anyway, the biggest barrier to widespread adoption of PV in SSA is the large initial cost in fact the tendency is to favor projects with ongoing operational costs, rather than those with large initial ones such as solar and RE in general. For this reasons most of the PV projects currently developed are done with the financial support of Western donors and/or development agencies. It is essential to understand that SHS and Mini-grid (PV) are business that require a strong local presence and are business generally characterized by low margins because the customers have low disposable income and there are already some establish players in the market. Close and preferential relations with the project financer (like NGOs, European development agencies, local governments, etc ) represent a competitive advantage in this business that allows operating with bigger margins. The following table is a guideline comparing the characteristic and profitability of SHS and Mini-Grid systems:

59 Source: Alliance for Rural Electrification Further Info: Hybrid mini-grid for Rural Electrification (Case study and lessons learned) HYBRID SYSTEMS: More interesting for a technology oriented company (as WS Energia) interested in selling energy solutions (and not in developing products) with a higher technological profile and consequently higher and more stable margins would be to focus on the implementation of consultancy services for hybrid systems. These systems leverage the rising price of crude oil and the falling price of PV to ensure a reduction in energy production costs, a higher level of system stability and reduced emissions. In fact, these kinds of solutions can be suitable and cost competitive for industrial, commercial and large residential units.

60 Moreover, they also represent an interesting solution as compensation for mining/extraction activities (example: TETE region in Mozambique) through the installation of RE systems. The following image shows the cost of diesel in some countries: (Together with the official price is it also important to consider that in many areas of SSA the customer experience and higher price due to the challenging logistic and the presence of black market and the dependency from subsidies that can be reduce or cancelled due to changes in the country policies): Source: GIZ Fuel Retail Prices 2010 Main advantages in terms of profitability are: The solution is modular and scalable so it is possible to proceed with a progressive installation balancing the initial investment with the saving of fuel and the customer financial availability; Reduction of the dependency from fuel supply and from costly and unreliable maintenance for the Diesel Generator; The client is generally represented by a mining company, owners of commercial or industrial activity and government administrations so entities with the capacity to make investment in RE technologies; The market is growing so there is the opportunity for new players to find their place in a market not yet very competitive; WS Energia can leverage partnerships with SMA which represents one of the main and most reliable players for this technological solution; This solutions involve more technology and intelligence so that higher margin can be justify and are related to bigger systems so that the economic value of a project is still profitable even in case of small margin;

61 On the other hand, the main Obstacles are: Owners of commercial or industrial activities are more concerned about increase sales and/or profit form their business than invest in reducing energy expenses (in particular in SSA); Local partner with proven track of similar project and with trained personnel for maintenance is essential; Investments in pilot projects can be needed to develop trust and to have reference projects to show; As shown in the following image, one of the main challenges in the Hybrid system id the ability to properly combine the diesel generator operations and the PV system ones. In fact, these knowledge and skills represent a valuable competitive advantage in this market: PV SYSTEM INTELLIGENCE One of the biggest barrier (so one of the biggest opportunity) for renewable-energy (and in particular PV) projects in Africa is necessity to avoid the negligence, poor operation or misuse. The capacity to quickly identify faults in remote PV or RE installations, to identify the cause of the problem/fault and to monitor the operation of the plant represent an extremely valuable tools to manage system in SSA where the plants are spread over large distances, the logistic is critical and difficult and proper maintenance personnel is rare and costly. These characteristic are common for all the SSA countries so the differences in term of business opportunities among the countries in SSA are mainly identifiable in: The penetration of the remote PV market (country like Kenya, Zambia, Mozambique, etc.); The easiness of doing business (preference for Portuguese speaking countries); The contact with local players (like in Mozambique due to the contact with FUNAE); Developing or selecting a device capable of monitoring (and fault detection) of PV system should take into consideration the possibility to combine also energy meter and prepaid solution because this is also a growing market in SSA and a service that in country like Mozambique (FUNAE) is gaining increasing interest. I suggest looking at companies like the Spanish Circutor (http://circutor.com/) to close partnership and to look for project together. This company in fact is one of the European leaders (also for the SSA market) and developed a wide range of reliable and effective energy counter with prepaid billing solution.

62 4. Projecto India com ONG - SAPANA I. Issue Framework a. India: we need to electrify it! In India around 95,000 villages have yet to be connected to electricity. Out of these, 18,000 villages may never be connected to the national grid due to their remoteness. Even if connected, rural areas commonly only have access to a few hours of electricity per day. Based on data from 2011 Census, 600 million Indians do not have access to electricity and the majority of these people resides in rural areas. These communities are still dependent on fossil energy sources, such as fuel wood, crop residue, and animal waste. On the other hand, data from Medical Resource Institute and WaterAid Organization reveal that about 75% of health infrastructure and medical man power are concentrated in urban areas where only 27% of the population lives. Moreover, the health burden of poor water quality is enormous. It is estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually. b. Our challenge The availability of energy has a huge impact on productivity and living standards. Energy acts as an economic multiplier and developer, and could be the main agent for filling these gaps. Quality electricity supply to rural areas gives access to permanent refrigeration systems allowing to preserve vaccines and fresh products, install water pumping and purifying systems. Our challenge is to create a method to manage and use solar energy in an integrated strategy for the human development of remote villages without access to electricity. A challenge that could change the lives of millions in a single project. II. Our Intervention a. Our Goals and Anticipated Results The multidisciplinary and the different levels of experience in different areas will allow the consortium to achieve the proposed goals. Initially we intend to implement the project in 125 villages in the Pune district. Later, we intend to expand to the rest of the Indian territory, and also to other countries like Mozambique and Colombia. In this respect, the consortium requires support for the planned missions to the local communities that are necessary for requirements analysis, deployment,

63 test and training sessions. Also, DIV will support part of the human resources expenses, and other costs resulting from the installation of the technology and from pilots running in the local communities. It is expected to have great impact in health and social conditions, not only with the technology to purify water, store vaccines and refrigerate goods, but also with solar cooking devices and flour mills, two activities that cause major harms to women (such as spinal problems and prolapsed, due to typical cooking postures, and cancer, due to fuel gases of common cooking devices). Moreover, economic and social benefits will arise, due to the allocation of time spent in daily tasks to profitable activities for the family income, thus, allowing women to emancipate and gain importance in the family. Due to new equipment and improved supply chains, the project will also revolutionize the local economic models, generating employment, improving quality of life and, in the end, breaking the poverty cycle. We will start to focus in the first year and half villages (see attachment Villages detailed information) in Pune district (State of Maharashtra, India- see the attachment SataraMap), and until year 3 we will address in 125 villages into the poorest families (i.e. 5708, totaling individuals). From year 3 to 5, we will address the rest of population of these villages, totaling Until year 10 we plan to expand to the other states, aiming to cover 50 villages per state (totaling 1350 villages/ individuals). We also aim to cover Africa and South-America areas, being an opportunity to conduct a unique research about local development in different cultures. Mozambique and Colombia are the chosen countries due to the needs of their rural population and contacts with local partners. In the case of Colombia, the aboriginal population ( ) suffers from discrimination and poor access to basic conditions. Being 40% without access to electricity, totaling , they will be the ones that we will focus. In Mozambique, we will address the poorest providence of the country, Zambezia, which have individuals in the rural areas without electricity. In both cases we estimate to address a population of until the tenth year. As indirect beneficiaries, we considered government authorities, NGO s and CBO s, supply chains and customers, research and investment centers, public health institutions and the environment. We will also conduct capacity building programs about the innovations and benefits of our approach, planning to reach 600 officials, NGO s and CBO s until year 3 (who will have an estimated impact of 200 villages/ individuals), 1000 until year 5 (400 villages/ individuals) and 3000 until year 10 (1200 villages/ individuals).

64 b. Our Methodology Our project is the first that introduces a novel approach that address different issues in a holistic manner: to increase the quality of life of the remote communities, create conditions for developing local businesses, to provide energy for the conservation of medicines and vaccines, and to power up equipment for water pumping and purification. 1) Image 1- Back to Basics Project Methodology shown in an image This project needs to be measured from different perspectives, regarding the various themes approach. In terms of social and economic empowerment, it will be evaluated regarding the average family income, the quantity of products generated that are wasted due to inefficient supply chains, the quality and variety of products

65 delivered, and gender equality issues (the percentage of women work counted on the family income, the alleviation of the difference between male and female literacy rates, etc). Also regarding education, it will be measured the literacy rates of the village children, the percentage of usage of multimedia contents and their impact in the quality of education. In terms of health, it will be measured in terms of number of diseases avoided (particularly the ones related to water conditions), changes on the birth, death or infant mortality rates, etc. Regarding energy, number of hours per day available, number of equipments and watts delivered have to be measured. Analogously, in the case of water, the number of months available and its quality will be measured (and consequently how the purification impacts the global health of the community). Sustenace/ Sustainabilty as a Vision Lastly, sustainability is a key factor of success, i.e. how many months the project team needs to be on a village after implementing the project, until the community be fully sustainable with their new lifestyle. After the implementation phase, regular visits will be performed to the villages to understand and monitor the development of the activities, the quality of the equipment maintenance and the overall success of the project approach. Data collecting will be conducted with Shramik Jaanta Vikas Sanstha Association, facilitating all the communication and trust issues between the project team and the local population. In addition, ISCTE research team will perform all the statistical verifications and produce research papers with the relevant information about the implementation and development of the project a key factor of success for future scale-ups. III. Our Team a. Our members WS-Energia is a company that develops, produces and sells products, provides services and conducts cutting-edge research and development in the renewable energy sector, namely photovoltaic applications. WS- Energia will be responsible for applying the technology in local communities and ensure their proper functioning, training and monitoring. WS-Energia responsible: João Wemans SAPANA Association is focused on promoting actions to improve sustainable growth through the empowerment of people and organizations, giving basic tools on economics, social, interpersonal, management and sustainability areas. Additionally, SAPANA promotes gender equality and supports the emergence of leadership and dynamic attitude from women. The SAPANA role is crucial to increase the adherence of the local communities to the new technology and entrepreneurship methodologies. Sapana.org person in charge: Carolina Almeida Cruz

66 The partner AIILSG is an institution with more than 80 years of history, with presence in the whole Indian Territory and recognition in the areas of education, research, social development, social policies, etc. AIILSG responsible: Sir. Mukesh Kanaskar b. Other essencial partners * Lisbon University Institute (ISCTE-IUL) is recognized for its quality on research in the sociology field, pursuing a comparative study on the development of the various targeted communities. Lisbon Technical Institute (IST) as well recognized in Portugal and is developing the important a prototype of water purification equipment to test on rural villages. The support from World Bank (WB) will allow researchers from ISCTE-IUL to clearly measure the impact of this project; if the results are positive, WB s investment could attract greater levels of social investment into the sector, potentially impacting the lives of hundreds of millions of people making them self-sufficient. * The World Health Organization (WHO-Portugal is already a partner and conversations with WHO-Asia are taking place) will be responsible for vaccination programs and data collection for measuring the project impact in the people s health condition. * The Shramik Jaanta Vikas Sanstha is an organization composed by people from the local villages, with a special focus on the local development and women empowerment, being a key partner due to their unique position in the field and the deep connections and trust relations with the local people that they will facilitate. The João Sem Medo Centre for Entrepreneurship is a cooperative of entrepreneurs that research state-of-art methodologies of leadership, lean entrepreneurship and cost-efficient empowerment solutions, providing mentoring and consultancy to the project team. c. Our experience The partners of this project constitute a multi-disciplinary consortium that adds up technical conditions and the level of knowledge needed to implement innovative approaches and solutions on energy generation and management, field expertise on understanding the needs of the local population in developing countries and in socioeconomic empowerment methodologies. The technology to be applied in this project has been tested and demonstrated in other projects and applications successfully performed. The partner, WS-Energia, has high-technology product which will allow local people to generate energy for health care equipment, frozen food, sterilization equipment, refrigerators to preserve vaccines and medicines, make use of water purification

67 equipment, develop small local businesses, and improve significantly the quality of life and health care treatments. Furthermore, the partners of this consortium, as SAPANA Association, demonstrated in other projects their skills in community management, collection and identification of local needs, and in training people to adapt to new innovations implemented in the region. During these processes, these partners were successful in creating conditions for learning and training the population to adapt to new technologies used. Sapana has some years experience in the field, mainly in India, Nepal and Portugal. Sapana is based in Lisbon- Portugal, as in Pune- India. IV. Financial Items a) Budget requested We planed to apply for 12 million Euros, considering 11 years of project and 3 different countries( India-most of the time and the country nr 1; Mozambique, Colombia). The budget includes: WS and Sapana human resource salaries, airplane tickets, transportation, food, accomodation, Visa s, training materials, taxes, per diem, life and health insurances and logistics costs. b) Financial Sustainability, Returnand Break-even This project has as our vision the main concern of being self-sustainable after the first investment received, in other words we don t plan depending on investors or external funds. We want to make a healthy financial project, not a charitable one. Based in our research and questionaries that we ve mainly made in 12 villages( Menvali, Shendre, Akhade, Shiraval, Saiagon, Mehajeon, Ambeghar, Karandi, Kaloshi, Nizare, Warsolikoli and Walane),we have concluded that each family in querosene, charging mobiles and candles( light materials) spend around 50 /month. If you consider that in the 1st year we intend to connect villages to eletricity, meaning 470 households saving 50 per/year, we assume and we had confirmed that they are willing to pay 150Rps per month( 2.16 ). This value, 2.16 * 12= and this number * 470 households= / year. Each family, considering only eletricity, save 54% per year.

68 5. Estudo de rentabilidade Base System Solar Lamp Daily Energy 0,61 kwh Daily Energy 0,02 kwh Solar Power 200 Wp Solar Power 5 Wp Costs Costs Modules 150 $ 111,11 Modules 4 $ 2,78 Chargers 75 $ 55,56 Chargers 2 $ 1,48 Transport 100 $ 74,07 Transport 5 $ 3,70 Total 250 $ 185,19 Total 9 $ 6,48 Cost of Structure 250 $ 185,19 Cost of Structure 9 $ 6,48 Price 500 $ 370,37 Price 18 $ 12,96 /Wp 2,50 $ 1,85 /Wp 3,50 $ 2,59 Daily Usage Examples (not Combined) Daily Usage Examples (not Combined) Fridge (50W) 25 Hours Fridge (50W) 1 Hours Laptop (60W) 10 Hours Laptop (60W) 0 Hours Mobile Complete Charged 205 Nr Mobile Complete Charged 5 Nr Compact Fluorescent Bulb 20 Hours Compact Fluorescent Bulb 1 Hours Solar Lamps 205 Hours Solar Lamps 5 Hours Litters Pumped (15m-200W-1m3h) 3068 Liters Litters Pumped (15m-200W-1m3h) 77 Liters Individual Business System Irrigation system Daily Energy 1,53 kwh Daily Energy 9,21 kwh Solar Power 500 Wp Solar Power 3000 Wp Costs Costs Modules 375 $ 277,78 Modules $ 1.666,67 Chargers 90 $ 66,67 Chargers 500 $ 370,37 Transport 125 $ 92,59 Transport 500 $ 370,37 Total 500 $ 370,37 Total $ 2.037,04 Cost of Structure 500 $ 370,37 Cost of Structure $ 2.037,04 Price $ 740,74 Price $ 4.074,07 /Wp 2,00 $ 1,48 /Wp 1,83 $ 1,36 Daily Usage Examples (not Combined) Daily Usage Examples (not Combined) Fridge (50W) 61 Hours Fridge (50W) 368 Hours Laptop (60W) 26 Hours Laptop (60W) 153 Hours Mobile Complete Charged 511 Nr Mobile Complete Charged 3068 Nr Compact Fluorescent Bulb 51 Hours Compact Fluorescent Bulb 307 Hours Solar Lamps 511 Hours Solar Lamps 3068 Hours Litters Pumped (15m-200W-1m3h) 7671 Liters Litters Pumped (15m-200W-1m3h) Liters Tabela final do estudo de rentabilidade e custos para o sistema Prepago

69 Apresentações Públicas 1. Pay-per-Use Moçambique

70 2. Produtos Remote PV

71 3. Moçambique Stratety for Local Partners Who are we and What do we do? Leader in Apllied Innovations in Energy DoubleSun Trackers asun RemotePV MIT - Awards Our New Products and Services for Africa WS econsultant WS eonlineshop WS epowerstation WS emeter WS emonitor WS emanager

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