1 United Nations Cultural Organization MOBILIZING COMMUNITY ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT MOBILIZAR O ESPÍRITO EMPRESARIAL DA COMUNIDADE A GUIDE FOR IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY-BASED CULTURAL TOURISM GUIÃO DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DO TURISMO CULTURAL NA COMUNIDADE DE BASE
2 Published in 2012 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 7, place de Fontenoy, Paris 07 SP, France Website: www. unesco.org UNESCO 2012 All rights reserved ISBN Original title: Mobilizing Community Entrepreneurial Spirit: A Guide for Implementing Community-Based Cultural Tourism The designations employed and the presentation of material throughout this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The ideas and opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and its contributors; they are not necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization. Publicado em 2012, pela Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e Cultura 7, Lugar de Fontenoy, Paris 07 SP, França Website: www. unesco.org UNESCO 2012 Todos os direitos reservados ISBN Título Original: Mobilizar o Espírito Empresarial da Comunidade: Guião de Implementação do Turismo Cultural na Comunidade de Base As designações usadas e a apresentação do material nesta publicação não implicam a expressão de qualquer opinião por parte da UNESCO sobre o estatuto jurídico de qualquer país, território, cidade ou área ou de suas autoridades, nem sobre a delimitação de suas fronteiras ou limites. As ideias e opiniões expressas nesta publicação são de responsabilidade dos autores e dos contribuintes, não são necessariamente as da UNESCO e não comprometem a Organização. Author: Editor/Project Director: Portuguese Translation: Graphic Design: Photos: Printed by: Printed in: Zainul Sajan Virgi Lorraine Johnson Carla Machavane and Salma Zainadine Gabriel Alonso Borges Ema Batey, Lorraine Johnson and Salma Zainadine Creativa Sociedade de Serviços LDA Moçambique Autora: Editora/Directora do Projecto: Tradução em Português: Design Gráfico: Fotos: Impresso por: Impresso em: Zainul Sajan Virgi Lorraine Johnson Carla Machavane e Salma Zainadine Gabriel Alonso Borges Ema Batey, Lorraine Johnson e Salma Zainadine Creativa Sociedade de Serviços LDA Moçambique The author would like to acknowledge contributions made by: Communitybased cultural entrepreneurs managing the following cultural tours: The Day-to-Day of Wagaya: Traditional Life in Mucucuni, The City of Stone and Lime: A Walk Through Culture and Time, Traditional Village of Macuas: A Piece of Cultural Heritage on the Island of Mozambique, and The Beauty of Kunhumbane: Land of Good People. In addition, the author would also like to acknowledge contributions made by Mariamo Abdula; Orlando Alcobia; André Almeida; Manecas Amaral; Ema Batey; Moniz Caetano; Daniel Cumbane; Barbara da Silva; João Manuel Carrilho Gomes da Silva; Peter DeBrine; Maria Doengo; Mário Alberto Intetepe; Lorraine Johnson; Geoff Kemper; Analádya Loureiro; Jan Lundius; Paulo Mondlane; Abdul Satar Naimo; Brenda O Hanlon; Lynne Patchett; José Pita; Josephina Salência; Margarita Gomez Salas de Schetter; Oliver Schetter; Cristina Senserrich; Alfredo Uetimane and Salma Zainadine. A autora gostaria de agradecer a contribuição feita por: Empreendedores culturais baseados na comunidade liderando os seguintes roteiros culturais: O Dia a Dia do Wagaya: Vida Tradicional em Mucucuni, A Cidade de Pedra e Cal: Um Passeio através da Cultura e do Tempo, Vila Tradicional dos Macuas: Um Pedaço do Património Cultural na Ilha de Moçambique ; e A Bela Kunhumbane: Passeio Guiado à Terra de Boa Gente. Além destes, a autora também gostaria de agradecer a contribuição dada por: Mariamo Abdula; Orlando Alcobia; André Almeida; Manecas Amaral; Ema Batey; Moniz Caetano; Daniel Cumbane; Barbara da Silva; João Manuel Carrilho Gomes da Silva; Peter DeBrine; Maria Doengo; Mário Alberto Intetepe; Lorraine Johnson; Geoff Kemper; Analádya Loureiro; Jan Lundius; Paulo Mondlane; Abdul Satar Naimo; Brenda O Hanlon; Lynne Patchett; José Pita; Josephina Salência; Margarita Gomez Salas de Schetter; Oliver Schetter; Cristina Senserrich; Alfredo Uetimane e Salma Zainadine.
3 MOBILIZING COMMUNITY ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIRIT MOBILIZAR O ESPÍRITO EMPRESARIAL DA COMUNIDADE A GUIDE FOR IMPLEMENTING COMMUNITY-BASED CULTURAL TOURISM GUIÃO DE IMPLEMENTAÇÃO DO TURISMO CULTURAL NA COMUNIDADE DE BASE PRODUZIDO PELA PRODUCED BY: United Nations Cultural Organization No âmbito do programa conjunto In the context of the joint programme Fortalecimento das Indústrias Culturais e Criativas e Políticas Inclusivas em Moçambique Strengthening the Cultural and Creative Industries and Inclusive Policies In Mozambique
4 CONTENTS ÍNDICE PREFACE PREFÁCIO... 6 INTRODUCTION INTRODUÇÃO Overview of Cultural Tourism... 7 Visão Geral do Turismo Cultural PREPARATION PREPARAÇÃO Engaging All Stakeholders to Achieve Ownership and Buy-In...11 Envolvendo Todas Partes Interessadas para Garantir a Apropriação...45 PHASE 1 FASE 1 Packaging Cultural Tourism Embalando o turismo Cultural PHASE 2 FASE 2 Encouraging Dialogue and Stakeholder Training...18 Encorajando Diálogo e Formação das partes Interessadas...52 PHASE 3 FASE 3 Stakeholder Training National Government...21 Formação das partes Interessadas Governo Nacional...55 PHASE 4 FASE 4 Government Role and Support Papel e Apoio do Governo PHASE 5 FASE 5 Development of a Living Archive and Guide for Tour Guides Desenvolvimento de um Arquivo vivo e um manual para os Guias Turísticos PHASE 6 FASE 6 Community Based Cultural Entrepreneur Business Training Formação em Negócios para Empreendedores e Provedores de Serviços Culturais Baseados na Comunidade... 61
5 PHASE 7 FASE 7 Test Tour Evaluation and Feedback Excursão Teste Avaliação e Feedback PHASE 8 FASE 8 Marketing Cultural Tourism Marketing de Turismo Cultural PHASE 9 FASE 9 Replication and Expansion Replicação e Expansão PHASE 10 FASE 10 Post-Implementation Support & Finalize Exit Strategy...37 Apoio Pós Implementação & Finalização da Estratégia de Saida...71 FINAL THOUGHTS...38 PENSAMENTO FINAL...76 RESOURCES...39 REFERÊNCIAS...76
6 Preface Prefácio Cultural tourism is uniquely positioned to fill a critical gap in community development as we strive to attain the Millennium Development Goals. This Guide celebrates an innovative and practical approach to creating prosperity through communitybased cultural tourism, which was piloted during the MDG-F Culture and Development Joint Program in Mozambique. We would like to recognize and thank all those who contributed to the development of this methodology, which we hope will be actively used for strengthening current efforts to promote cultural tourism in local development, and in replicating the approach in communities around the world. No âmbito de atingir os Objectivos de Desenvolvimento do Milénio, o turismo cultural está singularmente posicionada para preencher uma lacuna crítica no desenvolvimento da comunidade. Este Guião apresenta uma abordagem inovadora e prática que foi pilotada durante o Programa Conjunto F-ODM, Cultura & Desenvolvimento em Moçambique, e visa criar prosperidade através do turismo cultural baseado na comunidade. Gostaríamos de reconhecer e agradecer a todos que contribuíram para o desenvolvimento desta metodologia, e esperamos que venha a ser usada activamente no fortalecimento da promoção do turismo cultural no desenvolvimento local e na replicação da abordagem em comunidades ao redor do mundo. Julien Daboue Representative of UNESCO Mozambique Representante da UNESCO - Moçambique
7 INTRODUCTION Overview of Cultural Tourism The creative economy, one of the main vectors of twenty-first century development and sustainability, is a process that generates wealth and improves quality of life from intangible assets, such as culture, knowledge, creativity, values and experiences. These intangible assets are abundant and renewable, and multiply with use and are therefore key to sustainable development. The integrated process between different sectors and service providers will be essential to the development of a creative economy, as each provides a component to the production of creative goods and services. Through this process, intangible assets turn into income while simultaneously promoting social inclusion, cultural diversity and human development. Cultural tourism is a crucial element of the creative economy as it promotes the consumption of creative goods and services. The tourism industry in Mozambique, which is considered strategically important for the socio-economic development of the country, continues to grow, having one of the highest growth rates worldwide in 2005 ( Tourism in Mozambique, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia - online). While the southern part of Mozambique has the largest proportion of tourism investment, the northern part of the country offers equally rich potential to attract local and foreign visitors. Given Mozambique s vast cultural heritage and intangible assets, numerous opportunities exist to boost further growth in the tourism sector specifically through the development of cultural tourism which, as of yet, is neither broadly understood nor sufficiently well translated into specific policies and strategies to enhance the effectiveness of development interventions. 7
8 Role and Potential Impact of Cultural Tourism Cultural tourism is a specific type of tourism that embraces the culture of a people, including their history, traditional practices, dance, music, art, craft, architecture, religious beliefs and other elements that define a community s unique way of life. Cultural tourists are different in that they seek a more authentic or deeper experience. They want to return home enriched with knowledge and understanding of people and places not just fixed tangible cultural heritage from the past but also intangible traditional and contemporary products or practices. As a result, cultural tourism provides a space, time and an opportunity for intercultural dialogue to promote understanding and peace between and among peoples and nations, while generating income for community entrepreneurs and stimulating the preservation of cultural assets. Cultural tourism therefore plays a critical role in improving the overall quality of life of community entrepreneurs, both women and men. It can be instrumental in improving the general well being of communities (education, infrastructure, hygiene, embellishment of communal spaces, waste treatment; environment preservation etc.). Such a general improvement of the overall wellbeing, living spaces and the natural environment is of course something that concerns both men and women. The diverse and multiple impacts of cultural tourism can therefore be experienced at the community level, as well as at the country level through the contributions it can make to the community s and country s social and economic development. Summary of the Pilot Initiative in Mozambique Development of cultural and creative industries in Mozambique has stagnated due to weak institutional and legislative support, and lack of human capacity in terms of knowledge management, entrepreneurship, and technical competencies and skills. The MDG-F Joint Programme on Strengthening Cultural and Creative Industries and Inclusive Policies in Mozambique is a collaborative initiative of the Government of Mozambique and the United Nations designed to strengthen human capacity in terms of technical knowledge, skills and development. It was developed with the aim of promoting cultural and creative industries contribution to social and economic development, and ensuring the inclusion of the cultural dimension in development planning. Through its pilot activities, it has shown how strategic investment in culture - in all its forms has made a difference. The cultural tourism initiative was led by UNESCO and the International Trade Center (ITC), in partnership with the following government ministries and municipalities: Tourism, Culture, Industry and Trade, and the Municipalities of Inhambane and Mozambique Island. The pilot initiative actively engaged and enhanced the capacity of the government particularly in relation to the role of cultural and creative industries in achieving economic and social development. Government participants learned the importance of developing public/private partnerships to enable community-based cultural entrepreneurs to develop and offer market-driven, high potential cultural assets in the select tourist destinations of Inhambane City and Mozambique Island. It should be emphasized that the pilot initiative was undertaken to demonstrate that strategic investment in the development and promotion of cultural 8
9 products and services at the community (district and provincial) level can meaningfully contribute towards sustainable development in Mozambique. Mozambique, a UN Member State, invested in this initiative to demonstrate culture s capacity to contribute to Millennium Development Goal #1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and Goal #3: Promote gender equality and empower women. Lessons learned and good practices provide a foundation for consolidation and expansion throughout the country. Packaging Cultural Tourism It is important to emphasize the broad-based potential of cultural tourism as a means to creating and developing livelihoods: for example, generating income for community-based entrepreneurs; promoting gender equality; diversifying employment opportunities while building the capacity of often unemployed rural-based men, women and young people with limited education; providing a stimulus for the preservation of intangible and tangible cultural heritage; and creating space for peace and dialogue between and among tourists and communities. By considering the positive dimensions of cultural tourism, it will also increase the range of funding streams that you can access for your cultural tourism initiative. By identifying the positive potential impacts of cultural tourism, your initiative will have broader appeal to different stakeholders, including policy-makers in the Ministries of education and culture, tourism, women and social welfare, labour, industry and ommerce, and youth and sports, as well as a range of private sector players, including corporate, culture, hospitality, small business and tourism. Who Should Use This Book? This book is intended for stakeholders interested in understanding the relationship between culture and tourism and how through capacity building with community entrepreneurs, and indeed all entrepreneurs along the supply chain, they can participate in the economy and generate income and potentially improve their quality of life. Stakeholders include academics, community based cultural entrepreneurs, international / national partners, NGOs, policy makers and private sector. The Guide has been developed using lessons learned from participating UN agencies, government counterparts, community entrepreneurs and the private sector, coupled with the good practices resulting from the pilot initiative in Mozambique. The Guide is divided into phases and includes a proposed timeline and key deliverables for each phase. It is highly recommended that deliverables from each phase be achieved before proceeding to the next phase. The ideal length of time for the pilot initiative, across the entire project life cycle is two and a half years. We highly recommend an additional one-year of post-project support once the routes have been introduced to the public. Assumptions You have already selected the district for your project. The community based cultural entrepreneurs you will be selecting will have a cultural product or service to offer. Notes Depending on the level of engagement from your Government stakeholders, you may consider undertaking other Phases simultaneously. For example, you may note that Phase 4 requires additional time and therefore you may decide to begin Phase 5 while Phase 4 continues with the development of relevant policies and strategies. 9
11 PREPARATION PHASE Engaging All Stakeholders to Achieve Ownership and Buy-In PROPOSED TIME FOR PREPARATION PHASE: SIX TO EIGHT MONTHS The preparation phase has seven distinct objectives: 1) Refine and endorse terms of reference for the advisory committee 2) Form an advisory committee 3) Obtain background information, baseline data and key development tools 4) Select community based cultural entrepreneurs as members of the advisory committee 5) Train advisory committee members 6) Select potential community based cultural entrepreneurs for participating in the pilot 7) Initiate dialogue regarding an exit strategy Develop an Advisory Committee The advisory committee should be representative of all stakeholder groups and the diverse expertise required to develop sustainable cultural tourism. Advisory committee members should be based in your selected region due to possible sustainability and financial implications. Select passionate and knowledgeable stakeholders with the capacity to influence decision makers and those who will have the time and level of commitment to participate ideally throughout the entire process. Be strategic in your selection process. Not having the right group of individuals puts the project and ultimately sustainability at risk. It is important that at minimum two community based cultural entrepreneurs are members of the advisory committee. Suggested expertise and stakeholders are noted below. Policy Related Expertise Government ministries at the provincial, municipal and district Levels Suggested Ministries: commerce, culture, environment, labor, tourism, women and youth Technical Related Expertise International / national partners, technical expertise in the Ministries of tourism and culture, private partners in the hospitality and tourism industry, training expertise in community-based business development and marketing, NGOs with technical expertise in community based cultural tourism and / or cultural entrepreneurship development, project management of public/private partnership based projects Knowledge Expertise Environmentalists, culture specialists, creative industry specialists, tourism, cultural tourism, historians, traditional and religious leaders Community Expertise Associations related to culture, tourism, business, and entrepreneurship and tour guides, community based cultural entrepreneurs (consider age, gender and sector), traditional and religious leaders Refine and Endorse Terms of Reference for Advisory Committee Members Terms of reference should be refined and endorsed by the advisory committee. The role of the advisory committee is to provide technical expertise and support throughout the project lifecycle. The 11
12 advisory committee will oversee design, planning and implementation of the cultural tourism initiative. Advisory committee members will also provide linkages with government, donors, international/ national partners and private sectors as necessary. The advisory committee will be responsible for developing success indicators in collaboration with cultural entrepreneurs and private sector. An exit The Mozambican Pilot Initiative did not have an Advisory Committee comprised of all stakeholders who were actively engaged in the entire project lifecycle. The committee was involved only at key strategic moments. We strongly recommend that an Advisory Committee be formed and that all the necessary studies and training materials be completed and trainers contracted before engaging community based cultural entrepreneurs. Otherwise, there will be a long gap between your initial meeting with the community and the follow-up capacity development training sessions with the selected entrepreneurs. During this period, selected entrepreneurs may lose interest and/or hope. strategy should also be developed at the onset of the programme. Suggested lead for the cultural tourism initiative would be Ministry of Tourism in partnership with Ministry of Culture, although this will vary from country to country depending on mandates. Obtain Background Information, Baseline Data and Key Development Tools The advisory committee will need to commission the following studies in order to develop relevant and sustainable cultural tourism in your selected region. 12 An inventory and mapping of cultural assets along existing tourism itineraries to be undertaken by a national institute for socio-cultural research or its equivalent. A study on the offer and demand for cultural tourism to be completed by a cultural tourism specialist or relevant institution. This information is essential for the development of a demand based itinerary. Conduct a desktop study on any existing baseline data related to tourism in the country and the selected project site. Identify and map community cultural entrepreneurs in your selected region to be conducted by a relevant ministry, NGO or business development consultant. A study on the potential negative and positive impacts of cultural tourism development on culture in your selected region to be undertaken by a culture specialist. An environmental impact study of cultural tourism development to be conducted by an environmental specialist. Development of training materials on cultural tourism concepts, the process of developing a cultural tourism tour, product and business development and marketing for community based cultural entrepreneurs to be developed and implemented by a resident training and technical specialist.
13 Development of selection criteria based on entrepreneurial spirit and type and quality of cultural product or service offered, as well as individual readiness regarding the skills and tools required to implement and manage the service (i.e. has a boat, knows how to prepare traditional food etc). Development of a small grant fund for selected community based cultural entrepreneurs participating in your pilot initiative. Recommendations for access to this grant should be based on an evaluation of cultural entrepreneurs undertaken during Phase 6 by a technical specialist using a Business Diagnostics Tool. Selection of Community Based Cultural Entrepreneurs as Members of the Advisory Committee It is important to have at minimum two community based cultural entrepreneurs as members of the advisory committee. Consider gender and age. It is important to have access to the widest pool of community based cultural entrepreneurs in your selected region. Depending on your budget, consider placing an advertisement in the local newspaper, as well as the local community radio stations requesting interested candidates to complete a short application form. Indicate that only short-listed candidates will be contacted. Include questions that will assist you in the selection process. Consider services which will provide the tourist with the opportunity to experience In our pilot project, we used the following criteria to select community based cultural entrepreneurs: a) 3 5 years practical work experience; b) Availability of required equipment / work space with minimum conditions to execute the cultural activity; c) Demonstrated qualities of an entrepreneur (diligent, dedicated, articulate, responsible, willingness to learn, ability to solve problems creatively); d) Good communicator and sensitive to cultural diversity e) Have the necessary documentation to legally perform the activity or conditions to be legalized/ certified; f) Should be a member of the local community, preferably a recognized and respected member. the uniqueness of the culture which will also promote dialogue, peace and understanding in a safe and appealing space for the tourist. Examples of questions you may wish to include on the application form are as follows: State the cultural product or service that you offer. How long have you been practicing your skill? Have you sold your product or service previously? Are you a member of an association or do you work individually? What are you hoping to gain from participating in the program? Training will be part of the program, please indicate how much time you can allocate towards training every day. Training for Advisory Committee Members The advisory committee should be provided with training to augment their existing knowledge and its applicability to cultural tourism development, and also to ensure the use of a common language which will be essential for successful project implementation. Training areas as follows: 13
14 1) understanding cultural tourism; 2) cultural tourism s role in improving the quality of lives of community based cultural entrepreneurs through income generation; 3) using participatory methodologies throughout the project lifecycle, 4) the role of the government in cultural tourism development, and 5) project management and monitoring and evaluation. Understanding Cultural Tourism Advisory committee members should create a common language and understanding of cultural tourism, its role and impact within public and private sectors. Cultural Tourism and Community Based Cultural Entrepreneurs Advisory committee members should become well versed with the multiple benefits of cultural tourism in the lives of community based cultural entrepreneurs. Benefits include income generation, introducing new employment opportunities for communities, particularly women and youth, diversification of tourism product resulting in differentiation from regional or global competitors, as well as capacity development for community based cultural entrepreneurs with little or no formal education. Role of Government in Cultural Tourism Development Advisory committee members should focus on ensuring the sustainability of cultural tourism. They should therefore consider how the government can support community based cultural entrepreneurs and cultural tourism. For example, advisory committee members may need to ensure that the government facilitates a process for simplified licensing so that commercialization of the end product or service offered by community based cultural entrepreneurs is accessible, official and recognized, so that it can also be accounted for in terms of its socio-economic contribution to local and national development. Use of Participatory Methodology Members of the advisory committee should understand and endorse the use of participatory methodologies during data gathering, implementation, as well as development of key success factors, monitoring and evaluation. Strategies should be identified to support consistent and constant dialogue between all stakeholders; in particular between community-based cultural entrepreneurs and private and public stakeholders before, during and post-project implementation. It is also important that constant dialogue is maintained between the accommodation providers, community based cultural entrepreneurs and local government authorities during post project implementation to ensure on-going service standards, sustainability and profitability for all stakeholders. Project Management and Monitoring and Evaluation Members of the advisory committee should receive high level training in monitoring and evaluation as they will be providing regular feedback with respect to tour routes, service providers and tour guides. It will be important for members of the advisory committee to understand what will be measured: for example, technical skills and knowledge, business development skills, marketing 14
15 skills, customer service skills, safety and security of tourists, environmental and cultural impact, as well as attractiveness, potential and viability of chosen tour routes, income generation and improved quality of life. Selecting Community Based Cultural Entrepreneurs Potential Service Providers Using the application received, select potential cultural tourism service providers. Select at least double the number of cultural entrepreneurs required. Finalize the selection of cultural entrepreneurs after the Phase 2 training session has been completed. Initial Dialogue Regarding An Exit Strategy It is important to begin a dialogue about an exit strategy from the onset of the initiative so as to ensure that tour routes remain sustainable and profitable post-project. All stakeholders should be engaged in this process. Although the methodology chosen is designed to ensure sustainability, if funds are limited or if the depth of training required by your key stakeholders is underestimated, additional support may be needed to consolidate their experience and ensure that businesses are working well on their own. Key questions to consider in developing an exit strategy include: Is there a local NGO or agency e.g. a participating municipality or community organization to which it should be transferred if this is deemed necessary for consolidation or expansion? If necessary, how will the activity be transferred? Are there particular performance specifications that need to be maintained? How will the consolidation or expansion be funded? How will it be monitored? What will be the ongoing role of the community based entrepreneurs in managing or monitoring? How will the role of community based entrepreneurs be supported? What is the role of the local authorities? Does the successor organization need additional training? E.g. Training of Trainers may be important to strengthen local expertise in order to expand tourist routes. Which assets need to be retained by your organization and which ones can be transferred to a successor? Advisory Committee formed with representatives from all stakeholder groups Studies completed and baseline data obtained Acquired a list of potential community based cultural entrepreneurs Training completed for Advisory Committee Community based cultural entrepreneurs selected for Phase 2 Commenced dialouge with stakeholders in relation to developing an Exit Strategy 15