PROGRAM ABSTRACTS. Are place-based approaches sufficient to ensure the conservation of nature? A practitioner s view Chicchón, Avecita

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1 PROGRAM ABSTRACTS KEYNOTE ADDRESS Are place-based approaches sufficient to ensure the conservation of nature? A practitioner s view Chicchón, Avecita Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, In recent years, there have been significant changes in the practice of environmental conservation approaches. The practice of conservation is straightforward in the context of place-based approaches. The stewardship of biodiversity, forests, and natural resources in general is usually in the hands of local stakeholders such as indigenous peoples, local governments and civil society. For many years, conservation efforts in the Amazon have been mainly focused on creating protected areas and securing land tenure of indigenous lands. However, it has become more evident that local approaches are not enough. These approaches need to scale up and draw national and international constituencies to ensure durable conservation solutions. The forces that trigger the profound and more permanent transformation of a landscape are usually not local and the connections may be far away in other continents. Land use change is shaped by

2 national and global economic conditions that are better addressed in a systemic way with a variety of stakeholders that are uncommon allies, such as the private sector. By focusing on the expansion of agriculture, cattle ranching and infrastructure in the Amazon, we will explore ways to test solutions that include unlikely allies for conservation. Corporation commitments to source commodities from deforestation-free areas may be the necessary complement to place-based approaches that would allow for a comprehensive conservation solution in the Amazon. 2

3 Session I: How to sustain ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in the context of a growing population and food demand? PLENARY SPEAKERS Deforestation in Amazonia: multiple views, multiple actors, multiple drivers and complex realities shaping forests in tropical landscapes Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel Columbia University, For decades, experts have identified multiple drivers and actors that are shaping deforestation processes and events in Amazonia and other tropical regions. The great volume of information on causes and consequences of deforestation have mobilized both governments and civil society to explore initiatives to reduce deforestation and mitigate its impact on biodiversity, livelihoods and the provision of ecosystem services. Improvements in the quality of remote sensing and other spatial data are leading to more precision in estimating deforestation rates and in designing evidence-based political and economic interventions. Experts have also made considerable advances in refining conceptual and analytical frameworks and dynamic models for identifying and understanding the trends and trajectories of deforestation in Amazonia and other tropical regions. Deforestation data have helped conservationists and other groups of civil society to call upon governments to establish mechanisms for monitoring socioenvironmental impacts and for investors to fulfill their environmental responsibilities in investing in large-scale production of global commodities. Amazonian governments are increasingly integrating deforestation data to identify arcs or hot spots of deforestation and to establish legal and economic instruments to reduce emissions as part of REDD and other global climate initiatives. Despite major advances in our understanding of the complex links between deforestation and changes in land/resource use policies and development priorities, large forest areas remain exposed to deforestation as Amazonian countries are experiencing demographic and economic shifts. In this presentation, I discuss some emerging drivers of deforestation and their impacts on livelihoods, biodiversity and environments. I focus particularly on urbanization, climate variability and globalization of markets as three drivers of deforestation. What is the role of urbanization in promoting or controlling deforestation? What is the interplay between climate variability and deforestation? How are global market opportunities such as rising demands for green beef, soy, palm oil, cacao and other global commodities actually affecting deforestation and degradation? Finally, the complex realities of drivers and actors of land conversion (i.e. expansion of large scale commodity production) and rising land values (i.e. land-as-wealth) will be analyzed to understand not only deforestation but also processes of afforestation or forest resurgence in particular in some rapidly changing Amazonian landscapes. 3

4 Foodies and Greens: can the foodie movement impact tropical conservation at scale, or is the only food trend relevant to conservation the continuing expansion of industrial agriculture? Kunen, Julie Wildlife Conservation Society, Conservationists see industrial agriculture as the antithesis of conservation. We picture enormous squares of denuded land as in the Brazilian Amazon as the complete absence of nature. We know that agricultural production is the leading driver of tropical deforestation, and that the global population is increasing, along with the demand for food. But a different type of food movement is also happening the foodie movement, with its various offshoots of locavorism, nose-to-tail eating, organic farming, and the search for more authentic foodways. Is the foodie movement relevant to conservation at a scale that matters in the context of deforestation and biodiversity loss? And if it is, does such a movement benefit people in the tropics, or only the wealthy north? CASE STUDY SPEAKERS Forest incentives as a conservation and development tool: the case of Socio Bosque in Ecuador Suarez, Luis Conservation International, Quito, Ecuador, One of the main environmental challenges is to find mechanisms through which conservation of natural ecosystems generates sufficient benefits for the owners of these ecosystems to make this a competitive option as compared to alternative uses, such as a conversion to agriculture or cattle grazing. In November 2008 the Ministry of Environment of Ecuador launched the Socio Bosque program. This national incentives program was established to conserve 4 million hectares of tropical forests and other native ecosystems, reduce deforestation rates and improve the living conditions of 1 million people. Within this program, individual landowners and indigenous communities have access to direct economic incentives based on the number of hectares they conserve. These incentives are structured through voluntary conservation agreements lasting 20 years- that define benefits and obligations for both parties. By December 2014 there are 2,748 agreements signed, 1,434,062 hectares are under protection, and 173,233 people are receiving direct benefits from the program. A trust fund has been established to canalize complementary funding sources, and conservation areas are regularly monitored to ensure transparent provision and fair distribution of benefits based on conservation performance. Socio Bosque has important potential for amplification through replication in other countries. By using direct economic incentives to motivate rural environmental conservation, tropical countries have a valuable 4

5 opportunity to improve conservation of their natural heritage and the well-being of local communities. Practical approaches for biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes of Argentina Canavelli, Sonia National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA), Argentina, Agriculture is the land use of greatest impact on natural ecosystems and the services they provide. In Argentina, the expansion of cultivated area and intensification of agricultural practices have produced changes on landscapes, including loss of habitats and decrease of its quality for wildlife species. Additionally, few amounts of public lands are available to allocate to biodiversity conservation. Finally, agriculture is an important source of economic revenues, subsidizing other activities and generating funds for social programs at national level. Therefore, we face the challenge of complementing biodiversity conservation in protected areas with its conservation in productive areas and private lands while increasing economic revenues from agriculture production and promoting social well-being. In this presentation, we will share some approaches followed by the National Institute of Agriculture Technology to conserve biodiversity and its ecosystem services at the landscape level with the ultimate goal of balancing economic revenue and ecosystem sustainability. Approaches include the recommendation of management measures for production activities and land use planning based on the relationships between landscape patterns and processes for wildlife species in agroecosystems, as well as future scenario analyses, as a way of anticipating changes and orienting policy and management actions at this landscape level. Additionally, we will share some lessons we have learned while applying these approaches and present some challenges we face to landscape level conservation in Argentina. The scaling-up of intensive silvopastoral systems in Colombia Calle, Zoraida 1, Murgueitio, Enrique 1, Chará, Julián 1, Molina, Carlos Hernando 1, 3, and Zuluaga, Andrés Felipe 2 1 CIPAV (Cali, Colombia); 2 Fedegan Federación Colombiana De Ganaderos; 3 Reserva Natural El Hatico, Silvopastoral systems (SPS) enhance milk and meat production and are instrumental for the productive rehabilitation of degraded lands. The large-scale transition from inputintensive cattle grazing or degraded pastures to environmentally friendly SPS can enhance soil resilience to degradation and nutrient loss, sequester large amounts of carbon, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to the protection of water 5

6 resources by improving soil properties and reducing pollution. These systems also create jobs and sustainably produce high-quality food and other goods. Intensive silvopastoral systems (ISPS) combine fodder shrubs planted at high densities (> 10,000 plants ha -1 ) with trees and pastures. ISPSs, an example of natural intensification, enhance agricultural landscapes, generate environmental goods and services and facilitate the release of fragile, marginal and strategic areas for strict conservation. Scaling-up such systems requires incentives to address financial and knowledge barriers. In Colombia, the strategy for scaling-up SPS has combined five elements: (1) Participatory research on real farms contributed to optimize SPS in different agroecosystems and strengthened a network of pilot farms open to research and peer-to-peer technology transfer. (2) Capacity building, training and outreach activities spread the principles of SPS among farmers, field workers, researchers, extension workers, and policy makers. (3) Pilot projects explored the role of incentives such as Payment for Environmental Services (PES), technical assistance, soft loans and bonus prices, in spreading SPS. (4) Successful pilot projects were instrumental in influencing the livestock sector as well as the public policy agenda. (5) Currently, large-scale projects aimed at mainstreaming SPS are applying the lessons learned in order to achieve landscape-scale benefits, enhance climate change adaptation and mitigation, and introduce SPS products to green markets. Recently, innovation networks have contributed to speed up the adaptation of SPS in different environmental and socioeconomic contexts. Ouro Verde Institute and the construction of a multidimensional strategy to strengthen agroecological food production systems Instituto Ouro Verde e a construção de uma estratégia multidimensional para o fortalecimento de sistemas agroecológicos de produção de alimentos Olival, Alexandre, and Spexoto, Andrezza Ouro Verde Institute (IOV), Brazil, The Ouro Verde Institute (IOV) is a non-governmental organization, located at the agricultural frontier in northern Mato Grosso, Brazilian Amazon. IOV is a mixed organization composed of technical staff and community leaders, and works mainly with popular groups and social movements. IOV's overall focus is on strengthening community organization, and carries out activities related to agroecological production, marketing and finance, with additional cross-cutting activities related to policy, technical training, research and communication. Over its 15 years of action, IOV has been supporting rural communities and family agriculture as an alternative to the advance of agribusiness and monoculture plantations. Positive impacts have been achieved in multiple dimensions, from the greater engagement of people in community activities and political life of the municipalities to increasing income and improving local environmental conditions. 6

7 O Instituto Ouro Verde é uma organização não governamental localizada na região de fronteiro agrícola da Amazônia brasileira que tem como foco o fortalecimento das formas de organização comunitária, atuando essencialmente com grupos populares e movimentos sociais. Para cumprir com seus objetivos, o IOV está estruturado como uma organização mista, envolvendo técnicos de diferentes áreas e lideranças comunitárias, desenvolvendo ações nas áreas de produção, comercialização e finanças, além de ações tranversais nas áreas de formação política e técnica, pesquisa e comunicação comunitária. Ao longo dos seus 15 anos de ação, o IOV vem apoiando as comunidades rurais a enfrentar grandes desafios decorrentes do avanço das monoculturas na região. Os avanços decorrentes deste trabalho são percebidos em todas as esferas da vida, desde o maior engajamento das pessoas nas atividades comunitárias e vida política dos municípios até o aumento de renda e melhoria das condições ambientais locais." 7

8 Session II: How to sustain ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in the context of a growing population and food demand? PLENARY SPEAKERS Fostering low-emission rural development from the ground up Stickler, Claudia Earth Innovation Institute, Climate change is predicted to have severe impacts on rural communities in the Tropics, affecting water availability, food security and agricultural incomes. These regions face growing demands to reduce the contribution of greenhouse gas emissions from land use change (especially deforestation) to climate change, at the same time as they encounter increasing environmental and social pressures in the global scramble to meet growing demands for food, fuel and fiber production. To date, efforts to integrate climate policies into the development agendas of tropical forest regions have been stymied by obstacles ranging from lack of coordination across government agencies to difficulties connecting global finance for climate change mitigation and adaptation to local development agendas. Innovative, holistic approaches are needed to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation goals with concerns for human well-being. Low- Emission Rural Development (LED-R) is an example of this new approach in which climate stability is an explicit goal and which focuses on rural populations and that integrates concerns for both socioeconomic development and environment. LED-R is distinguished by its focus on multi-sector, participatory approaches that incorporate robust research into decision-making processes, engage industry, build local capacity and empower local institutions and civil society to drive positive change at scale. This presentation will describe the characteristics of LED-R a jurisdictional or regional approach to sustainability using examples from eight regions in the Tropics. For each region, the key actor groups and their dynamics are described, and the potential roles each group could play in the transition to LED-R are discussed. Each region s potential for and progress in moving toward LED-R is assessed, including a summary of the barriers and opportunities for LED-R to take hold across the regions. The presentation concludes with recommendations for policy-makers and stakeholders alike to consider. 8

9 Social, environmental and health impacts of energy production and resource extraction in Amazonia Fearnside, Philip M. National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, Brazil has massive plans for building hydroelectric dams in Amazonia, both in the Brazilian portion of the region and in neighboring countries such as Peru and Bolivia. There has been little public discussion in Brazil of the energy policies used to justify the high monetary cost and the major human and environmental impacts caused by these dams. Little attention has been paid to export of electricity in the form of products such as aluminum and to the Brazilian government s only token investment in energy conservation and in alternative sources such as wind and solar power. Amazonian dams have notable impacts through human displacement, destruction of livelihoods such as fisheries, and impacts on biodiversity, climate and health. These impacts are illustrated by existing dams in Brazilian Amazonia, such as Tucuruí, Balbina and Samuel. Current controversies, such as those surrounding Belo Monte and the dams on the Madeira and Tapajós Rivers, illustrate both the magnitude of the impacts and the deficiencies of the decision-making process. Other forms of resource extraction, such as mining and logging, also have severe impacts. These include forest destruction, penetration of indigenous lands, and, in the case of mining, release of sediments and pollutants (including mercury) into watercourses. Methyl-mercury contamination is greatly increased by anoxic conditions created by hydroelectric reservoirs, where the poisonous methyl form of mercury can form, including transformation of mercury from natural stocks in the soil. Mineral processing is a major use of electricity from hydroelectric dams. Some impacts of resource extraction can be reconciled through appropriate measures, but the notion that mitigation can provide impact-free development is a dangerous myth. More fundamental are policies guiding the course of development in the region and the initial decisions on individual projects. These initial decisions are still made without public discussion and in the absence of information on project impacts and alternatives. In practice, the effect of the subsequent phases of environmental impact studies and licensing is limited to suggesting minor modifications of the previously decided plans. CASE STUDY SPEAKERS Making the economic case for avoidance of biodiversity loss Arrea, Irene Burgués Conservation Strategy Fund, Proposals to avoid environmental damage by re-routing, changing the scope, or finding innovative alternatives to road, railroad or hydroelectric projects are often rejected by 9

10 developers on the grounds that changes are too expensive. However, through running and sharing in-depth economic analyses that properly calculate financial costs and quantify tangible environmental, economic and social externalities, it is often possible to persuade decision-makers to choose more environmentally friendly project alternatives. We present five case studies. In the first four, the most economically viable option also avoids biodiversity impacts; in the fifth, information was inadequate to determine the viability of the project, but achieving economic efficiency would likely require a sacrifice in fairness and environmental values. Case 1: Valuation of potential revenue loss from Gorilla tourism in Uganda s Bwindi Impenetrable National Park showed that road alternatives outside the park s boundaries have better overall economic performance than upgrading a route through the Park. Moreover, road alternatives outside the Park would avoid further fragmentation of one of the last remaining habitats of the critically endangered mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei). Case 2: An economic analysis of proposed road and rail projects connecting Pucallpa (Peru) to Cruzeiro do Sul (Brasil) showed that neither transport alternative is economically viable. This finding holds even without incorporating the value of negative environmental effects; project investment and maintenance costs simply outweigh benefits from reduced transport costs and increased profitability of economic activities in the area. As with Bwindi, the best economic choice (in this case not building the road or railway) also avoids significant risk of deforestation and fragmentation in high biodiversity areas. Case 3: Analysis of a group of road projects proposed in the border region of Mexico, Guatemala and Belize, which is part of the Maya Forest, also found no conflict between conservation and development goals. Neither goal would be achieved with proposed road investments. The roads analyzed would cause a net economic loss even without considering the environmental impacts on the largest contiguous tropical forest block in the Americas north of the Amazon. Case 4: Economic analysis of a hydroelectric project proposed on the Usumacinta River in Mexico showed that the project is not economically viable even without incorporating the value of negative environmental effects. The construction of this dam would create an ecological barrier in a high-biodiversity region that would interrupt a variety of biological and social interactions. Case 5: Analysis of a group of hydroelectric projects in the Changuinla-Teribe basin in Panamá showed that achieving economic efficiency would require a sacrifice in fairness and the environment. Maintaining social and environmental values would require parallel investments in environmental and social protection on a scale similar to the dams profits. Despite this finding, the economic analysis revealed important tradeoffs that could enable open debate and could lead to more equitable and sustainable decision-making. We conclude that there is significant scope for avoidance of biodiversity impacts through targeted, up-front environmental economic analyses. This presentation shows how economic tools, such as cost benefit analysis and valuation, can be used to demonstrate that the avoidance of biodiversity loss makes economic sense. 10

11 Knowledge, perceptions and use of mercury among small scale gold miners in Suriname, South America Heemskerk, Marieke Social Solutions, Suriname, Worldwide 15 million men, women and children are working in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM), representing 90 percent of the global gold mining work force. While ASGM provides a livelihood for more than 100 million rural poor it also has many undesirable side effects, including the use of mercury, a metallic toxic. Both gold miners and inhabitants of local communities are exposed to mercury as it leaches into aquatic systems and evaporates into the atmosphere. Such expose can have many adverse health effects, including damage to the central nervous system. ASGM is responsible for 37 percent of global mercury emissions, and hence a focal issue in the 2013 Minamata convention. A survey with 178 small-scale gold miners in Suriname, South America, suggests that mercury is rather cheap and easily acquired in Suriname. Gold miners applied mercury in different stages of the mining process and whole ore amalgamation, a very inefficient and polluting mining technique, was common. The quantity of mercury applied depended on habit, perceptions of the quantity and coarseness of gold, and previous mercury use at the location. Recycling of mercury, which is easy and economical, was uncommon. 40 Percent of miners were unconcerned about the health impact of mercury, and few used any (effective) protective measure. They also had a poor understanding of the time and geographic scale of their impacts. The researchers conclude that conditions in Suriname allow for the excessive and uncontrolled use of mercury in gold mining and related spillage of mercury in the natural environment. These conditions include: easy access, lack of policy, inefficient use, lack of recycling, suboptimal knowledge and awareness, and limited access to alternatives. Any intervention strategy should integrate all these issues. Environmental health in Latin America: a case study on the relationship between malaria and environmental change Valle, Denis, and Lima, Joanna Tucker UF School Forest Resources & Conservation, Conservation scientists and public health scientists are slowly becoming aware of the strong relationship between environmental change and vector-transmitted human diseases, generating considerable interest regarding conservation and public health winwin situations. In this presentation, we provide a general review of what is known regarding the impact of environmental change on human diseases in Latin America, with particular focus on malaria. 11

12 Then, using entomological data from the Peruvian Amazon, cross-sectional malaria surveys from Acre, and large-scale malaria surveillance data from the Brazilian Amazon, we discuss our work regarding malaria transmission in the Amazon region. In particular, we focus on the controversy regarding forest conservation and its role in malaria risk. Finally, we describe our ongoing projects on the public health impact of hydroelectric dams in the Brazilian Amazon region and the statistical challenges associated with inferring this impact. Conflict, compromise, and cooperation: community-based water management in Honduras Tucker, Catherine Indiana University, Honduras is among the many developing countries for which provision of potable water poses difficulties, and its national laws place most of the burden of rural water management on local municipalities and community-based water committees. Drawing on current theoretical understanding, this study examines the experiences of water committees in two municipalities in western Honduras. The region suffers dramatic fluctuations in annual precipitation and periodic drought. In addition to these climatic challenges, these municipalities have been struggling over management of a shared cloud forest whose springs provide a large proportion of water for their populations, and whose land is considered highly desirable for coffee production. The study examines the evolution of local water committees during the past 20 years, and assesses the degree to which the committees have been successful providing potable water to their populations. The results show that despite ongoing difficulties, the majority of the committees have been able to cooperate, compromise, and overcome conflict to provide potable water consistently to their constituents. Compared to other parts of Honduras, it seems that these water committees have achieved an unusual level of success. With data from interviews, meeting minutes, observations, and surveys, the analysis points to the contributions of collective action, traditional cultural values, and locally-designed rules and practices. It further considers how the broader political situation and local history combined to enable the committees to construct and maintain effective water systems with minimal external interference. At the same time, the study shows that apparent successes are fraught with difficulties and uncertainty. The discussion concludes by considering possible implications for community-based water management in other parts of the world. 12

13 The struggle to consolidate forest people s property rights in the Western Amazon Cronkleton, Peter Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), The Amazon offers prominent examples of indigenous people and extractivist populations successfully demanding and gaining property rights over forest resources. In response, governments have adopted a diversity of approaches to recognize forest property rights ranging from models based on ethnic/ancestral land claims to others that ensure continued forest-based livelihoods. However, the recognition of rights is not the end of their struggle but instead marks a transition process in which recipients of new rights must adapt and defend them. These people face both internal and external challenges, as they adjust local governance institutions to new property parameters and react to shifting policy frameworks and increased competition with other interest groups. To explore how the consolidation of forest properties is occurring, this paper draws on comparative case studies of lowland indigenous people and extractivist Brazil nut gatherers in the Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon. In these cases, the rights granted to these distinct groups by their respective governments vary significantly but they also share common challenges. This paper will illustrate how, over the past two decades, forest people in the two countries have reacted to perceived threats, identify factors that continue to influence the security of their property rights and suggest policy changes that could strengthen forest property institutions. 13

14 Session III: How to strengthen capacity for adaptive governance at multiple scales? PLENARY SPEAKERS Intercultural education to strengthen endogenous practices for natural resources management in a Nahua region of Mexico Lo pez Binnqu ist, Citlalli Universidad Veracruzana, Mexico, In Mexico as well as in other Latin American countries, such as Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru, an intercultural approach has been adopted within the formal educational systems. One of the aims of intercultural education is to address the need in indigenous areas for pertinent educational programs that consider their local cultural realities and values. Within this context, the Universidad Veracruzana, the principal public higher education institution in the State of Veracruz, opened the Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural Program (UVI) in In this talk I present the learning and teaching experiences of a group of researchers, postgraduate students of the Universidad Veracruzana and development organizations participating for eight years with the Universidad Veracruzana Intercultural Program (UVI). We have developed specific teaching activities focused on the use and management of forest and water resources in the Sierra de Zongolica, one of the five indigenous regions where the UVI has been implemented. Together with Nahua students of Zongolica we have developed and carried out workshops, short courses, seminars, and the preparation of diverse educational materials including videos in the Nahua language with Spanish subtitles. We have also conducted exchanges of students with other indigenous areas. Our aim is to contribute to revaluing and revitalizing Nahua indigenous culture and language through the teaching and guidance of future professionals who will be committed to the economic and cultural development of their territory. I present the two main components of our work, the first one linked to the reinforcement of local and contextual knowledge based on cultural and biological diversity, and the second linked to the strengthening of endogenous natural resources practices based on the collective memory and the exchange of different kinds of knowledge. In the larger picture, I consider how Intercultural education programs such as the UVI could trigger long term processes and deep social transformations of local governance. 14

15 Motivating students on sustainability and conservation through education Padua, Claudio, and Padua, Suzana Institute for Ecological Research, Brazil, How can we, today, motivate students when there are so many stimuli outside the classroom? How can conservation and sustainability become topics of interest, if these are issues that often demand time, though the pressures of the modern world are urgent and need immediate action? Besides, with the increase of urbanization people are becoming ever more distant from wildlife, rural settings and what is needed to solve aspects that can lead to the valuing of nature and the integrity of environmental services. With these thoughts in mind, modern education must incorporate methods to encourage innovation, problem solving, and the discovery of strategies that integrate theories and practices. The role of entrepreneurs is undoubtedly important when related to sustainability and to conservation, as innovation and creativity can be key to solving unprecedented situations. Education must find ways to sensitize students to understand their natural essence and relink them to what happens in the remnant habitats and their outstanding wildlife. Furthermore, the complexity of the current issues demands interdisciplinary views, so students can better understand the big pictures of what is happening and how to deal with the different aspects that are influencing reality. We present what is being done at IPÊ Institute for Ecological Research, the Brazilian NGO that we helped found in 1992, which has a strong focus in education. Short courses began to be offered at IPÊ to provide what was not being taught elsewhere, or at least not in a form that they believed adequate. Over time, other degrees have been added, such as a Master s and a MBA. The idea is to form professionals who can deal with the complex issues they face in the real world. One way to do this is to have students participate in IPÊ s ongoing projects, encouraging them to solve problems, so they can feel the flavor of having understood issues more thoroughly and being more assured that they are capable of creating solutions. The other way is to encourage interdisciplinary approaches that link the social and the environmental aspects of realities. These are some of the approaches IPÊ has adopted over the years. But, the program is never complete, as the needs change and the learning process must accompany what happens in a constant and continuous way. What we aim is to respond to what emerges in a proactive and innovative manner, so we can deliver the messages of conservation and sustainability in an effective way. 15

16 CASE STUDY SPEAKERS Alternative approaches to biodiversity conservation in protected areas: lessons from long-term research in the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, India Madegowda, C., Hiremath, Ankila J., Rai, Nitin D., and Setty, Siddappa Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India, Wildlife conservation in India has focused on the establishment of protected areas regardless of the social or ecological history of the areas notified. An effort to try and redress social outcomes of historical forest conservation practices has been the enactment of the Forest Rights Act (FRA) of The FRA grants rights to forest resource use, conservation and management to communities that have traditionally lived in and depended on forests. Yet concomitantly there have been renewed efforts to strengthen protectionist conservation as witnessed by amendments to the Wildlife Protection Act (WLPA) over the past decade. In a climate of increasing protectionism, the FRA offers an opportunity for less exclusionary conservation. We draw on more than 15 years of work in a South Indian protected area the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary (now Tiger Reserve; BRT) to suggest how biodiversity conservation in India might be made more inclusive. Our work in BRT has yielded multiple insights over the years. These include a nuanced understanding of the effects of human use on forests; a documentation of the history of ecological and cultural practice in the landscape; an identification of the ecological drivers that are potentially transforming the forest; and discussion on the role of various stakeholders in improving livelihoods and managing biodiversity. Our work suggests that traditional ecological knowledge and science-based knowledge can be mutually enriching, and can deepen our understanding of the dynamics of human impacts on natural landscapes. Also, that local communities have an important role in management, given their historical engagement with these landscapes. The renewed focus on the tiger as a symbol of conservation in India has redoubled efforts towards greater protection and exclusion. The resulting erosion of ecological values and democratic processes is inimical to the well being of forest dwellers, and potentially also to wildlife conservation in the long term. We suggest an inclusive management approach for protected areas, which acknowledges that people are dependent on forests for both material and cultural reasons, and that the areas we value today for their biodiversity have been maintained and even produced by local communities through a history of local practice. 16

17 Linking modern day conservation planning to traditional community livestock-based management system Kamanga, John, and Leyian, Benson South Rift Association of Land Owners (SORALO), Kenya, The nomadic Maasai pastoralists community have lived in relative harmony alongside wildlife for centuries. Traditional seasonal movements meant that wildlife were free to roam with the livestock in search of water and pasture in the same spaces. Fences and permanency were not part of the culture. The South Rift valley of Kenya is one of the few areas left where these strong traditional values still prevail. The main bulk of the area remains communally owned and governed, with mobility still being key to the success of both the wildlife and livestock in the area, ensuring sustainability of livelihoods of the conservative pastoral community. Despite being outside of any protected area, wildlife is abundant, and the area hosts a particularly high diversity of carnivores. Adjacent to the pastoral Maasai communities in the South Rift Valley is Amboseli National park. Many conservation efforts start with trying to win space for wildlife. Whether they were government initiatives, driven by NGOs or by communities themselves, the basic premise for conservation was to conserve wildlife, either because it was seen to be a moral obligation, for recreational purposes or for financial benefit to those involved. But what perhaps has been missing is the best way to do so, stemming from a lack of understanding of the deep-rooted cultural practices and traditions which have enabled wildlife to coexist with pastoral people across so much of East Africa for so long. The South Rift Association of Land Owners and Amboseli Ecosystem Trust are two community based organizations working in the area of the South Rift and Amboseli, respectively. These organizations further the conservation efforts in these regions based around traditional livestock management through maintaining large open spaces to allow for mobility and bringing in current scientific management tools to enhance conservation while supporting community livelihoods. Their efforts are based on bringing together different land owners and stakeholders in conservation to build partnerships and a sense of a common goal that will serve to benefit the land owners and their production system without jeopardizing wildlife existence. The adoption of ecosystem based approach planning and the use of community resource assessors as a way to involve communities in modern scientific means of information collection are two key success stories that these institutions have helped foster. Building capacities for municipal socioenvironmental governance in the Brazilian Amazon Gomes, Jarlene, and Birrer, Ste phanie RECAM network, Brazil 17

18 POSTER PRESENTATIONS I. How to sustain ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation in the context of a growing population and food demand? I-1 A partnership with the wine industry to sustain ecosystem services and biodiversity in central Chile Barbosa, Olga 1, Godoy, Karina 2, Pohl, Nelida 3, Márquez-García, Marcela 4, and Jacobson, Susan K. 5 1 Universidad Austral de Chile (UACH), Assistant Professor (UACH) and Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB-Chile), Associate Researcher (IEB-Chile), 2 Universidad Austral de Chile, VCCB Program Coordinator, 3 Universidad de Chile, Assistant Professor, 4 University of Florida, PhD candidate in Interdisciplinary Ecology, 5 University of Florida, Teaching Scholar and Professor, In Chile, the dialogue between scientists and the industry is scarce. The Wine, Climate Change and Biodiversity Program was born in 2008 to conciliate biodiversity conservation with the development of the Chilean wine industry. To promote private conservation efforts among winegrowers, the program shifted from a merely scientific initiative to one where the technology transfer and outreach have become crucial. To date, 16 vineyards are enrolled in the program, which have adopted more conservation practices than a control group, according to 25 semi-structured interviews conducted in Also, this partnership has achieved the protection of 20,600 hectares of native ecosystems and the training of 646 workers. Our data suggest that the charisma and leadership of the program s director and some other vineyards internal stakeholders have been important drivers in fostering the collaboration between scientists and the wine industry for biodiversity and ecosystem services conservation. I-2 In search of the next boom: lessons to learn from value chain creation for camucamu in Peru Blare, Trent 1, and Donovan, Jason 2 1 World Agroforestry Centre Markets and Value Chain Specialist, P.O. Box 1558, Lima 12, Peru, 2 World Agroforestry Centre, Research Leader, Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are being promoted to make forest conservation a financially attractive alternative. With the worldwide demand of such products as açaí, development institutions have begun to promote other NTFPs hoping to achieve similar success. Yet, there is debate how best to create these value chains. This study 18

19 examines the case of camu-camu, a fruit native to the Amazon, to provide lessons for future value chain development efforts. Camu-camu has been domesticated and promoted by variety of public and private organizations because of its health benefits and income potential. Our research indicates that although camu-camu value chain development has been sporadic with little market development, camu-camu production has improved the livelihoods of some of the most impoverished smallholder households in the region. However, weak legal, marketing, and educational institutions as well as lack of coordination among support entities have limited the market from becoming fully developed. I-3 Biodiversidad en las plantaciones de palma aceitera de la Región Osa-Golfito Broadbent, Eben 1, Dirzo, Rodolfo 2, Zambrano, Angelica María Almeyda 3, Picado, Alvaro 4, Acuna, Farael 4, Moraga, Marco 4, and Garcia, Diego 4 1 University of Alabama, Assistant Professor, 2 Professor, Dept. of Biology, Stanford University 3 Spatial Ecology and Conservation Lab, Dept. of Geography, University of Alabama, Adjunct Faculty, 4 Universidad de Costa Rica Se evaluaron la biodiversidad y los servicios ambientales básicos proveídos por las plantaciones de palma aceitera y bosques intactos en la región de Osa y Golfito en Costa Rica, un área de muy alta biodiversidad que brinda hábitats críticos para muchas especies de flora y fauna. La conversión de bosques a plantaciones de palma aceitera resulta en la disminución dramática de la densidad y riqueza de plantas. Las plantaciones de palma aceitera presentaron un gran incremento en el área de suelo expuesto y una reducción en la cantidad de material orgánico degradable en combinación con una infiltración 18 veces más lenta que en los bosques. Además, las plantaciones de palma presentaron una gran disminución en la abundancia y riqueza de las especies de fauna. Es de suma importancia llevar a cabo una evaluación de los servicios ambientales que brindan estas plantaciones con el objetivo de identificar usos sostenibles del importante patrimonio natural de la región. I-4 A butterfly farming initiative in western Ecuador as a tool for sustainable development Checa, Maria F. MDP and TCD Program, Florida Museum of Natural History, Student/Research Assistant, University of Florida Sustainable development is urgently required in Western Ecuador, an important area of biodiversity endemism, where 70% of people are poor and less than 5% of forests remain. Butterfly farming consists of rearing butterflies in captivity and marketing them to exhibitions. These projects have increased the livelihood opportunities for local people, and promoted women s empowerment, governance and conservation 19

20 behaviors in many developing countries. Ecuador has a great potential to develop this type of projects since it is the most butterfly diverse country worldwide. However, important constraints are the lack of biological knowledge and limited technical capacity of local people. During summer 2013, I researched the feasibility of a butterfly farming project in a dry forest of Western Ecuador. I developed a preliminary strategic plan, carried out biological research and trained local people. Results showed a butterfly farming project is feasible and can be a viable solution for local sustainable development due to availability of biological information, the presence of a market niche for a butterfly exhibition, and increased technical capacity and willingness of local stakeholders to participate in the project. I-5 A predictive model of Yellow Spotted River Turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) encounter rates at basking sites in lowland Eastern Bolivia Conway-Gomez, Kristen 1, Reibel, Michael 2, and Mihiar, Christopher 3 1 California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, Associate Professor 2 Professor, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, Pomona, CA, 3 Graduate Student, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, We develop a model predicting encounter rates of the yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) based on human hunting pressure and an ecological classification of potential basking sites. We estimate Poisson regression models for turtles observed in basking surveys. Field surveys were conducted in eastern lowland Bolivia in 2000 and Our model predicts a significant correlation between turtle encounter rates and two ecological classifications steep cliff with vegetation and muddy flats that we believe are important habitat types for these turtles. Additionally, our model supports the hypothesis that human population has a significant but less negative impact on observed turtle encounter rates. Analyses of turtle encounter rates and factors that influence it are critical for the conservation of P. unifilis turtles and the broader Amazonian ecological system. I-6 Dinâmica demográfica na Amazônia: conciliando produção alimentar e conservação ambiental Côrtes, Julia Corrêa Unicamp, PhD Student, Este trabalho discute os desafios provocados pela dinâmica demográfica para conciliar produção de alimentos e conservação ambiental, tendo como enfoque a região da Amazônia brasileira. Serão usados dados sobre a população do Censo Demográfico 2010, dados sobre segurança alimentar da PNAD 2013 e informações dos surveys aplicados em agricultores familiares do estado do Pará. Os resultados mostram uma ampla transformação na estrutura demográfica e nas formas de reprodução social, 20

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