6 Fonte: Linking Decisions and Information for Organizational Performance. A Client Study by Thomas H. Davenport. IBM
9 O Mercado A troca de produtos e serviços. A troca é coordenada espontâneamente. Ronald H. Coase ( ) A Empresa Substitui contratos de produtos por contratos de emprego, substituindo efetivamente um fator de mercado por um produto de mercado. Substitui a coordenação espontânea com alguma categoria de planejamento central ou direção. 9
10 A1 B2 C3 D4 E5 Ronald H. Coase (1910-) O tamanho da empresa não é a sua quantidade produzida (Q), mas sim o número de transações ou atividades nos seus limites. 10
11 Ronald H. Coase (1910-) 11
12 Especialmente custos de garimpar, coletar, processar, recuperar, armazenar, integrar, reusar, distribuir e agregar INFORMAÇÃO!
13 O enfoque de administração científica de Taylor iniciou a separação das tarefas dos gestores em relação ao núcleo operativo da empresa. Em combinação com mercados estáveis, comportamento previsível dos consumidores, e longos ciclos de vida dos produtos, as companhias se apoiaram na especialização funcional para aumentar a eficiência do cumprimento da tarefa. Como consequência, a organização funcional foi a estrutura prevalente da maioria das organizações do século 20.
15 When the economy was relatively static, strategy could afford to be static. In a world characterized by durable products, stable customer needs, well defined national and regional markets, and clearly identified competitors, competition was a war of position in which companies occupied competitive space like squares on a chessboard, building and defending market share in clearly defined product or market segments. [...]
16 [Today], in this more dynamic business environment, strategy has to become correspondingly more dynamic. Competition is now a war of movement in which success depends on anticipation of market trends and quick response to changing customer needs. Successful competitors move quickly in and out of products, markets, and sometimes even entire business. [...] In such an environment, the essence of strategy is not the structure of a company s products and markets but the dynamics of its behavior. Stalk, Evans, Schulman (1992)
18 Fonte: Swenson and Shapiro (2008).
19 Workflow in the Brain The first step in a brief history of Workflow and BPM- Business Process Management, which might be typical of 1990, is what is called workflow in the brain because people implemented processes in the organization, but there was no explicit representation of the process in the IT systems. People were taught by route to access one system first, then the next, and then the next. Many of the processing mistakes resulted from someone forgetting to do a step, or doing the wrong step. Training and repeatability of processes were huge issues. This is ultimately the reason that workflow and BPM technology was developed in the first place. Fonte: Swenson and Shapiro (2008).
20 Workflow Assist in Sequencing Steps A few years later we saw the advent of early workflow systems, which helped in the workplace by acting essentially as reminders of things that need to be done. What is added to this process is the BPMN diagram of the process. It has an explicit representation of the steps that need to be done. Work Distribution This basic capability to represent tasks and reminders allowed for the capability to assign these different tasks to different people. Work could then be distributed with different team members performing the different tasks. The workflow system is supporting the coordination of these tasks between people. This was typical workflow in the mid 1990 s. Again, keep in mind that there were a widely varying range of capabilities one might find. Some systems at this time were offering integration with applications at some level, carrying data automatically from one application to another. In other cases the process representation was being built into a particular application in order to provide tight integration. Some of the workflow systems were working on top of for carrying the main context of the process, while others took a more centralized database approach. What was needed next was a strong standard that would allow for integration of data.
21 Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) The next big change in the way that process technology is used came with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). SOA was a result of information becoming location independent. Before the Internet transformation, large enterprise systems were designed around either going to the place that had the data to process it, or else moving data from point to point as necessary. After the Internet transformation, there became less and less need to specify that information existed at any specific location. The public became used to accessing a web page from China, which may have a link to a page in Eastern Europe. Since you could access information from any place, you can also access a function from anyplace. Instead of packaging up functionality and distributing functionality to many locations, that function can be provided at one point, called a service, and everyone can access the results from there. This prompted a slow transformation of enterprise systems to be broken into reusable functional pieces call services. Fonte: Swenson and Shapiro (2008).
22 Enterprise Resource Planning- ERP Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is a term usually used in conjunction with ERP software or an ERP system which is intended to manage all the information and functions of a business or company from shared data stores. An ERP system typically has modular hardware and software units and "services" that communicate on a local area network. The modular design allows a business to add or reconfigure modules (perhaps from different vendors) while preserving data integrity in one shared database that may be centralized or distributed.
23 It is a planning framework that describes how the technology assets of an organization connect and operate. It also describes what the organization needs from the technology. And finally, it describes the set of activities required to meet the organizational needs. And it operates in a context of a process for setting priorities, making decisions, informing those decisions, and delivering results called IT governance.
24 Business Intelligence (BI) refers to skills, processes, technologies, applications and practices used to support decision making. BI technologies provide historical, current, and predictive views of business operations. Common functions of Business Intelligence technologies are reporting, OLAP, analytics, data mining, business performance management, benchmarking, text mining, and predictive analytics. Business Intelligence often aims to support better business decision-making. Thus a BI system can be called a decision support system (DSS).
26 Fonte: Thomas Davenport (2009)
30 DINÂMICA DE MERCADO Estrutura Conduta Desempenho Paradigma Estrutura-Conduta-Desempenho
31 DINÂMICA DA EMPRESA ARQUITETURA GOVERNANÇA CRESCIMENTO Metodologia Arquitetura-Governança-Crescimento
33 Fonte: Thomas Davenport (2009)
35 This document was created with Win2PDF available at The unregistered version of Win2PDF is for evaluation or non-commercial use only. This page will not be added after purchasing Win2PDF.
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