Chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds: valorisation of. by-products from oil extraction and label compliance

Tamanho: px
Começar a partir da página:

Download "Chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds: valorisation of. by-products from oil extraction and label compliance"

Transcrição

1 Chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds: valorisation of by-products from oil extraction and label compliance Dissertação do 2.º Ciclo de Estudos Conducente ao Grau de Mestre em Controlo de Qualidade Trabalho realizado sob a orientação da Professora Doutora Maria Beatriz Oliveira e coorientação de Maria Antónia Nunes Julho de 2019

2 Declaração de reprodução DE ACORDO COM A LEGISLAÇÃO EM VIGOR, NÃO É PERMITIDA A REPRODUÇÃO DE QUALQUER PARTE DESTA DISSERTAÇÃO. ii

3 Acknowledgments The completion and successful outcome of this dissertation required the guidance and assistance from many people to whom I am extremely thankful and privileged to have had their supervision and support along this journey. I would like to show my appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor Professora Doutora Maria Beatriz Oliveira for providing me the opportunity to work in her research group in the Laboratory of Bromatology s Departament of the Faculty of Pharmacy of the University of Porto and giving me all the support and guidance needed to meet all the proposed objectives. Despite her busy schedule while managing several assignments and responsibilities, she always found time to assist me. I would like to extend my sincere esteems to my co-supervisor Maria Antónia Nunes who have actively helped, encouraged and timely supported me during the elaboration of my project. Also, I would like to give emphasis concerning to all the staff in laboratory and people from the research group: Anabela Costa, Liliana Espírito Santo, Sílvia Bessada, Susana Machado, Joana Lobo and Filipa Pimentel. I also must mention my gratefulness to Professors Manuel Álvarez-Ortí and José Pardo from Superior Technical School of Agronomic Engineers of University of Castilla-La Mancha for providing all the samples and performing the oil extraction process. I owe my deep gratitude to the members of my family, especially, José Melo, Luísa Melo and Rita Melo. I heartily thank my boyfriend Nuno Ferreira and my friends. All of them took keen interest on my dissertation and their help, support and encouragement were fundamental to carry it out and successfully conclude it. I would not forget to remember my Master s colleagues, particularly, Patrícia Silva and Marta Silva for their friendship and encouragement. Lastly, but not less important, I am thankful that this work was supported by UID/QUI/50006/2019 with funding from FCT/MCTES through national funds. iii

4 Resumo O consumo de sementes é uma tendência atual na alimentação humana, dando o consumidor preferência a alimentos com baixo teor em gordura e ricos em fibra, obtidos de forma sustentável com o mínimo processamento possível. Este trabalho teve como objetivo efetuar uma caracterização química dos óleos prensados a frio, das farinhas (subproduto da extração do óleo) e das sementes inteiras de chia (Salvia hispanica L.), linhaça (Linum usitatissimum), papoila (Papaver somniferum) e sésamo (Sesamum indicum), ingredientes de grande utilização na alimentação atual, de forma a valorizá-los e compará-los, tendo em consideração as preferências dos consumidores. Foi ainda verificada a conformidade dos resultados obtidos com o rótulo das embalagens que continham as sementes. Os parâmetros avaliados foram: perfil em ácidos gordos, estabilidade oxidativa, cor, índice de peróxido e absorvência no UV dos óleos; perfil de vitamina E, compostos fenólicos totais (TPC), flavonoides totais (TFC) e atividade antioxidante (poder antioxidante por redução do ião férrico - FRAP e inibição do radical 2,2-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil - DPPH ) dos óleos, farinhas e sementes e análise nutricional (humidade, cinza, teor de gordura total, proteína, fibra total (TDF) e insolúvel) nas farinhas e sementes. O ácido linolénico foi o maioritário nos óleos de chia ( 66%) e linhaça ( 57%), enquanto que na papoila foi o ácido linoleico ( 62%) e no sésamo o ácido oleico ( 43%). Os óleos de chia e linhaça apresentaram um perfil químico semelhante, relativamente aos AG, estabilidade oxidativa, TPC e inibição do DPPH. O óleo de sésamo apresentou uma maior estabilidade oxidativa (5,8 h), maior teor de vitamina E total ( 464 mg/kg), TPC (13,4 mg equivalentes de ácido gálhico/100 g), TFC (20,3 mg equivalentes de epicatequina/100 g) e atividade antioxidante (FRAP 215,5 μmol equivalentes de sulfato ferroso/100 g; inibição do DPPH - 7,9 mg equivalentes trolox/100 g). As farinhas apresentaram valores superiores de TPC, TFC, FRAP, proteína e fibra alimentar. Todas as sementes tinham um teor proteico de 18% (peso seco). A farinha e sementes de chia apresentaram os maiores teores de TDF (>40%, peso seco). A farinha e semente de sésamo tiveram os menores valores de TDF ( 20%) devido ao elevado teor em óleo (respetivamente >30 e >50%). Apenas os teores em proteína e gordura das sementes de linhaça, papoila e sésamo estavam em conformidade com o rótulo. De acordo com os resultados, os óleos das sementes devem ser consumidos preferencialmente crus. As farinhas têm grande potencial para incorporação em produtos alimentares. Todos os produtos analisados se adequam a uma alimentação variada e a um estilo de vida ativo. Palavras-chave: sementes de chia, linhaça, papoila e sésamo; análise nutricional; perfil em ácidos gordos e vitamina E; composição em antioxidantes. iv

5 Abstract Seeds are now a common trend among human diets and the consumers give preference to low-fat and fibre-rich foods, obtained in a sustainable way with minimal processing. This work aimed to characterize currently consumed chia (Salvia hispanica L.), flax (Linum usitatissimum), poppy (Papaver somniferum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum) coldpressed oils, cakes (oil extraction by-product) and whole seeds, common ingredients in nowadays diets, in order to valorise and compare them, meeting consumer s demands for diets with low-fat contents. The whole seeds label compliance was also verified. In the oils, the fatty acids (FA) profile, oxidative stability, colour, peroxide value and UV absorbance was determined. In the oils, cakes and seeds, the vitamin E profile, total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC), antioxidant activity evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and by the inhibition of the radical 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH ) were determined. In the cakes and whole seeds, it was assessed the nutritional composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, total dietary fibre (TDF) and insoluble fibre). The major FA in chia and flax oils was α-linolenic acid ( 66 and 57%, respectively), whereas in poppy oil, the major FA present was the linoleic acid ( 62%) and in sesame oil, the oleic acid ( 43%). Chia and flax oils had a similar chemical profile, regarding FA, oxidative stability, TPC and inhibition of DPPH. Sesame oil had the highest oxidative stability (5.8 h), total vitamin E ( 464 mg/kg), TPC (13.4 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g), TFC (20.3 mg epicatechin equivalents/100 g) and antioxidant activity: FRAP μmol ferrous sulphate equivalents/100 g and inhibition of DPPH of 7.9 mg trolox equivalents/100 g. The whole seeds and specially the cakes are richer in TPC, TFC and have higher antioxidant activity than the oils. Cakes had higher TPC, TFC, FRAP, protein and fibre than whole seeds. All whole seeds had a protein content of 18%. Chia cake and seed presented the highest contents of TDF (>40%). Sesame cake and seed presented the lowest values ( 20%) due to the higher fat content (respectively >30 and >50% dw). Only flax, poppy and sesame seeds protein and fat contents were in agreement with the label. According to the results obtained in this study, the oils presented chemical characteristics that allow concluding that they can be consumed preferably raw. The cakes have nutritional potential to be incorporated in foodstuffs. All analysed products are suitable to be included in a varied food pattern and active lifestyle. Key words: chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds; nutritional analysis; fatty acids and vitamin E profiles; composition in antioxidants. v

6 Index 1. Introduction Aim and Objectives Materials and Methods Chemicals Samples Samples preparation Lipid fraction extraction Phytochemicals extraction Oils chemical characterization Oxidative stability Oil colour Peroxide value UV absorbance determination Fatty acids profile by GC-FID Phytochemicals and antioxidant analysis of oils, cakes and whole seeds extracts Total phenolic compounds (TPC) Total flavonoids content (TFC) FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) Inhibition of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) Vitamin E profile by HPLC-DAD-FLD of oils, cakes and whole seeds Nutritional analysis of cakes and whole seeds Statistical analysis Results and Discussion Oils Oxidative stability Oil colour Peroxide value UV absorbance determination Total phenolic compounds Total flavonoids content FRAP vi

7 Inhibition of DPPH Fatty acid profile Vitamin E profile Cakes and whole seeds Nutritional analysis Total phenolic compounds Total flavonoids content FRAP Inhibition of DPPH Fatty acid profile Vitamin E profile Label compliance Compilation of all obtained results Chia Flax Poppy Sesame Oil yield Conclusion Work presented and published during the Master's course: References vii

8 List of figures Figure 1 - Oxidative stability of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seed oils Figure 2 - Peroxide value of chia, flax, poppy and sesame oils Figure 3 Total phenolic compounds of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seed oils Figure 4 - Total flavonoids content of flax, poppy and sesame seed oils Figure 5 - Antioxidant activity of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seed oils by FRAP assay Figure 6 - Antioxidant activity of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seed oils by inhibition of DPPH assay Figure 7 - Total phenolic compounds of chia, flax, poppy and sesame cakes and whole seeds Figure 8 - Total flavonoids content of chia, flax, poppy and sesame cakes and whole seeds Figure 9 - Antioxidant activity of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds by FRAP assay Figure 10 - Antioxidant activity of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils by DPPH inhibition assay viii

9 List of tables Table 1 Chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils chromatic characteristics Table 2 - UV absorbance determination results for chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils Table 3 - Fatty acid profile of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils obtained by coldpressing Table 4 Chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils fatty acid profile reported in literature Table 5 Vitamin E profile and total vitamin E content of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds oils Table 6 - Nutritional analysis of chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds cakes Table 7 - Nutritional analysis of chia, flax, poppy and sesame whole seeds Table 8 - Chia, flax, poppy and sesame whole seeds fatty acid profile reported in literature Table 9 - Vitamin E profile of chia, flax, poppy and sesame oil extracts from cakes and whole seeds Table 10 - Nutritional information from chia seeds label in comparison to the obtained results Table 11 - Nutritional information from flaxseeds label in comparison to the obtained results Table 12 - Nutritional information from poppy seeds label in comparison to the obtained results Table 13 - Nutritional information from sesame seeds label in comparison to the obtained results Table 14 - All results of chia s oil, cake and whole seed Table 15 - All results of flax s oil, cake and whole seed Table 16 - All results of poppy s oil, cake and whole seed Table 17 - All results for sesame s oil, cake and whole seed Table 18 - Oil content in whole seeds and cakes of chia, flax, poppy and sesame and respective oil yields ix

10 List of abbreviations AA amino acids; ALA α-linolenic acid; DHA docosahexaenoic acid; DNA deoxyribonucleic acid; DPPH 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; dw dry weight; ECE epicatechin equivalents; EPA eicosapentaenoic acid; FA fatty acids, FRAP - ferric reducing antioxidant power; FSE ferrous sulphate equivalents; fw fresh weight; GAE gallic acid equivalents; GC-FID gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector; HPLC-DAD-FLD high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and fluorescence detector; LA linoleic acid; LDL low density lipoprotein; MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids; ND not detected; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; ROS reactive oxygen species; SFA saturated fatty acids; SCFA short chain fatty acids; TAG triacylglycerol; TE trolox equivalents; TEAC trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity; TPTZ 2,4,6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine; UV ultraviolet. x

11 1. Introduction Nowadays, following a healthy lifestyle has a huge impact on people s dietary options, which consequently influences their food shopping choices and cooking methods. Seeds have attained great popularity over recent years, mainly due to their nutritional composition: with high amounts of essential fats and high-quality protein, functioning as a good source of essential amino acids (AA), high insoluble and soluble dietary fibre contents, as well as, vitamins, minerals, polyphenols and other bioactive compounds. These properties allied to the possible health benefits that they may convey, allowed the inclusion of seeds in recipes, either in whole or milled form, or even in their commercially available fractions, such is the case of protein, fibre, cake and oil. Additionally, they are a part of several products, for instance, cookies, biscuits, cereal bars, bread, pastas, yogurts, among others, which are mundanely available and globally consumed (1-4). Nevertheless, some consumers prefer a low-fat intake diet, for instance, in order to lose weight, consequently opting for products with low contents of oil. Therefore, removing the oil portion in seeds by cold-pressing is an adequate way of reducing the oil percentage and obtaining a fraction (cake) richer in dietary fibre and protein, which meets consumer s preferences to ensure health and wellness improvement. By this way the cake, which is a by-product from the oil industry, that sometimes is given as fodder to animals or even discharged, can also be reutilised in the food industry chain. Moreover, the recovered oil can be used in several other ways: for cooking, salad dressing, topical application, medicinal purposes or incorporated in products for cosmetic industry or even in the paint and varnishes industry (5, 6). Currently, consumers search for healthier food options, prioritizing an adequate intake of nutrients with possible therapeutic effects, with an increasing interest in dietary fibre consumption. Therefore, foodstuffs rich in fibre are being more and more incorporated in human diets due to its beneficial health properties. Dietary fibre is a complex group of substances, comprising carbohydrate polymers with 10 or more monomeric units, not hydrolysed by human endogenous enzymes in the small intestine, but fermentable by colonic microflora; they can be synthetic or naturally occurring in food or even carbohydrate polymers obtained from food raw material by physical, enzymatic or chemical methods. There are 3 different types: non-starch polysaccharides (which include cellulose, hemicellulose, gums, pectin and inulin), non-digestible 11

12 oligosaccharides (mucilages, fructo- and galacto-oligosaccharides) and resistant starches (physically trapped, resistant granules and retrograded) (7). The benefits of consuming dietary fibre involve: prolonged gastric emptying and lower rates of starch digestion (associated with viscous soluble fibres); increased stool bulk and laxation; slower intestinal transit time, which allows prevention of constipation and are associated with insoluble dietary fibres, soluble fructans and inulin; attenuation of postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia, because glucose absorption is affected as fibre thickens when mixed with fluids due to its viscosity, some examples are gums, pectins, mainly soluble fibres, arabinoxylan, β-glucans, fructo-oligosaccharides, synthetic carbohydrate analogues (dextrins) and insoluble resistant starches; decrease of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) serum cholesterol levels, since soluble fibres form a viscous layer in the small intestine, increasing gut viscosity, consequently decreasing bile acids reabsorption and increasing their synthesis from cholesterol (β-glucan); and lower blood pressure. Additionally, positive modulation of colonic microbiota (with an increase in fermentation), which is important for host normal digestive function, maturation of immunity, brain development and defence against pathogens. Moreover, it allows weight loss, owing to a decrease in adiposity, higher satiety, due to longer mastication, lower macronutrients exposure to gut wall as nutrients reach further to the distal colon, resulting in appetite hormone changes. Furthermore, it has a beneficial effect on minerals absorption (Ca, Mg and Fe), an antioxidant role, preventing colon cancer (associated to pectin, pectic oligosaccharides, cellulose and lignin resistant starch) (7, 8). However, the different dietary fibre types exert distinct physiological properties, influencing gut microbiota composition, due to its prebiotic role. The manipulation of its metabolic function can prevent/treat diseases and improve health. Its composition is highly dependent on the diet and any alteration, for instance, switching meat consumption to a plant-based food regimen or increasing the intake of total dietary fibre (TDF), will exert a dynamic impact on its abundance and diversity. Therefore, an unbalanced diet may affect the microbiome which has a significant and complex role in human metabolism, leading to a disequilibrium called dysbiosis. Dysbiosis is associated with many diseases pathogenesis, namely allergy, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, liver disease and colon cancer (8, 9). The gastrointestinal microbiota contains tens of trillions of microbial cells, mainly Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These commensal bacteria increase to compete with pathogens, offering protection against them by decreasing the risk of gut infections and by 12

13 enhancing and improving host nutrition and overall health. For example, dietary supplementation with oligofructose and inulin has been effective in increasing Bifidobacteria able to outcompete potential pathogens. Unlike human enzymes which are not able to digest most complex carbohydrates, microbes as, for instance, Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli ferment complex polysaccharides into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), particularly acetate, propionate and butyrate. More functions include energy synthesis for gut wall cells, allowing its differentiation, fermentation of host-produced mucus glycans like mucin, immune system modulation (inducing IgA production and maintaining T cell homeostasis), gene expression modulation, vitamins B and K synthesis, bile acids biotransformation and production of lactate, ethanol, succinate, valerate, caproate, isobutyrate, 2-methyl-butyrate and isovalerate (8, 10-12). The gastrointestinal microbiota-gut-brain axis has been associated to stress-related responses and the long-term diet is a very important modifying factor. Their communication routes are still being investigated, but are thought to involve: hormone signalling, the immune system, the tryptophan metabolism (bioactive indoles production) and microbial metabolites (production of SCFA). Later health is shaped by host genetics and alterations to early life microbiota composition by several environmental influences: infections, antibiotics administration, lack of breastfeeding, C-section birth, among others. It has been implicated in a variety of stress related conditions, such as anxiety, depression and irritable bowel syndrome (13). Nutrition is a major contributor to societies economic growth, with the rapid expansion of human population. Therefore, there is a need for sustainable food production. An improvement of physiologic and technical knowledge would allow the production of affordable foods that promote wellness, specifically understanding microbiota function and how processed food ingredients may impact it and are biotransformed and beneficially utilized by the human body (12). The inclusion of more fruits, vegetables, plant-based food products is recommended, since these foods may offer significant health benefits due to their abundance in micronutrients, particularly, in polyphenols whose antioxidant activity could prevent various disorders, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Polyphenols present a structure with one or more phenol units and are divided into different groups: stilbenes, flavonoids, phenolic acids, lignans, among others. Lignans possess a chemical structure similar to steroids, being classified as phytoestrogens. Their health benefits include a lowered risk of heart disease, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and breast cancer. Nevertheless, the 13

14 type of diet influences the total intake of naturally lignan-rich foods and, consequently, their bioactive properties as human health-promoting molecules. Lignans are present in high concentrations in flax and sesame seeds. Sesaminol is the major lignan in sesame. Moreover in what concerns to lignan bioavailability, after consumption, plant lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria into mammalian lignans (enterolactones and enterodiols) before absorption, what could decrease the risk of colon, prostate and breast cancer (1, 4, 14). The rediscovery of ancient seeds provides new alternatives to the food industry and to consumers. Regarding plant breeding, due to the search for higher yield species, the agriculture model abandoned crops consumed in the past for more productive ones, specially durum and common wheat, what leads to uniformity and possible risk of genetic erosion and diversity loss, threating food security and biodiversity. Therefore, reintroducing ancient species could be a solution to this problem. Old genotypes, even if less productive than the modern ones, are suitable for marginal areas with low-inputs and high-stress conditions. From a nutritional perspective, reintroducing these species in daily diets can act as a fortifying agent with added-value functional properties, providing a wide range of beneficial compounds to foods. Nevertheless, there is a need for updating industrial machinery, so that technological processing methods and food formulations are optimized. Hence ancient grains constitute an alternative that could be included in the present market, plus with the incorporation of new methods and technologies, novel products and blends could be obtained to create new foodstuffs with beneficial impact on human health (15). Another point is that the plant-based by-products, generated from the agro-food sector, are still an important source of biomass and can be used for bioactive peptide production or even used by the pharmaceutical industry (as sources of antibacterial hydrolysates), consequently, leading to waste reduction and valorisation (16). Fruits, vegetables and oilseeds processing produces large amounts of these materials, for instance, peels, seeds and stones. Their disposal causes many management problems further aggravated by legal restrictions. Hence, the use of these wastes as by-products for incorporation in foodstuffs (as food additives and supplements with high nutritional value) has attained great interest due to their bioactivity and high economical value (17). Some of the more currently consumed and available seeds are: chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds which will be discussed below. 14

15 Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.) are an ancient grain from Mexico, Colombia and Guatemala and have been consumed for about 5500 years ago by Maya and Aztec civilizations (18, 19). Its culinary uses vary from the whole seed to its cake, mucilage and oil. The last one has great potential for supplementation and medical uses (20) as it is a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (FA) (21). Recently, in December 2017, in a monography of the United States Pharmacopeia, this oil was regarded as safe for human consumption (3, 22). Chia seed oil can be obtained by different techniques: by seed compression either coldpressing at 4 ºC or komet screw press with electrical resisting heating at ºC; with solvents (by Soxhlet method with n-hexane) or with supercritical fluids, such as carbon dioxide. Each method will favour a different enrichment in the final obtained fractions, either in higher contents of lipids or bioactive compounds (3, 23). Chia seeds recent usage authorisation by the European Parliament as a novel food ingredient, under Regulation (EC) No 258/97 (January 2013) allowed its incorporation in a wide range of food products so they are widely available, which have extensively motivated its consumption to ensure an adequate intake of nutrients (21). Regarding nutritional profile, they have an oil content that can range from 25 to 40% (18, 19) of which 60% is n-3 α-linolenic acid (18:3, ALA) and 20% n-6 linoleic acid (18:2, LA). Both fatty acids are essential, since they cannot be synthetized by the organism (23). ALA can be then converted into essential eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, both able to compete with arachidonic acid in membrane incorporation, inducing an anti-inflammatory response (24). Furthermore the n-6/n-3 ratio is very low (around 0.33), what counterbalances with the European diet rich in n-6 and saturated fatty acids (SFA) (19). The protein fraction (16-26%) is mainly composed by prolamins, glutelins, globulins and albumins. Remarkably, the absence of gluten proteins makes them appropriate for coeliac patients. They provide nine essential AA in appreciable amounts (21), with glutamic acid as the most abundant (19). Likewise they contain all the essential AA for adults, although do not provide sufficient threonine, lysine and leucine for a preschool child (25). The defatted cake is a good source of sulphur-containing, glutamic and aspartic AA (26). The chia seeds dietary fibre content ranges from 23 to 41%, with about 85% corresponding to the insoluble fraction and only 15% attributed to the soluble portion which can be fermented in the large intestine (19). Dietary fibre includes cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, gums, mucilage and other poly- and oligosaccharides from plants (25). 15

16 Their minor composition includes a source of B complex vitamins, namely thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and folic acid, as well as, vitamin C and E (19). In addition, they have macronutrients like Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe, Zn and Se (19, 21). The Ca and K content may be helpful in controlling high blood pressure and Mg may confer antioxidant capacity enhancement (18). They are also rich in antioxidant compounds, such as chlorogenic and caffeic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, phytosterols, carotenoids, tocopherols and other phenolic compounds (19, 21). In a study which analysed chia seeds, they were free of mycotoxins and had metal levels within safe limits. Nevertheless, their composition will be dependent on the climate and cultivation region of the plant (18). Another relevant characteristic is their emulsifying properties, since when hydrated they form a polysaccharide gel, functioning as a stabilizer, texturizing and thickening agent which can be very useful in the food processing industry. The oil and the cake are already being industrially added to numerous products (18, 19, 21). The intrinsic ability of chia seeds to form a hydrogel with simultaneous moisture-retention and slow releasing capability is due to the formation of a nanoscale three-dimensional network. In contact with water, there are bundles of fibres (with diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm) which emanate from the seed coat and form the network (27). Furthermore these seeds have been correlated with several health benefits: triglyceride and cholesterol decrease, resulting in lower blood pressure and lower risk of heart-related diseases; antidiabetic, cardio and hepatic protective activities (redistributing lipids in the organism, specially away from visceral fat and liver); protection against arthritis, autoimmune diseases and cancer (3, 23, 28). Flaxseed or linseed is the seed from the annual herb plant Linum usitatissimum, from the Linaceae family, which is able to thrive in deep humid soils with sand, silt and clay. This species is native from the eastern Mediterranean, passing through Western Asia, the Middle East and India. There are two varieties: brown and golden flaxseeds. It has been cultivated in Mesopotamia since 5000 BC and used for textiles and paper manufacture until the nineties. Today it is grown in India, China, United States, Ethiopia and Canada (the world s largest producer) (29). Flaxseeds have a high oil content (35-45%) and also high quality digestible protein (20-30%), dietary fibre (10-22%), lignans (a class of phytoestrogens), β-carotenes and phenolic compounds (30, 31). The FA profile of flaxseeds is comprised by 5-6% of palmitic acid 16

17 (16:0), 3-6% of stearic acid (18:0), 19-29% of oleic acid (18:1 n-9), 14-18% of LA (18:2 n- 6) and 45-52% of ALA (18:3 n-3). On the whole, these seeds have low saturated fat (9% of total FA), a moderate monounsaturated fat content (18%) and are rich in polyunsaturated fat (73%) (30). Another study reported that flaxseed oil contains 50-62% of ALA (32). Apart from its nutritional purposes, it is also suitable for oleochemical uses, incorporation into cosmetic formulations and in the paint industry (33). In flaxseed, the total nitrogen content is 3.25 g/100 g of seed, where 21.7% of it corresponds to the non-protein nitrogen. They contain a relatively high amount of glutamic acid and arginine, being lysine the most limiting AA. Proteins at 8% level of intake possess high digestibility coefficients (89.6%) and biological value (77.4%) (30). Flaxseed meal is reach in crude, acid detergent, neutral detergent and total fibres, such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The proportion of soluble to insoluble fibre varies between 20:80 and 40:60. The major insoluble fibre fraction is composed by cellulose and lignin, while in the soluble fibre fractions are the mucilage gums (30). The rheological behaviour of gums extracted from different genotypes and colours of flaxseed were evaluated. The differences in the chemical composition and structure of its polysaccharides were determined by 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and monosaccharide analysis. Overall, the gums with a higher content of arabinoxylans, which are neutral polysaccharides, showed shear thinning flow behaviour and weak gel-like properties. On the contrary, gums with higher amounts of acidic polysaccharides, such as rhamnose and galacturonic acid, exhibited weaker rheological properties characteristic of a viscoelastic fluid. Gums extracted from brown seeds exhibited weaker rheological properties in comparison to those from golden seeds (34). Flaxseed mucilage is retrieved from fully ripe dried flaxseed, representing 8% of its weight, it is a heterogeneous polysaccharide which consists of 75% neutral arabinoxylan (contains xylose, arabinose and galactose) and 25% rhamnogalacturonan (L-rhamnose, D- galactose, D-galacturonic and L-fucose acid). It has nutritive value as a dietary fibre with gelling properties, reducing blood glucose and cholesterol and has a role in protecting from heart disease and colorectal cancer, due to its high viscosity in aqueous solution with good water-holding and swelling capacity. It also has pharmaceutical applications, owing to mucoadhesion properties through the formation of disulphide bonds between thiomers and cysteine rich sub-domain of mucus, allowing drugs to reach specific target sites (35). 17

18 Flaxseed cake is rich in mucilage/dietary fibre, that can be extracted in alkaline aqueous solution (ph 12) by centrifugation to collect the supernatant, when freeze, spray or vacuum dried creates a stable powder product used as a food thickening and emulsifying agent or in pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses. Moreover, it is a fibre source in human nutrition, functioning as a prebiotic for maintaining the healthy growth of the gut flora. It can be included in fermented dairy products to enhance lactic acid bacteria growth and the product texture. In vivo studies showed anti-ulcer (significant reduction of gastric ulcers number and length induced by ethanol in rats) and anti-tumour activities, owing to antioxidant properties of poly- or oligosaccharides and anti-radical activity of saccharides, preventing protein, lipid and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oxidation. Also chitooligosaccharides have antimicrobial properties against pathogenic bacteria and fungi (36). Flaxseed is an appreciable natural phenolic compounds source, namely lignans, flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenylpropanoids and tannins. These antioxidant compounds have antidiabetic, antihypertensive, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. The main lignans are phytoestrogens, which application and consumption in food products is controversial since they function as endocrine disruptors (37). However, lignans have also been described as anti-carcinogenic compounds. In combination with the n-3 FA, they may provide benefits in a wide range of health conditions and allow chemo-protection in animals and humans (30). As a source of ALA, flaxseeds consumption can also present anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic and antiarrhythmic properties (32). Poppy seeds present either white, yellow, grey or blue colouration (38) and derive from Papaver somniferum, a plant whose cultivation covers a world-wide geographic area from Bombay to Moscow in the north hemisphere to Tanzania in the southern one (39). In Europe, these seeds are used in culinary as toppings for dishes and in baking and pastry, sprinkled on rolls and bread. Their oil is also consumed as a salad dressing (6). The proximate composition of poppy seeds is: protein (211 g/kg), moisture (50 g/kg), ash (63 g/kg), crude fibre (62 g/kg) and total carbohydrates (236 g/kg). The predominant elements were K and Ca. In poppy seed oil, the amounts of α, β and δ tocopherols were, respectively, 220, 40 and 20 μg/g. The main water soluble vitamin was pantothenic acid, followed by niacin and thiamin (40). The oil content in poppy seeds varies between 33 and 49%. Poppy seed oil exhibits properties comparable to those of sunflower and olive oils, showing great potential for 18

19 human consumption. Even samples from the same region presented significant differences in their FA content: lauric acid (0-13.4%), palmitic acid ( %), myristic acid (0-1.1%), stearic acid ( %), oleic acid ( %), LA ( %) and ALA (traces-9.4%). Different contents will correspond to different oil organoleptic characteristics, especially a bitter off-flavour owed to lipoxygenase action on the seed surface. Despite that, generally it has a good flavour allowing it to be used for cooking or medicinal purposes. It is also used in industry, incorporated in soaps, paints and varnishes (39). The main volatile compounds of poppy seed s oil were analysed by solid phase microextraction with divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane Stable-Flex fibre: 1- Pentanol ( %), 1-hexanal ( %), 1-hexanol ( %), 2-pentylfuran ( %) and caproic acid ( %) were determined. Additionally, the triacylglycerol (TAG) composition analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionisation coupled to mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), described linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids as more than 70% of the total TAG content (39). The limiting AA of a protein concentrate prepared from a poppy seed meal (obtained by hydraulic pressing) by alkaline water extraction followed by iso-electric precipitation of protein was lysine (41). Their proteins were rich in aspartic and glutamic acids and arginine (42). Poppy seeds contain secondary metabolites like alkaloids and phenylpropanoids. The flavonoid content in their extracts comprises mainly flavonols (kaempferol, quercetin and rutin) and isoflavones (2-methoxyformononetin and dihydroxyisoflavon). They also contain phytosterols, such as β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and 5-avenasterol. Moreover, they contain tocopherols, mainly γ-tocopherol, followed by α-tocopherol and traces of plastochromanol (43). Nearly half of the alkaloid content is morphine, the other half contains 30 other alkaloids, the most common are: narcotine (5%), papaverine (1%), codeine (0.5%) and thebaine (0.15%). Therefore it has exceptional medicinal significance (44). Nevertheless, poppy seeds by themselves hardly contain any opium alkaloids, but they can suffer contamination from the latex by poor harvesting practices, insect damage or use of poppy seeds as by-products of pharmaceutical production. The latex presents predominantly phenanthrene derivatives: morphine, codeine and thebaine which are the most toxic opium alkaloids. Consumption of contaminated poppy seeds can be detected in drug abuse testing with measurable concentrations of free morphine in blood and urine, leading to adverse health effects particularly in babies, infants, elders and susceptible 19

20 people. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is the most efficient method for routine analysis since does not require sample preparation and it is specific, avoiding matrix interferences and separation problems (45). Currently, there is still no harmonised European legislation on opium alkaloids in poppy seeds for food purposes, but in 2011, the European Food Safety Authority established an acute reference dose of 10 μg morphine/kg, since occurrence data showed that morphine was the major alkaloid found in poppy samples, in concentrations up to 630 mg/kg. Nevertheless, in bakery products and ingredients, food processing (the most effective methods are soaking, heat treatment and grinding) decreases the alkaloid content in 10%. Furthermore, in 2014, the European Commission published a recommendation on good practices to prevent/reduce the presence of these substances in poppy seeds and products (45). Sesame seeds derive from the annual plant Sesamum indicum which is cultivated mainly in India, China, Myanmar, Sudan, Mexico, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Guatemala and Egypt (46, 47). Sesame seeds play an important role in human nutrition, being used essentially for oil production, paste production (tehineh) and in food formulations, such as Halaweh (sweetened tehineh), java beans and salads. The chemical composition reveals this seed as an important oil source (44-58%), protein (18-25%), carbohydrates ( 13.5%) and ash ( 5%). Halaweh is obtained after mixing the white tehineh (white sesame seed dehulled, roasted and ground), saponin (Saponaria officinalis) and Nougat (heat-treated sucrose). The sesame coat is a by-product of Halaweh manufacture which is recovered and can be valuably added to other products or used in animal feeding (48). The sesame seed oil contains 43% PUFA and 40% MUFA, protein (49), carbohydrates, considerable amounts of vitamin E (40 mg/100 g oil), several lignans (sesamin, episesamin, sesamol and sesamolin), which are effective antioxidants (50, 51). Particularly sesamin is a fat-soluble lignin and a furofuran type lignin, having been associated with hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-estrogenic and anti-cancer properties, potential in Parkinson's disease treatment and anti-atherogenic effects due to the modulation of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis (52). Its lignans content evidenced cholesterol-lowering effects and hypertension in humans, as well as, vitamin E supplies increase in animals (51). Sesame oil has pleasant aroma, colour, taste and other quality properties, allowing it to be used in salads, soups, forcemeat and appetizers. It shows a remarkable stability to 20

21 oxidation due to the presence of antioxidants: lignans (including sesamolin, sesamin, and sesamol), phytosterols and tocopherols. Its quantity and quality are dependent on ecological, genetics and physiological factors, such as climate, soil type, cultivars and maturity of the plant (47, 51). For instance, the unsaponifiable matter extracted from sesame seed increased the stability of sunflower oil when added to it, what is even higher with the unsaponifiable matter extracted from roasted sesame seeds. This effect can be attributed to sesamol formation, during sesamolin decomposition, in the roasting process, as well as, other minor compounds such as squalene and anti-polymerisation components, mostly sterols. However, oxidative stability of sesame oil is higher in the oil extracted from coated seeds than in extractions from dehulled seeds. An ethanolic extract obtained from sesame coat was assessed and evidenced an antioxidant activity similar to tocopherol using a linoleic acid model system. White and black sesame seeds and respective coat fractions also showed considerable antioxidant activity, especially black sesame coats (48). Sesame seeds are also an excellent source of Cu and Ca, being also rich in P, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and vitamin B1 (51). Concerning its AA composition, the sesame protein isolate had a total AA content of g/100 g, with 7.57 g leucine, 4.85 g isoleucine, 5.06 g lysine, 2.02 g methionine and cysteine, g phenylalanine and tyrosine, 1.25 g tryptophan, 4.85 g threonine, 5.44 g valine and 2.25 g/100g of histidine. All of them meet the daily AA requirements since infancy to adulthood, apart from lysine which is not enough for an infant, nor methionine and cysteine which are insufficient for an infant or a preschool child. The high value of the in vitro protein digestibility evidences that the sesame protein isolate has applications as an ingredient in the enrichment of foodstuffs, particularly to provide sufficient protein intake to children in developing countries, which is a major health challenge (49). The consumption of sesame seeds and their derivatives is associated with cardiovascular health, presenting positive effects in blood pressure parameters and lipid profile in patients with hypertension or dyslipidaemia (53), besides it has also been related to cholesterol-lowering effects (50). Not only it plays an important role in human nutrition, but sesame also has medicinal (mildly laxative, emollient and demulcent), pharmaceutical, industrial, agricultural and culinary uses (in bakery products and oil production, either raw or roasted seeds). Furthermore, sesame seed oil can be used in margarine production and incorporated in cooking oils. Regarding the oil, research has been conducted and in vitro growth of malignant melanoma and human colon cancer cells proliferation were both inhibited. Moreover, it penetrates into the skin quickly, neutralizing oxygen radicals in tissues and 21

22 entering the blood stream through the capillaries. It is also a useful natural ultraviolet (UV) protector, it was able to kill lice infestations in children s hair, since sesamin provides bactericide and insecticide activities. Sesamolin also has insecticidal properties and can be used to act synergistically in pyrethrum insecticides (51). 2. Aim and Objectives The aim of this work was to valorise the by-products from the oil extraction process from chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds by performing an overall chemical analysis, in order to meet consumer s demands and preference for diets with low-fat contents. Moreover, the chemical profile of the oils was evaluated to assess their nutritional value. As the whole seeds are commonly available and currently consumed, they were also analysed. Furthermore, the specific objectives were: - To compare the 3 products analysed (oils, cakes and whole seeds) and the 4 samples (chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds); - To valorise the cakes as ingredients for innovative food products; - To verify the whole seeds label compliance. 3. Materials and Methods 3.1. Chemicals Ethanol (C 2H 5OH) was purchased from AGA. Sulphuric acid (H 2SO 4) was purchased from Honeywell. Boric acid (H 3BO 3) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) were purchased from Chem-lab. Anhydrous sodium sulphate (Na 2SO 4), di-potassium hydrogen phosphate (K 2HPO 4 for phosphate buffer), n-hexane (C 6H 14), hydrochloric acid (HCl), isooctane (C 8H 18), sodium thiosulphate (Na 2S 2O 3) and Kjeldahl tablets were purchased from Merck. Glacial acetic acid (CH 3COOH), petroleum ether, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH 2PO 4 for phosphate buffer) and sand were purchased from VWR. 22

23 Chloroform (CHCl 3), acetone (C 3H 6O), methanol (CH₃OH) and ethanol absolute were purchased from Fisher Chemical. Gallic acid (C 7H 6O 5), Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, sodium carbonate (Na 2CO 3), aluminium chloride (AlCl 3), DPPH solution, trolox, epicatechin (C 15H 14O 6), sodium nitrite (NaNO 2), ferrous sulphate (FeSO 4), potassium iodide (KI), FRAP solution (acetate buffer, TPTZ solution and ferric chloride), fibre enzymes kit (α-amylase, protease and amyloglucosidase) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. All other chemicals used were analytical grade Samples The samples of whole chia, flax, poppy and sesame seeds were obtained in a local market, in Spain. The countries of origin of the seeds were: Peru and Bolivia for chia, Kazajistan, UK, Germany, Canada or USA for flax, Czech Republic for poppy and India and Uganda for sesame. The respective oil and cake fractions were obtained by seed compression with cold-pressing at 4 ºC in a hydraulic press (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos y de Montes, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain) Samples preparation Initially, the whole seeds and cakes were vacuum-sealed and stored at 4 ºC. The oils were stored in amber containers and submitted to a nitrogen stream to prevent oxidation. Before analysis, the whole seeds were ground in a model GM200 GrindoMix from Retsch Lipid fraction extraction In order to assess the vitamin E profile, the lipidic fraction of the whole seeds and cakes were prepared according to the method of Alves et al., 2009 (54). The amount of sample to weight to a 15 ml Falcon tube (tube 1) was calculated to obtain a total fat content of 10%. 75 µl of BHT 0.1% (m/v), 50 µl of tocol 0.1 mg/ml (internal standard) and 1 ml of absolute ethanol were added. The solution was vortexed for 2 min and 2 ml of n-hexane (HPLC grade) were added. The solution was vortexed for 5 min and placed in constant agitation for 30 min. 1 ml of NaCl 1% (m/v) was added and vortexed for 2 min. It was centrifuged at 23

24 5000 rpm for 5 min (Heraeus Labofuge A, Hanau, Germany) and the supernatant was transferred to a new Falcon tube (tube 2) and stored. 2 ml of n-hexane (HPLC grade) were added to tube 1, vortexed and placed in agitation for more 30 min. It was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min and the supernatant was transferred to tube 2 in order to mix both organic phases from the previous two extractions. Anhydrous sulphate was added and it was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 5 min and the supernatant (organic phase) was transferred to a new Falcon tube (tube 3). The solution was concentrated in nitrogen stream until 1 ml of total volume and centrifuged rpm for 5 min. Then, 800 µl of the supernatant were transferred to an amber injection vial Phytochemicals extraction The phytochemicals extraction from cakes and whole seeds were performed using 25 ml of 80:20 methanol/water and 1 g of sample with agitation for 1 hour, at 40 ºC, for further analysis (TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity assays). The compounds extraction from the oil samples were performed using the method described by Capannesi et al., Briefly, 2.5 ml of n-hexane were added to 2.5 g of oil; the solution was vortexed for 1 min; then, it was added 2.5 ml of methanol:water 80:20 (V/V) and vortexed for 1 min; the solution was centrifuged at 5000 rpm, for 5 min (Heraeus Labofuge A, Hanau, Germany) and the hydroalcoholic solution was retrieved to a 10 ml tube. The previous steps described were repeated 3 times and the supernatants mixed. Finally, the total hydroalcoholic solution was centrifuged at 5000 rpm, for 5 min being the remaining fat discharged. The extract was used for phytochemicals and antioxidant assessment (55) Oils chemical characterization Oxidative stability The oxidative stability, expressed as oxidation induction time (hours), was determined by the Rancimat method (Szydłowska-Czerniak, 2010) (56) with a model 892 from Metrohm Nordic ApS (Glostrup, Denmark). The tests were carried out with 3.0 ± 0.1 g of oil at 120 ºC, with an air flow of 20 L/h. 24

25 Oil colour Oil colour was evaluated following the method from NP-937, 1987: Edible fats and oils - Oils colour determination and their chromatic characteristics. It consists in the determination of transmittance values at 445, 495, 560, 595 and 625 nm of the sample solution, in a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV Spectrophotometer UV-1800) (57) Peroxide value The peroxide value was determined following the method reported by Kaleem et al., 2015 (58) and the NP-904 (1987) (59). Briefly, around 0.5 g of sample and 10 ml of chloroform was added to 15 ml of glacial acetic acid. Then 1 ml of saturated potassium iodide solution was added. The mixture was shaken for one minute and stored for 5 min in the dark. After that, 75 ml of deionised water were added. The mixture was titrated with sodium thiosulphate (0.01 N) until the yellow colour of the reactant has almost disappeared. Five drops of starch solution (1%) were added, giving a light blue colour. The mixture was titrated again until the light blue colour cleared out UV absorbance determination The products of primary oxidation and secondary oxidation were read at 232 and 266 nm, respectively, in a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV Spectrophotometer UV-1800), following the ISO 3656: Animal and vegetable fats and oils - Determination of ultraviolet absorbance expressed as specific UV extinction (60). The absorbance values at 266, 270 and 274 nm were also determined in order to calculate the variation absorbance coefficient Fatty acids profile by GC-FID The FA profile was obtained using a gas chromatograph coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) after derivatization to FA methyl esters according to the ISO :2011 (61). Briefly, around 15 mg of oil were vigorously mixed with 3 ml of n-hexane. 25

Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste Guarapuava PR Reconhecida pelo Decreto Estadual n 3.444/97 PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOENERGIA

Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste Guarapuava PR Reconhecida pelo Decreto Estadual n 3.444/97 PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOENERGIA Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste Guarapuava PR Reconhecida pelo Decreto Estadual n 3.444/97 PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM BIOENERGIA NOME: DATA: 31/10/2016 TESTE DE PROFICIÊNCIA EM INGLÊS APLICADO

Leia mais

VITAMINA C, CAROTENÓIDES E FENÓLICOS TOTAIS DURANTE A MANIPULAÇÃO E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE FRUTAS EM RESTAURANTE COMERCIAL

VITAMINA C, CAROTENÓIDES E FENÓLICOS TOTAIS DURANTE A MANIPULAÇÃO E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE FRUTAS EM RESTAURANTE COMERCIAL DANIELA DA SILVA OLIVEIRA VITAMINA C, CAROTENÓIDES E FENÓLICOS TOTAIS DURANTE A MANIPULAÇÃO E DISTRIBUIÇÃO DE FRUTAS EM RESTAURANTE COMERCIAL Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como

Leia mais

JOSÉ RICARDO SANCHEZ FILHO ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE VOLUNTARY OFFER OF THE BID RULE ON STOCKS LISTED IN THE BRAZILIAN STOCK EXCHANGE

JOSÉ RICARDO SANCHEZ FILHO ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE VOLUNTARY OFFER OF THE BID RULE ON STOCKS LISTED IN THE BRAZILIAN STOCK EXCHANGE UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO DE JANEIRO INSTITUTO COPPEAD DE ADMINISTRAÇÃO JOSÉ RICARDO SANCHEZ FILHO ANALYSIS OF THE LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THE VOLUNTARY OFFER OF THE BID RULE ON STOCKS LISTED IN THE BRAZILIAN

Leia mais

Service quality in restaurants: an experimental analysis performed in Brazil

Service quality in restaurants: an experimental analysis performed in Brazil . XIII INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Energy that moves production: a dialogue among integration, project and sustainability 09-11 October 2007 Service quality

Leia mais

Lucas de Assis Soares, Luisa Nunes Ramaldes, Taciana Toledo de Almeida Albuquerque, Neyval Costa Reis Junior. São Paulo, 2013

Lucas de Assis Soares, Luisa Nunes Ramaldes, Taciana Toledo de Almeida Albuquerque, Neyval Costa Reis Junior. São Paulo, 2013 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION MODELS AND THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF AIR QUALITY IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF GRANDE VITÓRIA Lucas de Assis Soares, Luisa Nunes Ramaldes, Taciana Toledo de

Leia mais

SOLOS SOB VITICULTURA NO VALE DOS VINHEDOS (RS) E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O TEOR DE RESVERATROL EM VINHOS PEDRINHO SPIGOLON QUÍMICO -PUCRS

SOLOS SOB VITICULTURA NO VALE DOS VINHEDOS (RS) E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O TEOR DE RESVERATROL EM VINHOS PEDRINHO SPIGOLON QUÍMICO -PUCRS SOLOS SOB VITICULTURA NO VALE DOS VINHEDOS (RS) E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O TEOR DE RESVERATROL EM VINHOS PEDRINHO SPIGOLON QUÍMICO -PUCRS SOLOS SOB VITICULTURA NO VALE DOS VINHEDOS (RS) E SUA RELAÇÃO COM 0

Leia mais

_Sementes edíveis: composição em ácidos gordos e impacto na saúde

_Sementes edíveis: composição em ácidos gordos e impacto na saúde Instituto Nacional de Saúde, IP _Promoção de uma Alimentação saudável _ edíveis: composição em ácidos gordos e impacto na saúde Edible seeds: fatty acids composition and potential health impact Tânia Gonçalves

Leia mais

Lipídios e Membranas

Lipídios e Membranas Lipídios e Membranas Fórmula geral de triglicerídeos Gorduras E outros derivados Glicerol + H3PO4 X= açúcar Fluidez, Força para não romper, Permeabildade Fusão ~50 nm!!! Como deve ser a permeabilidade

Leia mais

Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. Controlo de TCA e outros off-flavours na Cortiça. Relatório de Estágio. Ana Leonor da Costa Vila Mendes

Instituto Politécnico de Tomar. Controlo de TCA e outros off-flavours na Cortiça. Relatório de Estágio. Ana Leonor da Costa Vila Mendes Instituto Politécnico de Tomar Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Tomar Controlo de TCA e outros off-flavours na Cortiça Relatório de Estágio Ana Leonor da Costa Vila Mendes Mestrado em Tecnologia Química

Leia mais

BRUNO MEIRELES XAVIER

BRUNO MEIRELES XAVIER BRUNO MEIRELES XAVIER Fermentação de soro de queijo por bactérias produtoras de ácido propiônico isoladas do rúmen de bovinos e efeitos nos parâmetros de fermentação ruminal in vitro. Tese apresentada

Leia mais

Azeite Virgem Extra 500ml

Azeite Virgem Extra 500ml Azeitona galega Este azeite é extraído da azeitona Galega, uma das variedades mais antigas, que lhe confere um sabor adocicado, notando-se a ausência de sabor amargo e picante. O nosso Lagar trabalha com

Leia mais

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS.

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS. 1 2 3 4 5 Confira se os dados contidos na parte inferior desta capa estão corretos e, em seguida, assine no espaço reservado para isso. Se, em qualquer outro local deste Caderno, você assinar, rubricar,

Leia mais

CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE FARINHAS DE DIFERENTES GENÓTIPOS DE SORGO E EFEITO DA PANIFICAÇÃO NOS TEORES DE AMIDO RESISTENTE E ANTIOXIDANTES

CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE FARINHAS DE DIFERENTES GENÓTIPOS DE SORGO E EFEITO DA PANIFICAÇÃO NOS TEORES DE AMIDO RESISTENTE E ANTIOXIDANTES Universidade de Brasília Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde Departamento de nutrição Programa de Pós-Graduação em Nutrição Humana Guilherme Theodoro de Oliveira CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE FARINHAS DE DIFERENTES GENÓTIPOS

Leia mais

daily activity into three 10-minute segments if you re having difficulty finding time to exercise.

daily activity into three 10-minute segments if you re having difficulty finding time to exercise. Atividade extra Questão 01 http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/gin%c3%a1stica Get more physical activity. Within two months of starting, frequent aerobic exercise can increase HDL cholesterol by about 5 percent

Leia mais

GILSON IRINEU DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR

GILSON IRINEU DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR GILSON IRINEU DE OLIVEIRA JUNIOR INFLUÊNCIA DO RESÍDUO FIBROSO DA MOAGEM DE MILHO MICROPULVERIZADO NA BIODISPONIBILIDADE DE FERRO, ZINCO E CÁLCIO EM RATOS Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal

Leia mais

Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016

Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016 Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016 Instruções aos candidatos: (1) Preencher somente o número de inscrição em todas as folhas. (2) Usar caneta preta ou azul. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Leia mais

PRODUÇÁO DE GOMA XANTANA UTILIZANDO CASCA DE SOJA COMO SUBSTRATO: CULTIVO SUBMERSO E CULTIVO SEMI-SÓLIDO' RESUMO

PRODUÇÁO DE GOMA XANTANA UTILIZANDO CASCA DE SOJA COMO SUBSTRATO: CULTIVO SUBMERSO E CULTIVO SEMI-SÓLIDO' RESUMO PRODUÇÁO DE GOMA XANTANA UTILIZANDO CASCA DE SOJA COMO SUBSTRATO: CULTIVO SUBMERSO E CULTIVO SEMI-SÓLIDO' Autor: Willian José Varela Orientador: Prof. Plinho Francisco Hertz RESUMO A goma xantana continua

Leia mais

DESENVOLVIMENTO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE BISCOITOS COM FARINHA MISTA EXTRUDADA DE ARROZ INTEGRAL E FEIJÃO PRETO

DESENVOLVIMENTO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE BISCOITOS COM FARINHA MISTA EXTRUDADA DE ARROZ INTEGRAL E FEIJÃO PRETO UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO ESPÍRITO SANTO CENTRO DE CIÊNCIAS DA SAÚDE PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM NUTRIÇÃO E SAÚDE GLEICYANE DE ALMEIDA MARQUES DESENVOLVIMENTO E CARACTERIZAÇÃO DE BISCOITOS COM FARINHA MISTA

Leia mais

ALINE DIAS PAIVA PRODUÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS POLICLONAIS PARA DETECÇÃO DE BOVICINA HC5 POR ENSAIOS IMUNOENZIMÁTICOS

ALINE DIAS PAIVA PRODUÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS POLICLONAIS PARA DETECÇÃO DE BOVICINA HC5 POR ENSAIOS IMUNOENZIMÁTICOS ALINE DIAS PAIVA PRODUÇÃO DE ANTICORPOS POLICLONAIS PARA DETECÇÃO DE BOVICINA HC5 POR ENSAIOS IMUNOENZIMÁTICOS Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como parte das exigências do Programa

Leia mais

A dança do corpo vestido: Um estudo do desenvolvimento do figurino de balé clássico até o século XIX (Portuguese Edition)

A dança do corpo vestido: Um estudo do desenvolvimento do figurino de balé clássico até o século XIX (Portuguese Edition) A dança do corpo vestido: Um estudo do desenvolvimento do figurino de balé clássico até o século XIX (Portuguese Edition) Francisca Dantas Mendes Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically

Leia mais

MASTER S DEGREE IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ADMISSION EXAM

MASTER S DEGREE IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ADMISSION EXAM CADERNO DE QUESTÕES NOTA FINAL MASTER S DEGREE IN INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ADMISSION EXAM Before reading the text, pay attention to these important and essential remarks. All the answers must be written in

Leia mais

De: Sociedade Vegetariana Brasileira (SVB) Para: CRN- 4 Conselho Regional de Nutrição 4ª Região

De: Sociedade Vegetariana Brasileira (SVB) Para: CRN- 4 Conselho Regional de Nutrição 4ª Região São Paulo, 18 de novembro de 2013. De: Sociedade Vegetariana Brasileira (SVB) Para: CRN- 4 Conselho Regional de Nutrição 4ª Região Solicitação de Providências a respeito de conduta de profissional associada

Leia mais

São Paulo, 18 de novembro de 2013.

São Paulo, 18 de novembro de 2013. São Paulo, 18 de novembro de 2013. Ao CONAR Conselho de Auto-Regulamentação Publicitária Avenida Paulista, nº 2073, Edifício Horsa II, 18º andar Conjunto Nacional São Paulo SP 01311-940 Ref.: Denúncia

Leia mais

DUTOPLAST DO BRASIL INDÚSTRIA DE PLÁSTICOS LTDA.

DUTOPLAST DO BRASIL INDÚSTRIA DE PLÁSTICOS LTDA. À DUTOPLAST DO BRASIL INDÚSTRIA DE PLÁSTICOS LTDA. Rua São Teodoro, 862 Itaquera São Paulo / SP CEP. 08.290-000 N/ REF. : CBB 2170440/2007 Candeias/BA, 23 de abril de 2007 At.: Sra. Rosy Cristina Ref.:

Leia mais

Produção de biocombustíveis líquidos por pirólise seguida de hidrogenação de óleos alimentares usados

Produção de biocombustíveis líquidos por pirólise seguida de hidrogenação de óleos alimentares usados UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA GEOGRÁFICA, GEOFÍSICA E ENERGIA Produção de biocombustíveis líquidos por pirólise seguida de hidrogenação de óleos alimentares usados

Leia mais

As 100 melhores piadas de todos os tempos (Portuguese Edition)

As 100 melhores piadas de todos os tempos (Portuguese Edition) As 100 melhores piadas de todos os tempos (Portuguese Edition) Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically As 100 melhores piadas de todos os tempos (Portuguese Edition) As 100 melhores piadas

Leia mais

REAPLICAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO NO SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO CONSOLIDADO. ANTONIO SERGIO DO AMARAL Eng. Agr. (UDESC)

REAPLICAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO NO SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO CONSOLIDADO. ANTONIO SERGIO DO AMARAL Eng. Agr. (UDESC) REAPLICAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO NO SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO CONSOLIDADO ANTONIO SERGIO DO AMARAL Eng. Agr. (UDESC) REAPLICAÇÃO DE CALCÁRIO EM SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO CONSOLIDADO" Autor: Antonio Sergio do Amaral

Leia mais

Curso Completo de Memorização (Portuguese Edition)

Curso Completo de Memorização (Portuguese Edition) Curso Completo de Memorização (Portuguese Edition) Silvio Luiz Matos Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Curso Completo de Memorização (Portuguese Edition) Silvio Luiz Matos Curso Completo

Leia mais

Vaporpunk - A fazenda-relógio (Portuguese Edition)

Vaporpunk - A fazenda-relógio (Portuguese Edition) Vaporpunk - A fazenda-relógio (Portuguese Edition) Octavio Aragão Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Vaporpunk - A fazenda-relógio (Portuguese Edition) Octavio Aragão Vaporpunk - A

Leia mais

COMPOSIÇÃO DA PAREDE CELULAR DOS FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS Pisolithus microcarpus e Pisolithus tinctorius

COMPOSIÇÃO DA PAREDE CELULAR DOS FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS Pisolithus microcarpus e Pisolithus tinctorius MATHEUS LOUREIRO SANTOS COMPOSIÇÃO DA PAREDE CELULAR DOS FUNGOS ECTOMICORRÍZICOS Pisolithus microcarpus e Pisolithus tinctorius Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como parte das

Leia mais

Atividade extra. Questão 01. Lingua Estrangeira Inglês

Atividade extra. Questão 01. Lingua Estrangeira Inglês Atividade extra Questão 01 http://www.sxc.hu/photo/1406799 We hear a list of problems affecting the environment almost every day: pollution, acid rain, global warming, and the destruction of rain forest,

Leia mais

Introdução A Delphi Com Banco De Dados Firebird (Portuguese Edition)

Introdução A Delphi Com Banco De Dados Firebird (Portuguese Edition) Introdução A Delphi Com Banco De Dados Firebird (Portuguese Edition) Ricardo De Moraes / André Luís De Souza Silva Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Introdução A Delphi Com Banco

Leia mais

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS. 8 Utilize para rascunhos o verso de cada página deste Caderno.

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS. 8 Utilize para rascunhos o verso de cada página deste Caderno. 1 2 3 4 5 Confira se os dados contidos na parte inferior desta capa estão corretos e, em seguida, assine no espaço reservado para isso. Se, em qualquer outro local deste Caderno, você assinar, rubricar,

Leia mais

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto Introdução à Medicina 1.º ano 2005/2006 Home monitoring for heart failure Systematic review Which type of monitoring (home monitoring/ health care system

Leia mais

International Conference on Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs (ICORD) ANTONIO CARLOS DA COSTA BEZERRA May 20-22

International Conference on Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs (ICORD) ANTONIO CARLOS DA COSTA BEZERRA May 20-22 International Conference on Rare Diseases and Orphan Drugs (ICORD) General Office of Drugs/ANVISA ANTONIO CARLOS DA COSTA BEZERRA May 20-22 22 GGMED Technical Assistance ANVISA S S MANDATE To protect and

Leia mais

International Conference: The Cultural Heritage of the Mediterranean Diet 9 th May 2017 University of Algarve Gambelas Portugal

International Conference: The Cultural Heritage of the Mediterranean Diet 9 th May 2017 University of Algarve Gambelas Portugal International Conference: The Cultural Heritage of the 9 th May 2017 University of Algarve Gambelas Portugal a key feature of the Universidade do Algarve, Portugal The is based on three pillars: bread,

Leia mais

Potencial da Telemedicina Dentária no diagnóstico oral infantil

Potencial da Telemedicina Dentária no diagnóstico oral infantil Potencial da Telemedicina Dentária no diagnóstico oral infantil ( RESUMO / ABSTRACT) Rui José de Oliveira Amável Morais 2010 Mestrado de Informática Médica Faculdade de Ciências Faculdade de Medicina Universidade

Leia mais

UFS Productspecification

UFS Productspecification Page 1 of 5 Informação Geral Descrição Creme vegetal para barrar a 55% Exemption Flags Nome do Produto Exempt from Artwork Exempt from NEP Reporting Portugal País Planta Marca Nome do Produto Creme vegetal

Leia mais

Certificação PMP: Alinhado com o PMBOK Guide 5ª edição (Portuguese Edition)

Certificação PMP: Alinhado com o PMBOK Guide 5ª edição (Portuguese Edition) Certificação PMP: Alinhado com o PMBOK Guide 5ª edição (Portuguese Edition) Armando Monteiro Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Certificação PMP: Alinhado com o PMBOK Guide 5ª edição

Leia mais

Study to improve the screening process of bauxite at Votorantim Metals unit Miraí

Study to improve the screening process of bauxite at Votorantim Metals unit Miraí Study to improve the screening process of bauxite at Votorantim Metals unit Miraí Tiago F. de Souza, Caroline C. Gonçalves, Carlos Eduardo V. de Castro & Everton M. Dias Votorantim Votorantim is one of

Leia mais

ESTUDO DO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE AÇO CARBONITRETADO EM DIFERENTES RELAÇÕES AMÔNIA/PROPANO

ESTUDO DO DESGASTE ABRASIVO DE AÇO CARBONITRETADO EM DIFERENTES RELAÇÕES AMÔNIA/PROPANO UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARANÁ PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA E CIÊNCIAS DOS MATERIAIS PIPE ENGENHARIA E CIÊNCIAS DOS MATERIAIS - SETOR DE TECNOLOGIA SÉRGIO ZAGONEL ESTUDO DO DESGASTE ABRASIVO

Leia mais

ARYÁDINA MARA RIBEIRO DE SOUZA

ARYÁDINA MARA RIBEIRO DE SOUZA ARYÁDINA MARA RIBEIRO DE SOUZA ATIVIDADE DAS BACTERIOCINAS BOVICINA HC5 E NISINA SOBRE O CRESCIMENTO E A RESISTÊNCIA TÉRMICA DE Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris EM SUCOS DE FRUTAS Dissertação apresentada

Leia mais

42º Congresso Bras. de Medicina Veterinária e 1º Congresso Sul-Brasileiro da ANCLIVEPA - 31/10 a 02/11 de Curitiba - PR 1

42º Congresso Bras. de Medicina Veterinária e 1º Congresso Sul-Brasileiro da ANCLIVEPA - 31/10 a 02/11 de Curitiba - PR 1 1 APLICAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS DE CASCA DE UVA E INFLUÊNCIA DOS POLIFENOIS NO CRESCIMENTO BACTERIANO, OXIDAÇÃO LIPÍDICA E PARÂMETROS DE COR EM SALMÃO DO ATLÂNTICO JULIA SIQUEIRA SIMÕES a, *, ELIANE TEIXEIRA MÁRSICO

Leia mais

Princípios de Direito Previdenciário (Portuguese Edition)

Princípios de Direito Previdenciário (Portuguese Edition) Princípios de Direito Previdenciário (Portuguese Edition) Wladimir Novaes. Martinez Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Princípios de Direito Previdenciário (Portuguese Edition) Wladimir

Leia mais

Vendors Enquiries for RFP 003/2015

Vendors Enquiries for RFP 003/2015 Date: 22/10/2015 Vendors Enquiries for RFP 003/2015 1) Question I am afraid the terms of the RFP cannot be complied by none of the companies we work with, the terms have limited the underwriters ability

Leia mais

ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA 2016/2017

ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA 2016/2017 ENGENHARIA GENÉTICA 2016/2017 Docente Teóricas: Leonilde Moreira lmoreira@tecnico.ulisboa.pt Gabinete: Torre Sul, Piso 6 (6.6.20) Docentes Laboratórios: Leonilde Moreira Cristina Viegas Nuno Mira Filipa

Leia mais

A Avaliação dos Projetos

A Avaliação dos Projetos A Avaliação dos Projetos Luis M. Correia 1 Instituto Superior Técnico / INOV-INESC Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal As Perguntas Como são avaliadas as propostas? Quem avalia as propostas? Quais os critérios

Leia mais

Problem 16 Rising bubble

Problem 16 Rising bubble Problem 16 Rising bubble reporter: Ibraim Rebouças Problem 16 Rising bubble A vertical tube is filled with a viscous fluid. On the bottom of the tube, there is a large air bubble. Study the bubble rising

Leia mais

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS.

6 Só será permitido o uso de dicionário INGLÊS/INGLÊS. 1 2 3 4 5 Confira se os dados contidos na parte inferior desta capa estão corretos e, em seguida, assine no espaço reservado para isso. Se, em qualquer outro local deste Caderno, você assinar, rubricar,

Leia mais

ROBERTA RIBEIRO SILVA. CRESCIMENTO DE Salmonella enteritidis var. Typhimurium EM DIETAS ENTERAIS

ROBERTA RIBEIRO SILVA. CRESCIMENTO DE Salmonella enteritidis var. Typhimurium EM DIETAS ENTERAIS ROBERTA RIBEIRO SILVA CRESCIMENTO DE Salmonella enteritidis var. Typhimurium EM DIETAS ENTERAIS Tese apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como parte das exigências do Programa de Pós- Graduação

Leia mais

Cholesterol. Blood fats are measured by a blood test. Your results will tell you:

Cholesterol. Blood fats are measured by a blood test. Your results will tell you: Cholesterol Cholesterol is a fatty substance that your body needs to work. It is made in the liver and found in food that comes from animals, such as meat, eggs, milk products, butter, and lard. Too much

Leia mais

Um olhar que cura: Terapia das doenças espirituais (Portuguese Edition)

Um olhar que cura: Terapia das doenças espirituais (Portuguese Edition) Um olhar que cura: Terapia das doenças espirituais (Portuguese Edition) Padre Paulo Ricardo Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Um olhar que cura: Terapia das doenças espirituais (Portuguese

Leia mais

CENTRO DE INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE MEDICAMENTOS - CIM: AVALIAÇÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO PRESTADA VIVIANE DO NASCIMENTO E SILVA

CENTRO DE INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE MEDICAMENTOS - CIM: AVALIAÇÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO PRESTADA VIVIANE DO NASCIMENTO E SILVA CENTRO DE INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE MEDICAMENTOS - CIM: AVALIAÇÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO PRESTADA VIVIANE DO NASCIMENTO E SILVA CENTRO DE INFORMAÇÃO SOBRE MEDICAMENTOS CIM: AVALIAÇÃO DA INFORMAÇÃO PRESTADA DISSERTAÇÃO APRESENTADA

Leia mais

UERJ Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PPGEM) Seminary Class

UERJ Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PPGEM) Seminary Class UERJ Programa de Pós-graduação em Engenharia Mecânica (PPGEM) Seminary Class Simulation of energy performance of buildings: comparison of computational tools DOMUS and EnergyPlus. Mestrando: Paulo Roberto

Leia mais

OXIRREDUÇÃO EM SOLOS ALAGADOS AFETADA POR RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS

OXIRREDUÇÃO EM SOLOS ALAGADOS AFETADA POR RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS OXIRREDUÇÃO EM SOLOS ALAGADOS AFETADA POR RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS Rogério Oliveira de Sousa (Engenheiro Agrônomo) OXIRREDUÇÃO EM SOLOS ALAGADOS AFETADA POR RESÍDUOS VEGETAIS Autor: Rogério Oliveira de Sousa

Leia mais

Bases Bioquímicas e Fisiológicas da Nutrição: nas Diferentes Fases da Vida, na Saúde e na Doença (Portuguese Edition)

Bases Bioquímicas e Fisiológicas da Nutrição: nas Diferentes Fases da Vida, na Saúde e na Doença (Portuguese Edition) Bases Bioquímicas e Fisiológicas da Nutrição: nas Diferentes Fases da Vida, na Saúde e na Doença (Portuguese Edition) Silvia Maria Franciscato Cozzolino, Cristiane (orgs.) Cominetti Click here if your

Leia mais

Conversação Para Viagem - Inglês (Michaelis Tour) (Portuguese Edition)

Conversação Para Viagem - Inglês (Michaelis Tour) (Portuguese Edition) Conversação Para Viagem - Inglês (Michaelis Tour) (Portuguese Edition) Antonio Carlos Vilela Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Conversação Para Viagem - Inglês (Michaelis Tour) (Portuguese

Leia mais

ATLAS DE ACUPUNTURA VETERINáRIA. CãES E GATOS (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY CHOO HYUNG KIM

ATLAS DE ACUPUNTURA VETERINáRIA. CãES E GATOS (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY CHOO HYUNG KIM Read Online and Download Ebook ATLAS DE ACUPUNTURA VETERINáRIA. CãES E GATOS (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY CHOO HYUNG KIM DOWNLOAD EBOOK : ATLAS DE ACUPUNTURA VETERINáRIA. CãES E GATOS Click link bellow

Leia mais

CRISTIANE SOUZA DE LIMA Orientador: Prof. Dr. Candido Augusto Veloso Moura

CRISTIANE SOUZA DE LIMA Orientador: Prof. Dr. Candido Augusto Veloso Moura UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO PARÁ INSTITUTO DE GEOCIÊNCIAS PROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM GEOLOGIA E GEOQUÍMICA DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTRADO DETERMINAÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO ISOTÓPICA DE CHUMBO E ESTRÔNCIO EM PETRÓLEO E

Leia mais

DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA CIVIL E ARQUITETURA

DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA CIVIL E ARQUITETURA SCHOOL YEAR 01/013 1 ST EXAM 013/01/16 08h00 DURATION: h00 THEORY QUESTIONS (maximum 45 minutes) 1. In a pumped trunk main system explain why the smallest technically viable diameter may not be the least

Leia mais

Implementation of BE requirements: Brazilian Experience

Implementation of BE requirements: Brazilian Experience 13 th ICDRA Implementation of BE requirements: Brazilian Experience RODRIGO CRISTOFOLETTI Head of Department of Bioequivalence Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Historical view Future

Leia mais

BARBARA LEONARDI. Extratos vegetais amazônicos no processo têxtil: caracterização físico-química e aplicações

BARBARA LEONARDI. Extratos vegetais amazônicos no processo têxtil: caracterização físico-química e aplicações BARBARA LEONARDI Extratos vegetais amazônicos no processo têxtil: caracterização físico-química e aplicações Dissertação apresentada à Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da Universidade de São Paulo

Leia mais

AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE DOCE DE LEITE PASTOSO ADICIONADO DE FARINHA DE LINHAÇA

AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE DOCE DE LEITE PASTOSO ADICIONADO DE FARINHA DE LINHAÇA AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE DOCE DE LEITE PASTOSO ADICIONADO DE FARINHA DE LINHAÇA Leidiana Elias XAVIER 1 ; Yaroslávia Ferreira PAIVA 1 ; Moisés Sesion de Medeiros NETO 1 ; Anderson Florentino de LIMA 1 ;

Leia mais

Colaborar: Missão impossível? Lições da área da saúde mental. José Miguel Caldas de Almeida 17 de Janeiro de 2017

Colaborar: Missão impossível? Lições da área da saúde mental. José Miguel Caldas de Almeida 17 de Janeiro de 2017 Colaborar: Missão impossível? Lições da área da saúde mental José Miguel Caldas de Almeida 17 de Janeiro de 2017 Mental disorders require new models of collaborative care Collaborative care model is the

Leia mais

A ENTREVISTA COMPREENSIVA: UM GUIA PARA PESQUISA DE CAMPO (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY JEAN-CLAUDE KAUFMANN

A ENTREVISTA COMPREENSIVA: UM GUIA PARA PESQUISA DE CAMPO (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY JEAN-CLAUDE KAUFMANN Read Online and Download Ebook A ENTREVISTA COMPREENSIVA: UM GUIA PARA PESQUISA DE CAMPO (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY JEAN-CLAUDE KAUFMANN DOWNLOAD EBOOK : A ENTREVISTA COMPREENSIVA: UM GUIA PARA CLAUDE KAUFMANN

Leia mais

VGM. VGM information. ALIANÇA VGM WEB PORTAL USER GUIDE June 2016

VGM. VGM information. ALIANÇA VGM WEB PORTAL USER GUIDE June 2016 Overview The Aliança VGM Web portal is an application that enables you to submit VGM information directly to Aliança via our e-portal Web page. You can choose to enter VGM information directly, or to download

Leia mais

EVOLUÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL MATERNA PÓS-PARTO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO LEITE HUMANO

EVOLUÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL MATERNA PÓS-PARTO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO LEITE HUMANO DANIELLE CABRINI EVOLUÇÃO DA COMPOSIÇÃO CORPORAL MATERNA PÓS-PARTO E SUA RELAÇÃO COM O PERFIL DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO LEITE HUMANO Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como parte das exigências

Leia mais

ALUMÍNIO EM SISTEMAS DE CULTURAS NO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO. VANDERLISE GIONGO Engenheira Agrônoma - UFPeI

ALUMÍNIO EM SISTEMAS DE CULTURAS NO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO. VANDERLISE GIONGO Engenheira Agrônoma - UFPeI ALUMÍNIO EM SISTEMAS DE CULTURAS NO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO VANDERLISE GIONGO Engenheira Agrônoma - UFPeI ALUMÍNIO EM SISTEMAS DE CULTURAS NO SISTEMA DE PLANTIO DIRETO Autor: Vanderlise Giongo Orientador:

Leia mais

Inflation Expectations and Behavior: Do Survey Respondents Act on their Beliefs? O. Armantier, W. Bruine de Bruin, G. Topa W. VanderKlaauw, B.

Inflation Expectations and Behavior: Do Survey Respondents Act on their Beliefs? O. Armantier, W. Bruine de Bruin, G. Topa W. VanderKlaauw, B. Inflation Expectations and Behavior: Do Survey Respondents Act on their Beliefs? O. Armantier, W. Bruine de Bruin, G. Topa W. VanderKlaauw, B. Zafar November 18, 2010 Introduction Inflation expectations

Leia mais

BENEFÍCIOS DOS ANTIOXIDANTES NA PADRONIZAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO BIODIESEL

BENEFÍCIOS DOS ANTIOXIDANTES NA PADRONIZAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO BIODIESEL BENEFÍCIOS DOS ANTIOXIDANTES NA PADRONIZAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE DO BIODIESEL MANOELA A. PIRES 1 Resumo O biodiesel é uma alternativa ecológica ao petróleo bruto, para produção de combustíveis, sendo este derivado

Leia mais

Statistical analysis of unconventional bituminous mixtures performance based on 4PB Tests

Statistical analysis of unconventional bituminous mixtures performance based on 4PB Tests Grupo de Investigação em Vias de Comunicação Statistical analysis of unconventional bituminous mixtures performance based on 4PB Tests PORTUGAL Silvino Capitão António Baptista Luís Picado-Santos ISEC

Leia mais

Editorial Review. Users Review

Editorial Review. Users Review Download and Read Free Online Java SE 8 Programmer I: O guia para sua certificação Oracle Certified Associate (Portuguese Edition) By Guilherme Silveira, Mário Amaral Editorial Review Users Review From

Leia mais

Resumo componentes físicos cooperação entre os actores eficácia eficiência

Resumo componentes físicos cooperação entre os actores eficácia eficiência Resumo Ao longo dos últimos anos as questões ambientais tomaram uma dimensão relevante, passando a ter atenção tanto no campo académico como prático, nomeadamente impondo desafios para a gestão dos sistemas

Leia mais

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO THIAGO BRANDÃO DA CUNHA

FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO THIAGO BRANDÃO DA CUNHA FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF RIO DE JANEIRO THIAGO BRANDÃO DA CUNHA THE INTEGRATION PROCESS AFTER INTERNATIONAL ACQUISITION OF A COMPANY INSIDE THE CACHAÇA SECTOR IN BRAZIL: A CASE STUDY RIO DE JANEIRO 2018 THIAGO

Leia mais

Nanoparticles and the environment: behaviour, ecotoxicity and fate

Nanoparticles and the environment: behaviour, ecotoxicity and fate Nanoparticles and the environment: behaviour, ecotoxicity and fate Susana Loureiro Dept. de Biologia and CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro sloureiro@ua.pt http://www.cesam.ua.pt/susanaloureiro ENVIRONMENT

Leia mais

Mitologia - Deuses, Heróis e Lendas (Portuguese Edition)

Mitologia - Deuses, Heróis e Lendas (Portuguese Edition) Mitologia - Deuses, Heróis e Lendas (Portuguese Edition) By Maurício Horta, José Francisco Botelho, Salvador Nogueira Mitologia - Deuses, Heróis e Lendas (Portuguese Edition) By Maurício Horta, José Francisco

Leia mais

Aspectos Multidisciplinares das Artes Marciais: 1 (Portuguese Edition)

Aspectos Multidisciplinares das Artes Marciais: 1 (Portuguese Edition) Aspectos Multidisciplinares das Artes Marciais: 1 (Portuguese Edition) Marcelo Moreira Antunes (org.) Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Aspectos Multidisciplinares das Artes Marciais:

Leia mais

Biscuit - potes (Coleção Artesanato) (Portuguese Edition)

Biscuit - potes (Coleção Artesanato) (Portuguese Edition) Biscuit - potes (Coleção Artesanato) (Portuguese Edition) Regina Panzoldo Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Biscuit - potes (Coleção Artesanato) (Portuguese Edition) Regina Panzoldo

Leia mais

GERENCIAMENTO PELAS DIRETRIZES (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY VICENTE FALCONI

GERENCIAMENTO PELAS DIRETRIZES (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY VICENTE FALCONI Read Online and Download Ebook GERENCIAMENTO PELAS DIRETRIZES (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY VICENTE FALCONI DOWNLOAD EBOOK : GERENCIAMENTO PELAS DIRETRIZES (PORTUGUESE Click link bellow and free register to

Leia mais

Medicina Integrativa - A Cura pelo Equilíbrio (Portuguese Edition)

Medicina Integrativa - A Cura pelo Equilíbrio (Portuguese Edition) Medicina Integrativa - A Cura pelo Equilíbrio (Portuguese Edition) Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Medicina Integrativa - A Cura pelo Equilíbrio (Portuguese Edition) Medicina Integrativa

Leia mais

Empreendedorismo: Dando Asas ao Espírito Empreendedor (Portuguese Edition)

Empreendedorismo: Dando Asas ao Espírito Empreendedor (Portuguese Edition) Empreendedorismo: Dando Asas ao Espírito Empreendedor (Portuguese Edition) Idalberto Chiavenato Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Empreendedorismo: Dando Asas ao Espírito Empreendedor

Leia mais

DINÂMICA DO FÓSFORO EM SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE SOLOS DANILO RHEINHEIMER DOS SANTOS. (Engenheiro Agrônomo, M.Sc.)

DINÂMICA DO FÓSFORO EM SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE SOLOS DANILO RHEINHEIMER DOS SANTOS. (Engenheiro Agrônomo, M.Sc.) DINÂMICA DO FÓSFORO EM SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE SOLOS DANILO RHEINHEIMER DOS SANTOS (Engenheiro Agrônomo, M.Sc.) DINÂMICA DO FÓSFORO EM SISTEMAS DE MANEJO DE SOLOS 0 Autor: Danilo Rheinheimer dos Santos

Leia mais

HISTOLOGIA E BIOLOGIA CELULAR. UMA INTRODUçãO À PATOLOGIA (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY ABRAHAM L. KIERSZENBAUM

HISTOLOGIA E BIOLOGIA CELULAR. UMA INTRODUçãO À PATOLOGIA (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY ABRAHAM L. KIERSZENBAUM Read Online and Download Ebook HISTOLOGIA E BIOLOGIA CELULAR. UMA INTRODUçãO À PATOLOGIA (EM PORTUGUESE DO BRASIL) BY ABRAHAM L. KIERSZENBAUM DOWNLOAD EBOOK : HISTOLOGIA E BIOLOGIA CELULAR. UMA INTRODUçãO

Leia mais

PLÍNIO LUIZ KROTH (Químico Industrial, UNISC)

PLÍNIO LUIZ KROTH (Químico Industrial, UNISC) DISPONIBILIDADE DE FÓSFORO NO SOLO PARA PLANTAS E FATORES QUE AFETAM A EXTRAÇÃO POR RESINA DE TROCA EM MEMBRANA PLÍNIO LUIZ KROTH (Químico Industrial, UNISC) DISPONIBILIDADE DE FÓSFORO NO SOLO PARA

Leia mais

As 10 bobagens mais comuns que as pessoas inteligentes cometem (Portuguese Edition)

As 10 bobagens mais comuns que as pessoas inteligentes cometem (Portuguese Edition) As 10 bobagens mais comuns que as pessoas inteligentes cometem (Portuguese Edition) Arthur Freeman, Rose Dewolf Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically As 10 bobagens mais comuns que as

Leia mais

Guia para Formacao de Analistas de Processos: Gestão Por Processos de Forma Simples (Portuguese Edition)

Guia para Formacao de Analistas de Processos: Gestão Por Processos de Forma Simples (Portuguese Edition) Guia para Formacao de Analistas de Processos: Gestão Por Processos de Forma Simples (Portuguese Edition) Mr. Gart Capote Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Guia para Formacao de Analistas

Leia mais

How UMA Contributes to Solving the IDESG Healthcare Relationship Location Service Use tinyurl.com/umawg 19 Jan 2014

How UMA Contributes to Solving the IDESG Healthcare Relationship Location Service Use tinyurl.com/umawg 19 Jan 2014 How UMA Contributes to Solving the IDESG Healthcare Relationship Location Service Use Case @UMAWG tinyurl.com/umawg 19 Jan 2014 1 Relevant links IDESG use case: https://www.idecosystem.org/wiki/ Health_IT_Record_Location_Service_(Data_Aggregation)

Leia mais

Meditacao da Luz: O Caminho da Simplicidade

Meditacao da Luz: O Caminho da Simplicidade Meditacao da Luz: O Caminho da Simplicidade Leonardo Boff Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Meditacao da Luz: O Caminho da Simplicidade Leonardo Boff Meditacao da Luz: O Caminho da

Leia mais

1. O substantivo gentlemen tem o plural irregular, assim como: A. Avocado. B. Piano. C. Child. D. Food. E. Address.

1. O substantivo gentlemen tem o plural irregular, assim como: A. Avocado. B. Piano. C. Child. D. Food. E. Address. 1. O substantivo gentlemen tem o plural irregular, assim como: A. Avocado. B. Piano. C. Child. D. Food. E. Address. 2. O conjunto de substantivos que segue a mesma regra de plural que ladies é: A. TOY

Leia mais

Immobilized Volume Reduction in Pontoon Type Floating Roof for Petroleum Tank

Immobilized Volume Reduction in Pontoon Type Floating Roof for Petroleum Tank Immobilized Volume Reduction in Pontoon Type Floating Roof for Petroleum Tank Florianópolis/SC November 2012 Foreword External floating roof was created in 1923 for: o Control of evaporative emissions;

Leia mais

Mestrado em Ciências da Educação Administração Educacional. A Direção de Turma RELATÓRIO DE ATIVIDADE E DESENVOLVIMENTO PROFISSIONAL

Mestrado em Ciências da Educação Administração Educacional. A Direção de Turma RELATÓRIO DE ATIVIDADE E DESENVOLVIMENTO PROFISSIONAL Mestrado em Ciências da Educação Administração Educacional A Direção de Turma RELATÓRIO DE ATIVIDADE E DESENVOLVIMENTO PROFISSIONAL Cristina Maria de Matos Pina Relatório destinado à obtenção do grau de

Leia mais

VALIDACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS DE REDUCCIÓN DE REACTIVOS DE BLANQUEO DE PLANTA VALDIVIA

VALIDACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS DE REDUCCIÓN DE REACTIVOS DE BLANQUEO DE PLANTA VALDIVIA HÉCTOR ENRIQUE ARANEDA GUTIÉRREZ VALIDACIÓN DE ALTERNATIVAS DE REDUCCIÓN DE REACTIVOS DE BLANQUEO DE PLANTA VALDIVIA Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Federal de Viçosa, como parte das exigências

Leia mais

O PRíNCIPE FELIZ E OUTRAS HISTóRIAS (EDIçãO BILíNGUE) (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY OSCAR WILDE

O PRíNCIPE FELIZ E OUTRAS HISTóRIAS (EDIçãO BILíNGUE) (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY OSCAR WILDE Read Online and Download Ebook O PRíNCIPE FELIZ E OUTRAS HISTóRIAS (EDIçãO BILíNGUE) (PORTUGUESE EDITION) BY OSCAR WILDE DOWNLOAD EBOOK : O PRíNCIPE FELIZ E OUTRAS HISTóRIAS (EDIçãO Click link bellow and

Leia mais

ESCOLA SUPERIOR AGRÁRIA

ESCOLA SUPERIOR AGRÁRIA INSTITUTO POLITÉCNICO DE COIMBRA ESCOLA SUPERIOR AGRÁRIA Carolina Patrícia Gonçalves dos Santos Mestrado em Engenharia Alimentar Relatório de Estágio Profissionalizante Orientador: Doutora Goreti Botelho

Leia mais

Pesquisa Qualitativa do Início ao Fim (Métodos de Pesquisa) (Portuguese Edition)

Pesquisa Qualitativa do Início ao Fim (Métodos de Pesquisa) (Portuguese Edition) Pesquisa Qualitativa do Início ao Fim (Métodos de Pesquisa) (Portuguese Edition) Robert K. Yin Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Pesquisa Qualitativa do Início ao Fim (Métodos de

Leia mais

Energia e Sustentabilidade A Eficiência Energética na Indústria

Energia e Sustentabilidade A Eficiência Energética na Indústria Energia e Sustentabilidade A Eficiência Energética na Indústria Henrique Matos Associate Professor with Habiliation (henrimatos@tecnico.ulisboa.pt) CERENA / Chemical Eng. Department / IST/ ULisboa Instrumentos

Leia mais

CDR Centro de Desenvolvimento Regional

CDR Centro de Desenvolvimento Regional Rua Horácio Boanerges, Nº 1336 - Brasília Cep: 68375 320 Altamira Pará Tel: 3515 7157 ACTIVITIES DESCRIPTION for the year 2012. 1- computer classes Goal: To promote computer skills by offering computer

Leia mais

Já Chegou Aos Confins Da Terra. E Agora? (Portuguese Edition)

Já Chegou Aos Confins Da Terra. E Agora? (Portuguese Edition) Já Chegou Aos Confins Da Terra. E Agora? (Portuguese Edition) Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Já Chegou Aos Confins Da Terra. E Agora? (Portuguese Edition) Já Chegou Aos Confins

Leia mais

Pesquisa de Marketing: Uma Orientação Aplicada (Portuguese Edition)

Pesquisa de Marketing: Uma Orientação Aplicada (Portuguese Edition) Pesquisa de Marketing: Uma Orientação Aplicada (Portuguese Edition) Naresh K. Malhotra Click here if your download doesn"t start automatically Pesquisa de Marketing: Uma Orientação Aplicada (Portuguese

Leia mais