1 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 SUMMARY OF THE MEETING
2 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Apresentação EPRF (in portuguese) EPRF Presentation and Final Report EPRF Agenda Rui Sá Gomes Speech General Director of DGRSP Seamus Sisk Speech Chair of the EPRF Steering Group and Deputy Director of the Irish Prison Service EPRF Workshop Overview EPRF Participants List EPRF Participants Evaluation
3 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisboa, Março 2014 APRESENTAÇÃO E RELATÓRIO FINAL Realizou se em Lisboa, nos dias 20 e 21 de Março, o encontro anual da rede europeia European Prison Regime Forum (EPRF), o qual contou com a participação de mais de 50 conferencistas de 18 nacionalidades, entre as quais, para além dos profissionais da DGRSP (que coordenou a organização), representantes dos serviços dos Ministérios da Justiça da Alemanha, Bélgica, Espanha, Finlândia, Irlanda, Itália, Montenegro, Noruega, Suécia e Suíça. Este ano o evento contou ainda com a participação especial de uma delegação da América Latina, tendo tido a maior audiência da história das Conferências organizadas por esta rede. O EPRF é uma organização não governamental que congrega profissionais com cargos dirigentes dos Serviços Prisionais de diversos países da Europa, constituindo se como uma plataforma de discussão e de divulgação de boas práticas na área da gestão dos sistemas prisionais e de partilha de modelos de eficácia no tratamento e reabilitação de pessoas privadas da liberdade. A agenda de trabalhos foi diversificada, tendo havido a oportunidade de conhecer, discutir e divulgar Boas Práticas implementadas nos diversos contextos europeus, promovendo se desta forma a reflexão sobre quais as estratégias mais eficazes de intervenção no âmbito da reabilitação e reinserção de reclusos, tendo sido apresentado pela DGRSP o Plano Nacional de Reabilitação e Reinserção (PNRR) 2013/2015.
4 Das conclusões e das recomendações resultantes do debate, destaca se: 1. A falta de enquadramento profissional como uma das principais causas associadas aos comportamentos delinquentes; 2. As baixas competências profissionais e de empregabilidade das populações mais desfavorecidas, como são o caso dos reclusos e ex reclusos, são um dos principais factores de risco de delinquência, sendo igualmente uma das principais necessidades criminógenas para a qual se deve orientar a intervenção; 3. O elevado número de desempregados, associado à actual situação social e económica de alguns países da Europa, coloca novos desafios às políticas sociais e de inclusão social. Deste complexo quadro, resultaram as seguintes recomendações para todos os Estados Membros da Europa: 1. Aumentar o investimento nas áreas do treino das competências laborais e de empregabilidade da população reclusa, entre outras; 2. Promover oportunidades de formação em contexto real de trabalho, aproximando as o mais possível das condições laborais no exterior; 3. Criar e dinamizar oficinas de trabalho inseridas nas instalações dos estabelecimentos prisionais e aumentar o número de reclusos com ocupação laboral produtiva e estruturada durante o cumprimento das penas privativas de liberdade; 4. Investir na modernização das oficinas inseridas no interior dos estabelecimentos prisionais, permitindo que a população reclusa tenha acesso a equipamentos e experiências de trabalho que a capacite para a integração no mercado laboral, nomeadamente através do envolvimento de empresas do sector privado; 5. Desenvolver modelos de gestão empresarial das indústrias prisionais, privilegiando o investimento das receitas geradas pelo resultado do trabalho prisional na manutenção, conservação e modernização das instalações e equipamentos, tornando assim este sector auto suficiente.
5 O coordenador da rede destacou, em apontamento final, a qualidade e pertinência do debate gerado no âmbito da agenda preparada pela DGRSP, sublinhando ainda que o Ministério da Justiça de Portugal se destaca, no panorama europeu, pela adopção de um plano o PNRR, enquanto instrumento estratégico e de política institucional, o qual apresenta medidas alinhadas em standards europeus de Boas Práticas na área da reabilitação e reinserção de pessoas privadas de liberdade. O próximo evento desta rede será organizado, em 2015, pelos serviços do Ministério da Justiça de Montenegro e no ano seguinte pelo serviço homólogo da Suécia.
6 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 PRESENTATION AND FINAL REPORT The annual meeting of the European Network European Prison Regime Forum (EPRF), held in Lisbon on 20 and 21 March, had the participation of over 50 speakers from 18 countries, including representatives from various departments of Ministries of Justice from Germany, Belgium, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Montenegro, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, in addition to DGRSP professionals who coordinated the organization of this event. This year's Forum also included the special participation of a delegation from Latin America, having had the largest audience in the history of conferences organized by this network. The EPRF is a nongovernmental organization that brings together professionals with managerial duties of Prison Services in various countries of Europe, establishing itself as a platform for discussion and dissemination of good practices in the management of prison systems and sharing efficacy models in the supervision, monitoring and rehabilitation of persons deprived of liberty. The agenda was diverse and there was opportunity to meet, discuss and disseminate good practices implemented in different European contexts, promoting a wide thinking and debate on what can be the most effective intervention strategies in the context of rehabilitation and reintegration of prisoners. DGRSP also presented the National Plan for Rehabilitation and Reintegration (PNRR) 2013/2015.
7 From the conclusions and recommendations resulting from the debate, we highlight: The lack of professional framing of young offenders is one of the main causes associated with delinquent behaviour; Low professional skills and employability of the most disadvantaged populations, as in the case of prisoners and ex prisoners, are one of the main risk factors for delinquency and also a major criminogenic need for which should be guided the intervention ; The high number of unemployed, associated with the current social and economic situation of some countries in Europe, poses new challenges to social policies and social inclusion. From this complex framework, emerged the following recommendations to all European Member States: 1. Increase investment in the areas of training of labour skills and employability of the prison population; 2. Promote training opportunities in a real work environment, approaching them, as much as possible, to the work conditions outside prison; 3. Create and stimulate workshops inside prisons and increase the number of inmates with structured and productive labour occupation during the compliance of the prison sentence; 4. Invest in the modernization of the different workshops facilities inside prisons, allowing the inmate population to have access to the equipment and to work experiences that enable them the integration in the labour market, including through the involvement of private sector companies; 5. Develop corporate management models of prison industries, giving priority to the investment of the revenues generated by the result of prison labour in the maintenance, conservation and upgrading of the facilities and equipments, making this sector a self sufficient industry.
8 The network coordinator pointed out, in the final presentation, the quality and relevance of the debate raised within the agenda prepared by DGRSP, underlining that the Portuguese Ministry of Justice stands out on the European scene, for the creation of the National Plan for Rehabilitation and Reintegration (PNRR). This Plan is a strategic and institutional politics tool, which presents specific actions lined up wit European standards of Good Practices on Rehabilitation and Reintegration of persons deprived of liberty. The next event of this network will be organized in 2015 by Montenegro Ministry of Justice and in the following year by the homologous service of Sweden.
9 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 AGENDA 19th March 2014 Arrival of participants Welcome drinks (Hotel Turim) 20th March 2014 Auditorium Sintra Prison 21st March 2014 Auditorium Lisbon Prison The Forum is hosted by Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services, Ministry of Justice, Portugal
10 Thursday, 20th March 2014 Auditorium Sintra Prison 09:00 Registration of Participants/Attendees 09:15 Opening Session Rui Sá Gomes, General Director of DGRSP Seamus Sisk, Deputy Director of the Irish Prison Service and Chair of the EPRF Steering Group 09:30 Brief Overview of the Portuguese Prison Service and the National Rehabilitation and Reintegration Plan Jorge Monteiro, Head of Programs Division, DGRSP 10:00 Coffee Break 10:15 Tour de table: Member updates (Seamus Sisk) (Pre submitted) updates and items of national legislative, policy and innovative strategic changes within prison and rehabilitation 11:30 Introduction to parallel workshop sessions Cláudia Baptista, DGRSP Training Division 11:45 Workshop I Introduced by Peter Larsen, Danish Prison and Probation Service Sustainable models of Prison Work/Prison Industries and employability skills 13:00 Lunch Workshop II Introduced by Jurgen Hillmer, EPRF Involvement of prisoners in community/charitable projects in and for the community 14h30 Visit to Sintra Prison facilities, aimed to speakers and foreigner guests 15:30 Workshop III Introduced by Tiago Leitão (Innovative Prison Systems) Engagement of Employers Workshop IV Introduced by Daniel Rijo, PhD Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra, New trends in User Centred Rehabilitation Programmes 16h45 Coffee Break 17h00 Open floor Developing effectiveness in the scope of ETE, VET and other Rehabilitation approaches within prison: impacts on recidivism (Cláudia Resende DGRSP) Introduce by Prof. Hugo Morales Cordova (Global Centre for Criminal Justice and Offender Reintegration, Porto University) 18:00 End of the day
11 Friday, 21st March 2014 Auditorium Lisbon Prison Reception of Participants 09:30 Visit to Lisbon Prison facilities, aimed to speakers and foreigner guests 10h30 Workshops feedback session (Cláudia Baptista, DGRSP) Participant 1 to be named by the I Workshop group Participant 2 to be named by the II Workshop group Participant 3 to be named by the III Workshop group Participant 4 to be named by the IV Workshop group 11:00 Final panel (José Ricardo Nunes DGRSP) 11:05 Network of institutions: Synergies and Cooperation Jurgen Hillmer (EPRF) and Pedro das Neves (Innovative Prison Systems) 11:35 EUROSOCIAL II Work group presentation and discussion Rebeka Berruti, General Secretary COMJIB Cristina Goñi, International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO) Oscar Ayzanoa, Perú National Penitentiary Institute Viena Velazco de Centella, Panamá Interdisciplinary Studies Institute Herman Santos, Guatemala Prison School Studies 12:05 Europris Work programme update and discussion Kirsten Hawlitschek, Europris Executive Director 12:35 Conclusions and final remarks Seamus Sisk, Deputy Director of the Irish Prison Service and Chair of the Steering Group Jorge Monteiro Head of Programs Division, DGRSP EPRF 13:00 Farewell lunch 14:30 EPRF Board Meeting
12 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 OPENING REMARKS RUI SÁ GOMES Honourable Mr. Seamus Sisks and Juergen Hilmer, representatives of the Ibero American Ministers of Justice and Eurosocial Project, General Directors, Managers of Central Services in DGRSP, Head of Sintra Prison, Organizing Committee, distinguished speakers and other guests, ladies and gentlemen, It is an honour for the Portuguese Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services to have been chosen to host the 16th Forum of the prestigious European network "European Prison Regime Forum". It was with all the dedication and commitment that we have prepared an intensive agenda, which hopefully meets the expectations of all who came to Portugal for this meeting in order to learn about practices and outcomes of the work that is made in the context of rehabilitation of persons deprived of liberty. The significant presence of about four dozen speakers from more than 18 countries in Europe and Latin America is for us a sign of encouragement and incentive to share with you our experience and also constitutes for us, a unique opportunity to learn from the experience and practices of all of you.
13 The Portuguese Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services, although in terms of organization has been recently established by virtue of the merger between the Directorate General of Prison Services and the Directorate General of Probation Services, has already a long history and experience in the areas of security, rehabilitation and social reintegration and rehabilitation of prisoners and ex offenders. This journey has been marked by great challenges, great achievements but also by periods of hardship and even some instability, resulting from social, political and economic fluctuations that Portuguese society has faced in recent decades. At present, the Portuguese Prison System houses a total of prisoners, of whom 81.4% are sentenced to an effective prison sentence, and 17.5% are still on remand. In the course of the year 2013 a total of prisoners were in contact with the Prison System. Given that the official capacity of the Prison system is places, the current situation shows a slight overcrowding of about 17%, which is a reality that concerns me, and for which we have all worked to reverse. To do so, were presented to the Government, legislative proposals for the adoption of an enforcement measure using Electronic Surveillance to prisoners sentenced to short sentences (up to 1 year prison sentence), as well as to prisoners sentenced to Weekend Detention this type of sentence is an effective prison sentence, discontinuous in its execution and is an originality of the Portuguese legal system. Effectively, this proposal alone would represent the releasing of more than 1000 prisoners of the system, reliving healthily (about 10%) the existing pressure and helping to make the system more efficient, without jeopardizing the safety and the recidivism prevention that the national system of Electronic Surveillance already offers to the more than 700 convicts who are currently monitored using this technology. Alongside this decompression measures system, we are also undertaking a significant investment towards improving the prison conditions, through the recovery of living spaces and the creation of new accommodations, with decent and dignified health and living conditions.
14 I would like to highlight on this measure, that the construction and rehabilitation works taking place in Portuguese prisons are being carried out mostly by hand labour of inmates, to whom is paid a salary proportional to their work effort, and witch contributes also to their skills training so needed in a disadvantage population as this one. But the effort and investment we are conducting to make a more efficient and modern Portuguese prison system is not exhausted in these measures. The DGRP is responsible for the execution of one of the most ambitious sustainability plans of the Portuguese prison system in decades the National Plan for Rehabilitation and Social Reintegration, strategic document of the execution of sentences and approved by the Council of Ministers recently, which clearly states the vision of this Directorate General on the process of rehabilitation and social reintegration of the population for which it is responsible for. This plan is based on three fundamental operating principles: the principle of rehabilitation of criminal behaviour; the principle of rehabilitation and social responsibility and the principle of sustainability of the enforcement of sentences or measures, and also provides the adoption of a set of 96 measures structured around 12 key areas. This plan is based on the guidelines inherent to the enforcement of sentences and measures in Portugal, whose matrix focuses on a humanistic and re socialization ideal, teleologically connected to the objectives of general and specific prevention, that is, protection of society and social reintegration of the offender. This Plan seeks in its programmatic line of work, to increase opportunities of change and social reintegration for the individual, intervening with its environment/social background, and prior to imprisonment, during the execution of a sentence and after the release. At this level it should be noted that this effort does not start from scratch, that is, much has already been done in the context of rehabilitation of inmates in recent years and the numbers are clear. At year end 2013 were attending school education courses, a total of 2986 inmates in all levels of education, given by teachers belonging to the Ministry of Education, including 57 inmates currently enrolled in higher education.
15 Attending vocational training courses were 1317 inmates and taking part in work activities were 4506 prisoners. In addition to these activities, the system also have a diverse range of specific rehabilitation programs directed at specific criminal issues, in which were involved a total of 3342 inmates, to which we add 1280 prisoners with drug and alcohol consumption problems that take part in therapeutic treatment programs related to their addiction. Therefore, all in all, a total of 75.4% of the prison population is daily attending/participating on social rehabilitation/reintegration structured activities and conducted by our professionals in close conjunction with various actors in society, especially with those who demonstrate a high sense of social responsibility. Honourable Speakers, It is with meetings such as this, which brings together outstanding professional experience and knowledge, that we all endorse the sharing of ideas and best practices and encourages discussion and mutual learning in common strategies for common problems, regardless of the European country we are in. What direction we want to give to Prison and Probation Services in Europe? What models should be adopted in order to better use our resources (often scarce)? What are the most effective strategies in the rehabilitation of inmates and how effective are the efforts of our actions? What impacts have rehabilitative interventions in preventing recidivism? These are just some questions and ideas to start the debate that will evolve in the coming days, which I hope to be productive and whose conclusions could be the basis for a synthesis document that I personally would like to see published as a result of this Forum. On behalf of the Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services, I wish you all a good work and a pleasant stay in Lisbon Thank you all for your kind attention.
16 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 OPENING REMARKS SEAMUS SISK On behalf of the EPRF steering committee, I would like to echo the welcome of the directorate general to this the 16 th European Prison Regime Forum. It is good to see so many familiar and, indeed, some new faces at this year s forum. I would especially like to welcome our Non European representatives from South America. I would also like to express our sincere appreciation to our Portuguese colleagues for hosting the gathering this year. The EPRF has met regularly since its establishment in 1997 to consider, in an informal and open environment, the core issues and trends affecting industrial workshops, vocational training activities, and through care initiatives with a particular emphasis on employability. As always we have an interesting and full programme of presentations, workshop discussions, and social networking opportunities to enjoy and participate in over the coming days. We meet at a time of continuing economic difficulties across Europe. Many of our countries have suffered a devastating economic and financial storm in recent years and continue to be buffeted by the ongoing negative situation. Eurostat estimates that there are now over 26 million men and
17 women unemployed in EU 28 that s over 10 million more than were unemployed in the first quarter of 2008 just before the economic dam burst on so many of our countries. Over 5 and a half million of the unemployed are in the under 25 age category and unemployment is still rising in many countries with 13 of the 28 EU members recording increases in the last year. Even as some economies stabilise, and the green shoots of growth begin to emerge, high levels of unemployment will persist in many countries for the foreseeable future The consequences of these dismal economic times for our prison regime services and in particular, for our prisoner customers, are challenging indeed. In this age of austerity, prison systems are continuing to experience significant budgetary pressures and cutbacks in staffing and financial resources for work training, through care an employability initiatives and services. And we are dealing with increasingly overcrowded prison systems. According to the council of Europe, in 2011 the most recent year for which full statistics are available the average European prison population grew from 149 to 154 inmates per 100,000 inhabitants. In addition, there has been an increase in prison density of a further 1% to 99, 5 inmates per 100 places between 2009 and It is not an easy job working within the operational requirements of a prison environment at the best of times. Overcrowding exacerbates the level of disruption, delays and difficulties associated with the operation of workshops and the delivery of vocational training within our systems. Our target group of workers and trainees are a further challenge given their typically low esteem, addiction issues, behavioural problems, limited literacy and numeracy skills, and largely limited work experinece and qualifications. Despite the obstacles and challenges, our work training services continue to deliver constructive activities and hard and soft qualifications to our prisoners to help them towards opportunities for employability and successful settlement on their return to society.
18 Employment has been shown to be the single most important factor in preventing re offending. British research in 2002 found that being in employment reduced the risk by between a third and a half. Norway statistics concluded, even more recently, that recidivism among prisoners is 63% lower for those accessing employments on release than for those who remain unemployed. And we also know, from research studies, that prisoners want to develop their vocational skills whilst in prison and that they prioritise employment and skills deficiencies over other problems such as health and family matters. It is essential, therefore, that we accentuate our efforts, despite the contraction of resources, to assist prisoners develop the skills and competencies necessary for employability and that we maximise our support for them as they pass through the prison gate back into society. And we can save huge amounts of criminal and non criminal financial and human costs, if we succeed in enabling them to lead constructive crime free lives on their return to the community. In the employability area, i believe we have to increasingly focus on identifying niche labour market opportunities to replace dependencies on traditional occupations. We also need to continue to strengthen the delivery of soft skills and certified training in our prison systems. And we need to support ex prisoners into further training and education and into voluntary work and other constructive activities, as positive alternatives to direct employment placements. Forums like this are very important in these critical times as practitioners we need to come together to share good practice and innovative solutions to the challenges facing us all. We also need to tap into the mutual support of fellow specialists across Europe and beyond to reaffirm that what we are doing is worthwhile, that what we do works for both prisoners and society. I am sure that through our informal contacts and our conference sessions, we will renew our energies and our commitment to our most important task of trying to ensure that our customers do not return, through helping them to successfully complete their journey from outlaw to citizen. Thank you
19 XVI European Prison Regime Forum Lisbon, March 2014 WORKSHOP OVERVIEW Workshop 1 Sustainable Models of Prison Work/Prison Industries and employability skills, introduced by Peter Larson, Danish Prison and Probation Service. Feedback presented by Kirsten Hawlitschek from Europris. Overview prepared by Peter Larson. Kirsten referred to Nuno Oliveira s presentation about Parques de Sintra, a company that employs inmates after imprisonment (and during). Regarding this thematic, several points were focused, namely: Why using inmates? Advantages and disadvantages of using labour force from prison (work opportunities inside the prison, employability skills, profits, costs). Ideally, developing skills and earning money should and can be combined. This means that it is possible for inmates to develop new competencies inside/outside the prison for benefit after release, rather than just getting some working habits. The different meaning of the word sustainable was giving a lot of angels to the discussions. Sustainable in the way of long living activities/products, developing life skills and competencies for
20 managing a life after release as self supporting citizen, activities with less harming of environment ecologic farming and recycling projects, designing of new product etc. Kirsten referred to Peter Larsen s presentation of the film about the fact that Prison Industry in the Danish Prison and Probation Services are now commemorating 100 years of existence. Indeed a sustainable activity with a wide diversity. The film was in one and the same way marketing addressed to society and potential business partners and as acclaim addressed to the staff the key figures in all activities. Leif Waage, Norwegian Prison and Probation, presented some work done with wood (common in Europe) and lamps which are designed in cooperation between external designers, staff and inmates and then manufactured by the inmates. The participants in the workshop then discussed about the kind of work that can be offered to prisoners. It is absolutely necessary, in order of developing and creating employability skills inside the prison and to build prison work programmes, to establish the requirements and needs of the prison industries and prisoner s work. It is clear that companies need more qualified employers and that sometimes the prisoners are a non qualified work force. Workshop 2 Involvement of prisoners in community/charitable projects in and for the community, introduced by Jurgen Hillmer, EPRF. Feedback presented by Jurgen Hillmer. Overview prepared by Claudia Baptista from Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP) Jurgen mentioned that they did 2 or 3 presentations focusing the prison industries issue and that the discussions and conclusions were a little bit confuse. He referred to Nicola s approach to develop social enterprises and discussed the return of investment issues. Nicola s presentation was based on long term data analysis, which in he s view
21 showed the positive effect of hiring offenders with the same salary as any other person in the labour market. Also he highlighted the importance on focus in quality products and strong marketing. The Portuguese Food Bank provides food to ONG to companies in the surrounding prison area. Was also mentioned that in other countries is being discussed and implemented a Target System that aims to exchange and commercialize several products. Workshop 3 Engagement of employers, introduced by Tiago Leitão, Innovative Prison Systems. Feedback presented by Barry Owens. Overview prepared by Tiago Leitão. The workshop was based on National Youth Entrepreneurs Association (anje.pt) employer s engagement case study under the Equal project Rumos de Futuro da Prisão para a Inclusão. This project is focus on employer s engagement to provide work and labour market reintegration to (ex) offenders. Different examples/case studies were presented in this workshop, one from an Employer association (Portuguese) and another from an employer St Giles Trust (stgilestrust.org.uk) which is an Association that hires prisoners. Has ANJE presented the case study, questions/challenges were asked to the participants, which presented their views, synthesized below: Q1: What role can an Employer Association have in offender s reintegration? C1: The starting point should be on the person but there are no homogeny procedures in different countries. There is also a wide diversity of actions in prison work and after release job integration. The Employer Association can have an important role in information, scouting business opportunities, reduce stigma both in offenders and prison services and other were mentioned. Q2: What are the required employability skills and how to assess them? C2: Soft skills are as much important as hard practical ones. Employers should be engaged in defining what they expect from a worker. One of the main aspects highlighted was that there is a great need to clarify what employability means.
22 Q3: What kind of role companies have in the process of skills and qualification assessment? What profiled skills do they need? C3: Companies focus normally on technical requirements, focus on the production process. This can be very helpful to prepare offenders training. In case of offenders there is also de need to assess soft skills. We have to engage employers and keep insisting on that. Q4: What benefits should be given to companies that hire offenders? What are the ethical boundaries in doing this? The range of benefits can vary from a wide range of incentives: grants, internships, workshops and workstations in the Prisons and other. There is also the behaviour and profiling performed by Education/Reintegration prison services departments (here we have to take in consideration information disclosure legal framework. The one that seems to work more effectively, highlighted by the Italian delegate, was salary equal to labour market standards. There were concerns raised, focus on the overcoming the stigma created by being an (ex) offender, but also by having companies taking advantage of incentives. The balance could be in assessing the benefits results and impacts both by employers and prison services. Workshop 4 New Trends in User Centred Rehabilitation Programmes, presented by Daniel Rijo, PhD, Faculty of Psychology and Education Sciences, University of Coimbra. Feedback presented by Claudia Resende. Overview by Cláudia Resende from Directorate General of Reintegration and Prison Services (DGRSP) Workshop 4 aimed at a technical scientific and technical practical debate regarding the subject under discussion: Application of cognitive behavioural programs in the prison context. At this workgroup attended institutional representatives from a spectrum of various countries in Europe, with prevalence of the Portuguese experience. A participant coming from Peru, who will be in Portugal to make a PhD in the context of a Portuguese University, was also present.
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