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1 INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS, THEIR ROLE TODAY INTERNATIONAL CORELATIONS AND BEYOND English, Français, Português H. Mahadevan, Deputy General Secretary H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 1

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3 16 th World Trade Union Congress 6-10 April 2011 INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS, THEIR ROLE TODAY INTERNATIONAL CORELATIONS AND BEYOND H. Mahadevan, Deputy General Secretary

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5 Some brief Backgrounds based on Realities World Trade Organisation (WTO) WTO is the culmination of a 25 years long process of forging of a new global economy by transnational capital across borders. This was part of the neo-liberal Washington Consensus on unbridled deregulation, privatization and fiscal austerity. It worked well for MNCs and developed countries and not for the poorer ones. The 1994 Marrakesh Agreement which installed the WTO as a multilateral body, bypasses the democratic process in each of the member countries. It blatantly derogates national laws and constitutions while providing extensive powers to global banks and multinational corporations. These powers have in fact become entrenched in the articles of agreement of the WTO. WTO, empowered under the international law with the mandate to police country level economic and social policies, almost neutralized with the stroke of pen the authority and activities of several agencies of the United Nations including the UNCTAD and ILO. The articles of WTO are also at variance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights besides contradicting the preexisting national and international laws. GATS provide legitimacy to large scale financial and speculative manipulation directed against the developing countries which are often conducive to the demise of country level monetary policy. The WTO Dispute Settlement procedures uphold the legitimacy of these various manipulative procedures. World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF)- Some Questions & Answers. What is the World Bank? Created at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, The World Bank Group is comprised of five agencies that make loans or guarantee credit to its 177 member countries. In addition to financing projects such as roads, power plants and schools, the Bank also makes loans to restructure a country s economic system by funding structural adjustment programs (SAPs). H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 5

6 What is the IMF? Also created at the Bretton Woods Conference, the mission of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is to supply member states with money to help them overcome short-term balance-ofpayments difficulties. Such money is only made available, however, after the recipients have agreed to policy reforms in their economies-- in short, to implement a structural adjustment program. Is structural adjustment working? No. Structural adjustment has exacerbated poverty in most countries where it has been applied, contributing to the suffering of millions and causing widespread environmental degradation. And since the 1980s, adjustment has helped create a net outflow of wealth from the developing world, which has paid out five times as much capital to the industrialized countries of the North as it has received. If structural adjustment doesn t work, then why are World Bank/ IMF economists and other experts they promoting it? The Northern countries which control the World Bank and IMF dictate the agendas of these institutions, and their interests (transnational corporate interests) are best served by defending the status quo. Furthermore, the Bank s staff is mostly dominated by economists who have spent their careers defending free market economics, the foundation of the World Rank model of development. This orthodox view holds sacred the efficiency of free markets and private producers and the benefits of international trade and competition. Given the lack of accountability to outside parties, there is little incentive for the Bank and LMF to alter the design of structural adjustment, even when faced with mounting evidence attesting to the failure of these programs. We heard a lot about the debt crisis in the Third World and know that many of the loans are owed to commercial banks and Northern governments. People say that some or all of this debt should be cancelled to give developing countries a chance to recover economically. Shouldn t they pay? Much of the debt held by third world governments dates back to 1970s, when it was lent irresponsibly by commercial banks and borrowed recklessly by foreign governments, most of which were not popularly elected and which no longer hold power. The advent of the debt crisis, which

7 occurred in the early 1980s due to a worldwide collapse in the prices of commodities that developing countries export (e.g., coffee, cocoa) and to rising oil prices and interest rates, forced these countries into a position where they were unable to make payments. Yet there s no such thing as bankruptcy protection for a country, regardless of the circumstances. When the U.S. department store Macy s filed for bankruptcy under chapter I 1 in January 1992, it received instant protection from creditors and working capital to keep open. At the same time, when Russia told the West that it could not its debt payments, the meet government had to wait for more than a year before the IMF provided financial help. What is the relationship between debt and structural adjustment? Since the 1980s the debt situation has steadily worsened, so that now the total debt of the developing world equals about one-half their combined GNP and nearly twice their total annual export earnings. Because of this crushing debt-service burden, foreign governments have virtually no bargaining power when negotiating a structural adjustment program and must accept any conditions imposed by the World Bank and the IMF. And SAPs themselves, by orienting economies toward export production in order to generate foreign exchange, are designed to ensure that debtor countries continue to make debt payments, further enriching Northern creditors at the expense of domestic programs in the South. How s the World Bank s record on responsible lending? In 1992, an internal World bank review found that more than a third of all Bank loans did not meet the. institution s own lending criteria and warned that the Bank had been overtaken by a dangerous culture of approval. Bank officials, in other words, felt heavy pressure to push through new loans even when presented with overwhelming evidence that the project in question was ill advised. Who makes decisions at the World Bank and IMF? Decisions at the World Bank and IMF are made by a vote of the Board of Executive Directors, which represents member countries. Unlike the United Nations, where each member nation has an equal vote, voting power at the World Bank and IMF is determined by the level of a nation s H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 7

8 financial contribution. Therefore, the United States has roughly 17% of the vote, with the seven largest industrialized countries (G-7) holding a total of 51%. Because of the scale of its contribution, the United States has always had a dominant voice and has at all times exercised an effective veto. At the same time, developing countries have relatively little power within the institution, which, through the programs and policies they decide to finance, have tremendous impact throughout local economies and societies. Furthermore, the President of the World Bank had been by tradition an American, and the IMF President a European. How is it that U.S. business and other companies benefit from the lending programs at the World Bank? Development projects undertaken with World Bank financing typically include money to pay for materials and consulting services provided by Northern countries. U.S. Treasury Department officials calculate that for every U.S.$I the United States contributes to international development banks, U.S. exporters win more than U.S.$2 in bank-financed procurement contracts. Why is this bad? Given this self-interest, the Bank tends to finance bigger, more expensive projects--which almost always require the materials and technical expertise of Northern contractors--and ignores smaller-scale, locally appropriate alternatives. The mission of the World Bank to alleviate poverty, not provide business for U.S. contractors. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) The UNDP is a complex and multilayered organization. This makes it extremely difficult to unravel the actual amounts being spent on various categories of activities. These program expenditures can include expenses for travel, meetings, consultants, and personnel. Outputs are even harder to define and measure. The UNDP has more than 3,200 employees and operates in 166 countries. More than 10 percent of its staff works in New York City. The UNDP operates on a biennial budget, with overall contributions

9 totalling for example, about $7.5 billion for 2006 and This included about $2 billion in regular contributions from donors, another $3 billion in donor cofinancing, and about $2.6 billion in recipient government cost sharing. Of its regular contributions, the UNDP spent only about $870 million on development programs in countries, and another $200 million on global and regional programs. Management and administration accounted for $729 million. The UNDP s goals include reducing poverty and achieving the Millennium Development Goals, expanding democratic governance, preventing crises and assisting in post crisis recovery, and promoting environmental protection and sustainable development. The agency also operates the system of resident coordinators by which the U.N. maintains almost universal representation in its member states. The UNDP does not ask its clients or its executive board to consider the opportunity cost of projects because it does not know how to measure it. Indeed, it is essentially impossible to link specific developmental outcomes to the presence or absence of U.N. development programs. This is not a failure unique to the U.N. It afflicts bilateral aid agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development, and many other governmental bureaucracies that produce outputs intended to contribute, catalyze, or stimulate activities by others. No one has yet devised a satisfactory way to judge the relative merits of such activities. Instead, UNDP funds are allocated on a political basis. Dollars donated to the UNDP are either earmarked by donors for specific uses in specific countries or allocated according to an entitlement process that ensures that every developing country receives a share of the available funds. In the latter case, projects are developed or chosen to fit the available funds. It is a top-down process in which opportunity cost is not considered except within each country s given allocation. United Nations Children Fund: (UNICEF) According to its mission statement, UNICEF (formerly known as the U.N. International Children s Emergency Fund) is mandated by the U.N. H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 9

10 General Assembly to advocate for the protection of children s rights, to help meet their basic needs and to expand their opportunities to reach their full potential. The organization is guided in this endeavor by the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a document that the United States never ratified because of its emphasis on the rights of children and governments over the rights of parents and because of its incompatibility with the U.S. federal system of government. As with the UNDP, determining what UNICEF actually does with its (extravagant) resources is extremely difficult based on documentation provided to member states and the public. The ACABQ notes that it wants UNICEF to present the biennial support budget in a clear manner and with the necessary degree of detail that would allow thorough analysis and scrutiny. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) UNFPA s mission statement epitomizes both the blurred focus and the mission creep that leads to so much duplication and overlap in the U.N. development system: UNFPA... is an international development agency that promotes the right of every woman, man and child to enjoy a life of health and equal opportunity. UNFPA supports countries in using population data for policies and programmes to reduce poverty and to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, every young person is free of HIV/AIDS, and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect. Like those of other U.N. development funds and programs, UNFPA budget presentations lack transparency and detail. According to the ACABQ, [UNFPA s budget] presentation, as it is currently formulated, continues to be too general and does not provide distinct information on links with specific programmes of work or activities. In addition, it does not allow assessment of cost effectiveness and the degree of achievement of expected results. The United States did not contribute to UNFPA for several years because of congressional restrictions on funding U.N. agencies that support the practice of coercive abortion. The Obama administration reinterpreted those restrictions and resumed funding in 2009.

11 The World Food Programme (WFP) While all the major U.N. development agencies also engage in emergency relief activities, the WFP could be considered a relief agency that also undertakes development programs. According to the WFP, its development aid temporarily frees the poor of the need to provide food for their families, giving them time and resources to invest in lasting assets such as better houses, clinics and schools, new agricultural skills and technology and, ultimately, a better future. Much of the WFP s income comes in response to specific appeals related to particular emergency situations. As of September 30, 2007, 76 percent of the $1.9 billion that it had received that year was for emergency response, and only 12 percent was for development activities. The total biennial budget was almost $6 billion, of which about $500 million was budgeted for development programs and about $375 million for program support and administrative expenses. International Labor Organization (ILO) The ILO has promulgated, since its inception, a long list of 187 conventions dealing with labor standards. The negotiation of many of these involved hair-splitting battles among developed-country delegates, with each country trying to enshrine its own particular vision of sound labor policy in international law. Meanwhile, delegates from many developing countries, who had neither the governmental institutional capability nor the political will to implement even the most basic workers rights, watched only on ensuring that the conventions included sufficient escape clauses and did not create any follow-up or enforcement mechanisms. The United States, which claims to have developed structure of labor laws to protect workers and regulate employment conditions, has chosen to ratify only 14 of the 187 conventions, viewing most as too rigid, incompatible with the U.S. federal regulatory regime, simply unnecessary, or irrelevant. The United States withdrew from the ILO from 1977 to In announcing the U.S. intent to withdraw, U.S. secretary of state Henry Kissinger said that the ILO members had H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 11

12 allowed workers and employers groups in the ILO s unique tripartite governing system to fall under the domination of governments, had shown an appallingly selective concern for human rights, had disregarded due process in condemning member states which happen to be the political target of the moment, and had increasingly politicized the organization. The WFTU had been repeatedly demanding the change in the system of elections to the Governing body of ILO and provide proportionate representation to all trends in the world trade union movements, including several independent, major national organisations. WFTU demands that the monopoly of the International Labour Organisation by one organisation (ITUC) should give way to a truely democratic set up at its International and Regional offices, treating all international trade union organisations fairly, equitably and without any discrimination. The Resolution adopted by the Asia-Pacific Regional Meeting of the WFTU in Delhi (followed by similar Resolutions of other Regional Conferences), is given below, which vindicates our position on ILO s functioning. *Resolution on ILO - adopted in the Delhi Asia-Pacific Regional Meeting of WFTU. The meeting noted with grave concern the discriminatory attitude of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) allowing the hegemony of one International trade Union in its Governing Body and the partisan attitude of the ILO in the Standards Committee etc. and unanimously adopted the following Resolution, to be sent to all concerned including DG of ILO, and UN and other International Organisations ; Trade Union Organisations; International Mass Media; Regional offices; TUIs etc. This Conference of W.F.T.U. affiliates and friendly organisations in the region of Asia-Pacific held in New Delhi on November 28-29, 2007, discussed the situation prevalent in the I.L.O. In pursuance of these discussions, the following Resolution is adopted.

13 The I.L.O., on the basis of its foundation and operation is obliged to face equally and in a democratic way all the trade unions, independent of their political, ideological, religious and racial differences. The discriminations for and against people are prohibited in the framework of the moral values and the objectives of the I.L.O. Unfortunately, this meeting notes, that for the last several years, the values of equality are being violated in an unimaginable way. These violations not only take place in the Geneva office, but they are also spread in the countries and regions where the I.L.O. has its services. In the Asia Pacific region also this kind of evaluation is justified based on many cases. Several discriminations are made against the W.F.T.U. and against its affiliates and friendly organizations, though W.F.T.U. was the first trade union organization to become member of the I.L.O. The violations and indifference are against the W.F.T.U. at all levels and in all sectors. This is also evident from the very composition of the Governing Body, to draw conclusions. The stock answer of the Director General is that elections take place.., is totally unsatisfactory as we are all aware as to how these elections are conducted. There is also involvement of money and corruption. The results are well known in advance. The way these elections are made, expose the I.L.O. and those who organize them. The character and the orientation of the I.L.O. are also slowly alienated. In place of promoting and defending the rights of workers and poor people, during the last decade, past achievements accomplished through struggles are already withdrawn or sought to be withdrawn. H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 13

14 Ironically, even decisions adopted by the I.L.O. are not equally applied. While the decisions concerning the dictatorship of Colombia are not implemented, almost every year we see how Cuba, Venezuela and certain other countries resisting the imperialist plans of USA and NATO are slandered. On the basis of all these facts, the meeting demand that this situation has to be altered positively. We demand that the I.L.O., has to treat again with objectivity and equality both the international trade union organizations. We demand change in the way that the Governing Body is elected. We demand transparency in the forthcoming elections of The two International Trade Union Organizations must be proportionally represented on the basis of their forces and support enjoyed by them. This is what is democracy based on the foundational principles of I.L.O. and the United Nations. We demand objectiveness and justice at all levels in all sectors in I.L.O. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) UNESCO is charged with the development of education, science, and culture. The United States has withdrawn from this U.N. body also and subsequently rejoined it. As might be expected in areas as politically sensitive as education and culture, UNESCO debates are highly charged. In science, the value that it once added in areas like oceanography by facilitating the interaction of scientists with their colleagues from nations has been eroded by the dramatic advances in communication technology that allow real-time connectivity between scientists anywhere in the world. The Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, one of UNESCO s recent ideas was adopted over opposition from the United States and a handful of other nations.

15 The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) FAO, another mammoth U.N. agency, is charged with helping to develop agricultural systems and increasing agricultural production and productivity. Like UNESCO, its core functions of data sharing, provision of expertise, and policy coordination are largely nugatory in the modern interconnected world. On the other hand, one core FAO function, the setting of food safety and plant health standards by the Codex Alimentarius and the International Plant Protection Convention, has become increasingly relevant and important as international trade in food has expanded. The World Health Organization (WHO) WHO is yet another large specialized U.N. agency with a mandate for development, in its case the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. With a budget of more than $4.2 billion for , WHO has had success in coordinating worldwide campaigns to eradicate smallpox and polio. It has tackled high-profile health issues such as tobacco control and HIV/AIDS with less success. Indeed, the United Nations Joint Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) was established as a separate agency to coordinate international aid flows in support of AIDS prevention and treatment programs. WHO is an organization with a noble purpose, but it lacks focus. Presumably, so noble a cause as advancing health would promote professionalism and international comity, yet WHO has often been paralyzed by politics. How the Important International Organisations function and Who Control them? The model of capitalism that has been presently made operative is that of a globalized capitalism or globalized free market. It claims to go beyond the concept of the market and aspires to become a global `social order. As an international arrangement, to become H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 15

16 an `order, three institutions are supposed to co-ordinate three related dimensions of the world economy from the angle of market mechanism. They are : (1) Short term foreign exchange arrangements to be dealt with by the International Monetary Fund, (2) Policies related to world trade are to be systematised by the World Trade Organisation, and (3) The subjects related to development process are to be handled by the IBRD, i.e. the World Bank. It is not widely known nor adequately appreciated that all the three institutions have been co-ordinated through the Final Text of the Uruguay Round. It says: With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy-making, the WTO shall cooperate, as appropriate, with the International Monetary Fund and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and its affiliated agencies. On the part of developed countries, there had been an effort to bring more and more subjects into the jurisdiction of the WTO as per the developmental needs of the developed countries and full commercial application of their technical advancement. Thus, during the Uruguay Round, the services sector was sought to be included into the GATT framework, whereas for the Ministerial Level Millennium Round of Talks in November 1999, bio-technology has been sought by the U.S. to be newly included in the agenda. India and other like-minded countries have rejected this move. Obvious and eminently instructive is the fact that there is no mention of the United Nations Organisation, which also deals with the problems of economic development and policies. Further, the UN charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights represent the core values of respect for life, liberty, justice, equality, tolerance, mutual respect and integrity. If these rights of all the people are to be respected, the great diversity of institutions and traditions is also to be equally respected. Therefore, countries around the world need flexibility in adapting economic policies and timing their implementation. The exclusion of UNO is not accidental or unintentional error of omission. In the UN, each member country has an equal right and value. In this sense, this organisation is equalitarian in its formal structure and cherished objectives. On the other hand, the IMF-WB- WTO represent unequal decision making-structures.

17 From the very beginning, the IMF and the World Bank have represented unequal economic structures. Even in the initial years of these institutions, in 1947, Prof G.D.H. Cole observed that The IMF and the IBRD established under the Bretton Woods Agreements, do not seem to be meant to have any organic relationship to the UNO Assembly or to the Economic and Social Council. The high mysteries of currency and banking seem thus to be lifted right out of UNO s scope, and to be placed in the hands of bodies in whose deliberations and decisions the leading financial countries, and especially the United States, will have the preponderant voice. He further observed that The truth is that none of the leading states has yet given the attention to the economic and social side of UNO. During the 50 years of the post-war period, this chasm between the IMF-WB-GATT ( later WTO) on the one hand, and the economic agencies of the UNO, on the other hand, has only widened. For example, the UNDP (in its Human Development Report, frankly criticized that Without strong governance, the dangers of global conflicts could be a reality of the 21 st century--- tradewars promoting national and corporate interests, uncontrolled financial volatility setting of civil conflicts. untamed global crime infecting safe neighbourhoods and criminalizing politics, business and police. The current debate is too geographically unbalanced, dominated by the largest economies-usually the G-7. The structures and processes for global policy-making are not representative. The key economic structures the IMF, World Bank, G-7, G-10, G-22, OECD, WTO are dominated by the large and rich countries. There is little transparency in decisions, and there is no structured forum for civil society institutions to express their views. Naturally, at the global level, if there has to be a development process in which the nations are given a freedom to choose forms and institutional patterns of development, then the UNO is to be preferred to the private-sector, market-oriented and MNC - dominated pattern of institutions. As Samir Amin observed, the genuine reform will not assume its real significance until, in its turn, the United Nations is transformed to become a real player in international affairs instead of the enforcer of the policies of the United States and its partners in H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 17

18 the North. In result, we get a perspective of a grand policy-battle being fought at the global level. The consequence of this battle has been the exactly opposite prescriptions emerging from these two sides for the developing countries. It has been continuously proclaimed that globalization is meant for creating competition. If we take a theoretical view of the Neo-classical model of either perfect or pure competition, then there have to be countless small producers and no control over market price by any of the firms. Obviously, the situation today is of a rapid trend towards formation of oligopolistic and monopolistic MNCs. It is acknowledged that `Without the active political intervention of the Reagen and Thatcher governments, and then of all the governments that chose to follow their lead, multinational corporations would not have been able to so swiftly and so radically do away with the restrictions that hitherto prevented them from acting as they pleased. Monopolization of Global System It is becoming increasingly clear that the developed countries want to bring under control the whole economic system in the name of free market machanism. Samir Amin has identified five major sectors that are proposed to be monopolized by these economies: (1) Technological monopoly. (2) Financial control of worldwide financial markets (3) Monopolistic access to the planet s natural resources. (4) Media and communication monopolies, and (5) Monopolies over weapons of mass destruction; these five monopolies taken together result in...a new hierarchy, more unequal than ever before, in the distribution of income on a world scale, subordinating them to the role of subcontracting. This is the new foundation of polarization. So far as the unequal distribution is concerned, capitalist international institutions adopt very strange positions. In the Global summit on Social Development organised by the U.S. in March 1995 at Copenhagen, the World Bank observed for Third World countries.

19 Minimum wages, unemployment insurance, redundancy payments and job-security legislation are of no use to rural and informal workers, who account for the majority of the poor in the developing countries. Here the World Bank does not take a view that minimum wages, unemployment insurance etc. need to be extended to rural and informal sector workers also. Vanishing National Economies and Diminishing Labour Survival: A former Supreme Court Judge in India observed: Gobalisation is a symbol of economic access to the whole globe without any tariff restriction, administrative ban or other legal bar even if such inhibition or hurdle is designed to promote the people s health, employment, use of natural resources or other public interest. This invasionary universality applies. under the Bank-Fund philosophy.. GATT treaties and WTO directives, to Trade and Investments and Services in their broadest connotations. All the laws and provisions of sovereign Constitutions must bend and bow before these supreme mandates and the WTO will prevail as final, notwithstanding the Supreme Courts. Labour legislation must submit to foreign corporate diktats and by use of the Social Clause, even wages may suffer W.T.O. directives. New technology which may eliminate the use of labour and inflict unemployment cannot he resisted. Mechanisation of agriculture and all forms of agribusiness, agrarian labour and rural employment may he gravely jeopardized, have to be accepted. Small scale industries and co-operatives, even tiny industries. face crisis unable to withstand competition from global gargantiias. Thereby heavy unemployment will he the fate of the natives. Giant trawlers harvesting fish and shrimp industries wiping out local fisher folk cannot resist the swarms of foreign corporations. According to the new economics, because, the world is one and its profits through trade, services and investments must submit to this materialist mantra whereby Big Business may operate with monopoly cat competitive processes, with no ethics except devil take the hindmost. The right to life, to health, shelter, food. clothing, education and cultural identity may he lofty constitutional principles but in the universe of W.T.O., big H. Mahadevan - International Organisations, Their Role today, International Corelations and behond 19

20 and small must swim or sink through struggle for survival of the fittest. Compassion and humanism, fundamental duties are no safety belt in the world bazaar of new economies. TRIPS. TRIMS, TRIS, M.A.I., GATT. W.T.O. and so on are aggressive acronyms of suprasovereign import. Their hidden agendas converge to proselytizing national economies into acceptance of the new religion of One World Market, One Corporate Universe, One Dollar Goal of Maximum Profit. The Macro-Global Corporate Power has no body to he burnt and no soul to be damned. Labour, the working class, will vanish if globalisation rolls on at full speed. The few who survive will be well paid and many given a golden handshake. Even advancing Technology has made the working class redundant, otiose, obsolete. Our Constitutional Social Justice promise will be fading footnotes in the history of the coining century. This is the Future Shock. The buzzword in the financial world is globalisation, with its Orwellian double speak semantics; This world has the chameleonic capability to be a friend and enemy at the same time. It is the latest game of corporate cannibal trying to occupy the economic space of the Third World with Exponential potential aided and abetted by fifth columnist enterprises. The world is one. It is united by market-hungry multinational corporations of the first World monopolising the resources of the third World, with the single global objective of maximum profits and dismantling national private pigmies and public sector industries. Labour and its rights are of no concern and social justice to the poor worker and gynogender are irrelevant to the grand goal of a captive world market. The rule of law must pay homage to this new supra-sovereign phenomenon beside which old imperialisms and socialist revolutions are obsolete and suffer suffocation. This is the New World Order with its cosmic mantra of globalisation, liberalisation and privatisation. If this relentless process proceeds without wave of popular resistance and crimson Constitutional counter attack, the syndrome of recolonisation and Have-Have-not dichotomic disaster may summon a neo-movement. It will be fuelled by a do or die sacrifice. Gargantuan corporations are the challenge of the new millennium, which means for the masses hellennium.

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