Latin American Research Network. Registration Form. The Quality of Education in LAC

Tamanho: px
Começar a partir da página:

Download "Latin American Research Network. Registration Form. The Quality of Education in LAC"

Transcrição

1 Latin American Research Network Registration Form The Quality of Education in LAC 1. Name of institution: Instituto Futuro Brasil 2. Name of the participants: Project Director: Naercio Aquino Menezes Filho Researcher 1: Creso Franco Researcher 2: Fabio Waltenberg Researcher 3: 3. Name, title, phone number and of the person responsible for signing the letter of agreement with the Bank: Name: Regina Carla Madalozzo Title: Director of IFB Phone Number: Fax: Name of institution: Escola de Economia de São Paulo - Fundação Getúlio Vargas 5. Name of the participants: Project Director: André Portela Souza Researcher 1: Aloisio Araújo Researcher 2: Gabriel Buchmann Researcher 3: Marcelo Neri Researcher 4: Paulo Picchetti Researcher 5: Vladimir Ponczek 6. Name, title, phone number and of the person responsible for signing the letter of agreement with the Bank: Name: Yoshiaki Nakano Title: Director, Escola de Economia de São Paulo Fundação Getúlio Vargas Phone Number: Fax:

2 Instituto Futuro Brasil & Escola de Economia de São Paulo Fundação Getúlio Vargas The Quality of Education in Brazil Research Proposal Inter-American Development Bank June 2007

3 Research Team Instituto Futuro Brasil (IFB) Naercio Aquino Menezes-Filho (Leader) - IFB Creso Franco - PUC- RJ Fabio Waltenberg - IETS Escola de Economia de São Paulo e Escola de Pós-Graduação em Economia Fundação Getúlio Vargas (EESP/EPGE-FGV) Aloísio Araújo - EPGE-FGV Gabriel Buchmann CPS/IBRE-FGV Marcelo Néri - EPGE-FGV Paulo Picchetti - EESP- FGV Vladimir Ponczek - EESP- FGV André Portela Souza (Leader) - EESP- FGV

4 Introduction The human capital is one of the main determinants of the rate economic growth and level of welfare in a country and formal education is one of the most important components of human capital. The process of educational attainment in Brazil can be described as backward (even) when compared to less developed countries and highly skewed in favor of a privileged slice of the population. The debate over the importance of education as a factor explaining Brazil s income inequality is intense, with the leading current of opinion being that the distribution of schooling is the main causal factor explaining this inequality, by generating productivity differences among individuals that last throughout their lifetimes [Menezes-Filho (2001)]. Substantial improvements have been observed in Brazilian education in terms of quantitative indicators, both in terms of flow variables (decreased average delay, decreased fraction of delayed children, increased gross and net enrollment rates) and in terms of stock variables (increased average years of schooling, reduced illiteracy rates), as shown in table 1. However, there is still considerable room for improvements in those respects, given that the country is clearly still very far from a situation of universal access to all levels of education, with acceptable drop out rates in each level. Another insufficiency is that recent changes have not led to a homogeneous pattern across the country. Indeed, there is huge variation across regions, states and metropolitan areas. For example, illiteracy rate among children (10-14 years old) is 0.4% in the metropolitan area of Curitiba and 3.8% in Fortaleza; the fraction of children (7-14 years old) at school is 98.4% in the state of Santa Catarina and 89.1% in that of Maranhão; net enrollment rate at secondary school: 66.6% in the state of São Paulo; 22.1% in that of Alagoas. 1 Table 1 Education Indicators 1 Source: Brazilian household surveys (PNAD) compiled by the Brazilian IETS (www.iets.org.br).

5 Finally, and more importantly, while the numbers above suggest that a quantitative change has taken place, they do not indicate it has been accompanied by a qualitative improvement. It is not enough to make sure pupils go to school; they should be learning something there. Unfortunately, there are reasons to believe this is not happening in Brazil. Recent evidence indicates the average quality of education in the country is low and it is unequally distributed among its population, as compared to the situation found in many countries, both internationally and regionally (Latin America). 2 According to a study conducted by Ministry of Education in 2003, for example, 55% of students who complete fourth grade have reading performance considered critical or very critical, and in the Northeast and North regions this percentage reaches 70% and 66%, respectively. This dismal performance is also observed in nearly 40% of students who complete the third year of high school. Once again the regional disparities stand out: in the South 29% have a reading level deemed critical or very critical, while 2 See, for example, how (bad) Brazil compares to other countries in: OECD (2001, 2004a, 2004b), Ravela (2004), Waltenberg (2005), Willms (2006), Hanushek & Wössman (2007).

6 in the North and Northeast, these percentages are much larger, at 51% and 48%, respectively [SAEB (2004)]. Therefore, this project intends to examine in more detail the quality of education in Brazil, to understand its main determinants and to verify the impact of the quality of education on future socioeconomic outcomes, such as wages, inequality and health. The main objectives of the proposal are: 1- Decompose the factors that contribute to education quality in Brazil (topics 1 and 2) 2- Compare education quality in Brazil with that of other Latin American and South European countries (topic 3) 3- Investigate the impact of education quality on wages and early pregnancy (topics 4 and 5) 4- Analyze the design of efficient education policies (topic 6) This proposal consists of six additional sections and 2 annexes. Each of the following sections below describes the specific topic it intends to cover in the project, together with the main data sets to be used in each topic. We then present the bibliographic references, the budget and the CVs of all the researchers participating in the project in the annexes. 1) Decomposition of the Quality of Education Fundação Getulio Vargas In this topic we plan to investigate the relative importance of the schools characteristics, the student characteristics and the teacher characteristics on the quality of education. It will be accomplished by applying different methods of decomposition on test results on the SAEB and Prova Brasil datasets. The main question to be answered is the following: Of all the total dispersion of test-results, how much is due to school, student, and teacher characteristics? This question will be answered by using three different methodologies Data Sources: SAEB and Prova Brasil Tha dataset to be used are the SAEB dataset and, conditional upon availability, the Prova Brasil dataset. It is collected by the Anísio Teixeira National Institute of Studies and Research (INEP) from the

7 Ministry of Education of Brazil. 3 SAEB dataset (Sistema de Avaliação de Educação Básica) consists of microdata on students proficiency test-scores on portuguese and mathematics for students of the 4 th and 8 th grades of the primary education, and 3 th grade of the secondary education. It also includes two questionnaires that elicit information on the family background of the student and on the school characteristics. It runs every two years since 1995 and its sample is stratified to be representative at different levels (with some variations across the years), e.g., grade levels, state and national levels, public and private schools, metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas. It is important to note that it is not a panel data. Rather, it is a series of cross-section data where the students take only one of the two exams, Portuguese or Mathematics. The most recent year available is The Prova Brazil dataset is a set of data on proficiency test-scores collected also by the Anísio Teixeira National Institute of Studies and Research (INEP). It is intended to cover most of students and the 4 th and 8 th grades of the primary education in More precisely, it includes all students in urban public schools with at least 30 students in the respective grade. The exams are in Portuguese and Mathematics as well. Differently from SAEB, it is representative at the municipality level and the student takes both Portuguese and Math exams. It also includes information on the student family background. 1.2 The Methodologies Three different methodologies will be used to decompose the test results into school characteristics, student characteristics, and teacher characteristics. The first two methods will explore the correlations of observable characteristics and the test scores. The third one will make a further effort to disentangle the effect of quality of education from other critical unobservable inputs Regression-Based Approach Decomposition The first method to be used is the Regression-Based Approach decomposition of inequality developed by Morduch and Sicular (2002). It is the decomposition method by factor components developed by Shorrocks (1982) extended to the linear regression analysis. Its advantages are that it is very flexible and fits in our objective easily. First, it admits OLS, weighted least squares, quantile regressions, 3

8 and corrections for endogeneity. Second, it is an exact decomposition (the sum of the parts adds to one) and yields an exact allocation of the contributions of each variables. Third, it can be applied to many different inequality indices that satisfy the most common required properties of inequality indices plus the property of uniform additions. This property states that measured inequality should fall if everyone in the population receives a positive transfer of equal size. This property is implied by the transfer axiom and the scale invariance axiom. The Gini, the Coeficient of Variation and the Theil-T indices satisfy this property. Briefly, the authors start with a linear equation y = i X i β + ε i where y i can be the proficiency score of student i and X is a vector of M x 1 explanatory variables that m include student, school, and teacher characteristics, and ε i is the error term. Note that y i = yˆ i, for all i, m m m where yˆ i = βˆ m xi for m = 1,..,M, and yˆ i = εˆ i for m = M+1. These estimated test-scores can then be used to directly compute decomposition components for all regression variables. The share of variable m of total M 1 + m=1 inequality index I(y) take the general form of s m m a i ( y) xi = ˆ i β m, for m = 1,,M. The term a i (y) will I( y) depend on the particular index used that can be written as a weighted sum of factor components. Examples for the Gini, CV and Theil-T can be found in Morduch and Sicular (2002) Hierarchical Models The advantage of the first method is that is simple. It gives us the first approximation to the relative importance of the observable characteristics of schools, students, and teachers on test results. However, the drawbacks are that it does not take into account the fact the variables have different levels of aggregation and that it does not control for possible unobservable characteristics correlated with observable characteristics and test results. The first drawback can be circumvented by a second method that uses multilevel models to assess school performance. When analyzing the determinants of students performance, one is normally interested in modeling a response variable such as a test score or any other measure related to 4

9 proficiency or well-being. This variable can be continuous, discrete or even categorical, but in all circumstances, the interest lies on the relationship between this variable and a set of explanatory variables representing known characteristics of students. The rationale for using multilevel models rests on the issue of exploring the fundamental relationships between different forms of aggregating the data. At one extreme we can, for example, work with school averages when investigating the relationships between the response and explanatory variables, while at the other extreme we could analyze the same relationships using data at the students level, ignoring the effects caused by the fact that these students are grouped in different schools. Some studies, such as Aitkin et alli (1986) and Woodhouse and Goldstein (1989), demonstrate that results are not robust when ignoring these issues of aggregation. When the different levels of aggregation are explicitly considered, it is possible to analyze the interaction between these levels in terms of their relation to the response variable. It is possible to simultaneously model data containing information on individual students, the classrooms (and teachers) they are part of, their families, their schools, and even some meaningful group of schools such as determined for instance by geographic location. A simple relationship between a response variable and a explanatory variable illustrates the point. If we index students in a sample by i, and schools by j, the values observed for a response variable can be represented by y ij, and the values for an explanatory variable by x ij. Assuming a linear form, the relationship between these variables can be modeled as y ij = 0 + β1x ij β + ε ij If we estimate this model by traditional methods such as Ordinary Least Squares, the residual term will necessarily capture all the non-modeled relationships between students and their schools, and these will remain unexplained. One possibility is to include dummy variables for schools, which will then control for differences in the intercept between the schools. One can even interact these dummy variables with the explanatory variable, obtaining different values for the associated coefficient, one for each school in the data sample. This approach faces statistical problems in terms of decreased efficiency (due to the large 4 For more details, see Morduch and Sicular (2002).

10 number of coefficients to be estimated), but mainly from a lack of a probabilistic structure to capture the important relationships between the different levels contained in the information in the data. Multilevel models will explicitly circumvent these shortcomings assuming that the coefficients are allowed to vary between units in a probabilistic way. We can assume, for example: Coefficients are now random around a common value, assuming particular values for each unit of the analysis. The relationships between the effects among these units are captured by the matrix of correlations of these coefficients. These models have been applied to a variety of problems, including assessing education performance. A good survey of the techniques and applications can be found in Goldstein (1987). The technique is general in the sense that the number of levels is part of the specification of the model, along with the included explanatory variables and their functional forms. Each of the explanatory variables can have associated coefficients at any of the different levels, with the benefit of statistical inference tools to decide when it is appropriate or not to allow the coefficients to be random (capturing the differences between the levels) or not. Therefore, with the available information on students backgrounds, one can tentatively specify models to capture the impacts of students characteristics, such as gender, but also on their belonging to specific households, classrooms, schools and geographic regions upon measures of their academic performance. Algorithms implementing the statistical inference procedures involved in this class of models are found in dedicated software, such as MlWin, and general-purpose statistical software, such as STATA Structural Model Using Minimum Distance Estimators

11 The fist and second method have the potential problem of not ideally controlling for the potential bias of unobservable characteristics correlated with school, student, and teacher characteristics. One way to tackle this issue is to estimate a structural model that formally assumes the presence of unobservable characteristics. A third method to be used is the estimation of a structural panel model using minimum distance estimators. It tries to extract information about the unobservable characteristics of the student by exploring the correlation of test-scores of Portuguese and Math of the same student of the Prova Brasil. Of course, this part of the project will be carried out only if the data is available on time. The advantage of this method is that, under specific assumptions, it controls for some unobservable variables that are correlated with the observable inputs and outcomes as well. This is a variance component model that establishes how much of the total variance of the testscores are due to (unobservable) student effect and other effects. The structure of the model can vary depending on the degrees of freedom and can include observable variables as well. For simplicity, suppose the test-scores depend on individual fixed effect plus a random shock. Formally, let additive form: N isp be the grade of student i in school s in exam p (normalized to mean 0) assumes the N isp = μ + ε, i isp where: 2 μ = student fixed effect with N(0, ) i σ μ 2 ε = error term with N(0, ) i σ ε Supose: E[ μ i, ε isp ] = 0, p ε, ε ] = ρ, for the same i. E[ isp isp` The variance-covariance system is given by (when two exams are considered): V 2 2 ( N isp ) = σ μ + σ ε

12 V ( 2 2 N isp = σ μ + σ ε `) COV ( N, N isp isp`) = σ 2 μ + ρ There are three observed moments in this system: Two variances and one covariance. One can estimate the parameters σ 2 μ, σ 2 eρ using the observed moments. The ratio ε 2 σ μ V ( N isp ) gives the relative importance of the student effect on the total variance of scores. In this example, this system is exactly identified. However, if one considers different states, regions, school systems, etc. as different moments, an over-identified system can be estimated. Moreover, one can start with a regression equation where the observable student characteristics are added. The computed residual can then be used to decompose its variance into the two components. The comparisons with the two results can give us an idea of the relative weight of observable variables to explain total student effect. The same can be done for schools and teachers. Of course, different models can be estimated and the refinement of them will depend on the degrees of freedom available. The estimation can be done and the over-identification restrictions tested by using of minimum distance estimation as in Chamberlain (1982, 1984) and Abowd and Card (1989). 2) Identifying Classroom and School Effects using Longitudinal data Instituto Futuro Brasil 2.1 Research Questions (a) To what extent students achievement varies between classrooms and between schools? (b) Which classroom and schools features promotes students learning? (c) Which classrooms and schools feature promotes a more equitable social distribution of learning within classrooms and schools? 2.2 Method Design

13 Almost all attempts to study school effect in Latin American countries have important limitation, related to the cross sectional feature of most database available. The quotations below stress this methodological point boldly: "[Due to] the cross-sectional nature of data, problems of causal inference are daunting." (Raudenbush, Fotiu e Cheong 1998). "A common obstacle to carrying out appropriate adjustments when modelling examination results is the lack of suitable prior achievement measures". (Goldstein 1995). "If only cross sectional data are used, whether with aggregate or individual level data, it is not possible to make inferences about the 'effectiveness' of schools". (Goldstein, Huiqi, Rath e Hill 1995). "A major strength of these two studies is their longitudinal designs, which allow us to investigate learning (which measures change over time in academic status) rather than achievement (which is a status measure). The ability to demonstrate how schools influence the students who attend them is strengthened by being able to take into account the status of these students at the point that they enter the schools (specially their academic status)." (Lee 2001) "To establish appropriate estimates of a school's improvement over time a number of components must be brought together. This, in our view, includes measures of outcomes and prior attainment on individual pupils; data from 3 or (preferably) more years; a multilevel statistical analysis; an orientation towards examining the data for systematic changes in school performance over time." (Gray, Jesson, Goldstein, Hedger e Rasbash 1999). "The fact that very few studies, if any, satisfy the minimum conditions for satisfactory inference, suggest that few positive conclusions can be derived from existing evidence. The minimum conditions can be summarized as: that a study is longitudinal so that pre-existing student differences and subsequent contingent events among institutions can be taken into account; that a proper multilevel analysis is undertaken so that statistical inferences are valid and in particular that 'differential effectiveness' is explored; that some replication over time and

14 space is undertaken to support reliability; that some plausible explanation of the process whereby schools become effective is available. (Goldstein 1997) Data and measures We are going to use panel data, gathered by the GERES project. The GERES project is financed by the Ford Foundation, by the Brazilian National Research Council and the Ministry of Education. It follows around 20 thousand students who attend 303 schools, in five major Brazilian cities. Up to now, the study collected three waves of data: baseline data, at the beginning of 1 st grade (March 2005); end of 1 st grade data (November 2005); and end of 2 nd year data (November 2006). Although the project is going to collect additional data on November 2007 and on November 2008, we are going to use the data that have already been collected in waves 1 to 3. The GERES project is a joint project of six Brazilian Universities and one member of our team is the coordinator of the Geres project. The cities were chosen as a consequence of the location of the Universities that are collaborating in the GERES project. Considering the whole population of schools offering 1 st grade education in these cities, a probabilistic sample, stratified by city, sector and level of resources available, were taken. Once a school was selected all 1 st grade classrooms and students were selected. These students were followed in subsequent waves, even if they repeated grade. Although the project did not followed students that moved for schools outside the school sample, every effort was taken to gather information, including school academic records, on leaving students. This, along with the decision of measuring students that repeated a grade, create a good context to differentiating value added from selection. In each wave students took a reading and mathematics test and teachers were asked to fill a questionnaire on their background, classroom features and school features. In wave 1 and wave 3 principals filled a questionnaire. Around wave 2, parents filled a small questionnaire with basic family background information (place of residence, father and mother education, father and mother occupation, family access to services and to consumption goods, as a proxy of income). Variables available on classroom and schools are classified in the following categories: (a) classroom social composition; (b) school social composition;

15 (c) classroom resources and size; (d) school resources and size; (e) classroom climate and practice; (f) school academic climate Analytical Approach Analytical approach is based on the hierarchical structure of data. It includes a preliminary step of partition of variance in its three components, between-students-within-classrooms, between-classroomswithin-schools and between schools. This is going to be estimate for both achievement in each wave and achievement in each wave controlled by previous achievement. As the concept of classroom does not hold for more than one academic year, classroom effect is going to be investigated based on two subsequent waves (wave 1 and 2; wave 2 and 3). Two and three levels hierarchical linear models will be estimated. For school effect, it will also be useful to use achievement of wave 3 as the dependent variable and to use achievement in wave 1 as the prior achievement control. 3) Benchmarking of Brazil s Education Performance Instituto Futuro Brasil The objectives of this part of the research are the following: 1. To assess more precisely how low and unequally distributed the quality of education is in Brazil, both in a regional perspective (Latin America), and in a more global perspective. 2. To compare Brazil with other countries (and complementarily to compare Brazilian intra-national units), in terms of patterns of educational inequality and of educational inequity. After finishing this research, we would like to be able to identify more clearly the characteristics of quality of education in Brazil which are similar to those found in other countries, as well as those characteristics which are unique to the Brazilian case. In order to accomplish the two main objectives stated above, we will use PISA 2003 datasets.

16 3.1 - Research steps Firstly, we will summarize, interpret, and contextualize all the available findings concerning the performance in an international perspective of Brazilian students in PISA 2003, such as those contained in the studies made by: Ravela (2004), OECD (2004a and 2004b), and Sprietsma (2007). Whenever relevant and feasible, we will compare those findings with those related to PISA 2000, such as: OECD (2001), Willms (2006), Brazil s national report for PISA 2000 (INEP, 2001), our own previous study (Waltenberg, 2005), and Fuchs and Wössman (2007). We would like to provide a precise description of the education quality in the country, and an idea of its evolution in three years (from PISA 2000 to PISA 2003). This initial descriptive exercise is all the more important if we take into account the fact that the Brazilian educational authorities have not published a national report analyzing PISA For the international comparisons, we will compare Brazil s results with those of other Latin American countries. But we also plan to compare the performance of students from Southern European countries, which share some cultural characteristics with Latin American countries (Portugal and Spain in particular) and which could be taken as a more useful benchmark than much more developed and/or culturally-distant countries like Northern and Eastern European, Asian, and Anglo-Saxon countries. Secondly, due to Brazil s vast territorial extension, its large and diverse population, and also due to the heterogeneity verified in terms of quantitative educational indicators (mentioned above), it is important to make further analysis at the intra-national level (according to the type of school students attend, to its location, etc.), along the same lines followed by the studies mentioned in the previous paragraphs (detailed descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, multilevel/cluster analysis etc.). We will come up with new results, mapping the situation in terms of quality of education inside the country. Thirdly, given the importance of quality of education along the whole distribution (cf. IDB, 2007), given the unenviable record of Brazil in this respect, and finally given the fact that we dispose of a unique dataset which allows us, both to compare Brazil to a great number of countries, and to compare Brazilian intra-

17 national units to some extent, we will devote some efforts in order to investigate patterns of educational inequality and educational inequity. Finally, we will interpret, discuss, and put into perspective our results, trying to distinguish those which are specific to the Brazilian case from those which are relevant for other countries emphasizing how our results can be relevant to policy-making. 3-2 Data source: PISA 2003 We plan to work with PISA 2003, a choice which provides a series of advantages, and is restricted by a few limitations. In what follows, the advantages and limitations are described, both generally (regarding all countries) and specifically (regarding Brazil). PISA 2003 not only is the most recent, but also it is to-date the most complete student achievement dataset in terms of the number of participating countries and of the number of students represented by the samples. PISA datasets also provide detailed information on students background and schools functioning conditions, which paves the way for describing a great number of relationships between students and schools characteristics with students performance. In particular, it is possible to decompose test results into students, schools, and teacher characteristics, with potential policy implications. Moreover, the focus of PISA is not restricted to assessing students knowledge, but also to evaluate their ability to reflect, and to apply their knowledge and experience to real-world issues (OECD, 2003: 9), which is of paramount importance in today s world. An additional virtue of those datasets is comparability, since it is possible to compare results drawn from PISA 2003 with those of the two sets of assessments which compose the first cycle (PISA 2000 and PISA Plus in 2002), and it will be possible to compare them with future cycles, planned to take place every three years. Finally, PISA data and scales occupy a privileged status a kind of currency of school quality in the protocols that are being develop by Hanushek & Wössman (2007) for pooling and analyzing different test scores data. It is also relevant to compare Brazilian education quality to that of countries which are more similar to Brazil in different respects. We would like to include in this subset of countries, not only Latin- American countries (which are the closest ones), but also the two Iberian countries (given their cultural

18 similarities with Latin American countries 5 ), and finally other Southern European countries (which have relatively similar culture patterns, and while being more developed than Latin American countries, they are not as far in terms of culture or development as Northern and Eastern European, Asian, or Anglo-Saxon countries are). By proceeding this way, we will be able to more carefully compare Brazil to a group of seven countries (ten if we include countries evaluated in the previous cycle of PISA) 6, in a similar vein of the one adopted in the Uruguay PISA 2003 national report (Ravela, 2004) to compare that country with other small-scale countries. An additional reason for analyzing education quality in Brazil by means of the PISA datasets relies on the shortness of studies of such data made by Brazilian researchers. To the best of our knowledge, there is little published, or on-going, research undertaken in the country using these datasets. One reason for that scarcity is certainly the fact that many researchers have chosen to focus on the national equivalent of PISA (the so-called SAEB), which is quite useful for intra-country analysis, as discussed the first topic of this proposal. The main limitation of PISA is the difficulty in inferring causality about the relationships unveiled by the data, as acknowledged by Willms (2006: pp. 55 and 71-72). That is due to the following features: (i) the cross-sectional design nature of the data and the absence of random assignment of students to treatment and control groups; (ii) test scores at the age 15 reflect the cumulative effect of a series of factors over a long period of time, and not only the recent impact of schools; (iii) there is no information on the classroom level, but only at individual and school level. This latter point is also highlighted in the PISA Data Analysis Manual (OECD, 2005: chapter 13). Yet, it is useful to employ PISA data as a powerful descriptive device, as pointed out by Willms (2006), with presumable policy implications. One limitation which is specific to Brazil is the very low coverage of 15-year-old Brazilians both in PISA 2003 (around 54% of the cohort) and in PISA 2000 (around 2/3 of the cohort) which is due to the 5 The recently-created research network Ibero-American PISA Group (or GIP) is an evidence of the increasing interest of such kind of comparison. 6 Greece, Italy, Mexico, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, Uruguay took part in PISA Argentina, Peru, Chile took part in PISA Plus in Colombia joined this group of countries in PISA 2006.

19 high dropout rates of very young pupils in the country. 7 This is a problem which would affect any data collected in Brazil, and whose procedure was focused in schools. It is thus a problem which is common to other education quality datasets regarding Brazil. In any case, all the results should be interpreted taking into account this limitation. Additionally, some variables (manually coded items) are not available for Brazil in PISA 2003 because Brazil did not submit them on time (OECD, 2005: p. 240), but that should not constitute a major problem for our analysis. Finally, in PISA 2003, while information is available for relevant strata (regions, private/publicstate/public-municipal, school size, urban/rural, school infrastructure index), there is no information on some important disaggregated levels (state, metropolitan/not, suburban/central), which is an important limitation for a more detailed description of education quality in Brazil. This limitation is partially compensated in another part of this research project, which uses the SAEB data Methodology Due to the nested nature of the data, HLM (or multilevel or clusters) regressions 8 will also be estimated in this part of the proposal, in order to distinguish inter-individual variance from inter-school variance, as discussed in topic 1 above. Various studies, including Hanushek & Wössman (2007), maintain that teachers quality is of paramount importance for learning. Moreover, according to OECD data, teachers wages account for around ¾ of total expenditures on primary and secondary education in Brazil in the beginning of the 2000s. So clearly, while teachers characteristics are a component of the more general category of school inputs, both due to its impact on learning and due to its cost, it is advisable to include specific variables describing them in the estimations. We will take the models proposed and estimated by Willms (2006: p.57), Dumay & Dupriez (2004), Sprietsma (2007) and Fuchs and Wössman (2007) as a departure point for the international comparisons using all the countries data. Then we will check alternative specifications, taking into account relevant 7 This problem is also mentioned in Hanushek & Wössman (2007: Section 5), when they try to calculate the overall literacy in different developing countries by combining household surveys and test scores data. 8 Bryk & Raudenbush (1992), Wooldridge (2002).

20 specificities of Brazil and of the subset of countries described above (Latin-American plus Southern European countries). To assess educational inequality, both across countries and across Brazilian intra-national units, we will apply to the PISA data of usual distributional analysis tools, such as dominance analysis and decomposable inequality indices. To assess educational inequity, both across countries and across Brazilian intra-national units, we will calculate SES gradients and school profiles (e.g., Willms, 2006; Vandenberghe & Zachary, 2000). But we will also employ recently developed opportunity-dominance analysis tools (Pistolesi et al., 2005, Lefranc et al., 2006) and indices of equality of educational opportunity (Checchi & Peragine, 2005), which are based, or try to go beyond, the normative framework stated by Roemer (1998), and which we have recently explored using SAEB data (Waltenberg, 2007). 4) Effects of the Quality of Education on Earnings Instituto Futuro Brasil In this topic we intend to investigate and quantify the impact of the quality of education on future wages in Brazil, using a pseudo-panel formed of groups of individuals born in 1977/78 in various States and followed until Methodology Many international studies show that educational quality positively influences individuals future wages [Murnane et. al. (1995), Murphy and Peltzman (2004)], their probability of continuing on to higher education [Rivkin (1995)] and countries economic growth [Bishop (1989), Hanushek and Kimko (2000)]. The econometric analysis we propose to carry out in this topic will use a pseudo-panel and correct for selection bias. The literature on pseudo-panels was pioneered by Browning et al. (1985), and the technique is used by researchers who do not have panel data, but instead various mutually independent cross sections in which different individuals are interviewed in each period. The objective of this technique is to overcome the limits of the cross sections, while using their advantages in relation to panel data. The limitations result from the fact that the researcher does not have lagged values for the variables, which in

The Indigenous Population of Brazil 1991 Population Census

The Indigenous Population of Brazil 1991 Population Census The Indigenous Population of Brazil 1991 Population Census Authors: Nilza Oliveira Martins Pereira (principal author), Tereza Cristina Nascimento Araujo, Valéria Beiriz, Antonio Florido- IBGE The definition

Leia mais

UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO FACULDADE DE EDUCAÇÃO JOÃO FÁBIO PORTO. Diálogo e interatividade em videoaulas de matemática

UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO FACULDADE DE EDUCAÇÃO JOÃO FÁBIO PORTO. Diálogo e interatividade em videoaulas de matemática UNIVERSIDADE DE SÃO PAULO FACULDADE DE EDUCAÇÃO JOÃO FÁBIO PORTO Diálogo e interatividade em videoaulas de matemática São Paulo 2010 JOÃO FÁBIO PORTO Diálogo e interatividade em videoaulas de matemática

Leia mais

Infraestrutura, Gestão Escolar e Desempenho em Leitura e Matemática: um estudo a partir do Projeto Geres

Infraestrutura, Gestão Escolar e Desempenho em Leitura e Matemática: um estudo a partir do Projeto Geres Naira da Costa Muylaert Lima Infraestrutura, Gestão Escolar e Desempenho em Leitura e Matemática: um estudo a partir do Projeto Geres Dissertação de Mestrado Dissertação apresentada como requisito parcial

Leia mais

Banca examinadora: Professor Paulo N. Figueiredo, Professora Fátima Bayma de Oliveira e Professor Joaquim Rubens Fontes Filho

Banca examinadora: Professor Paulo N. Figueiredo, Professora Fátima Bayma de Oliveira e Professor Joaquim Rubens Fontes Filho Título: Direção e Taxa (Velocidade) de Acumulação de Capacidades Tecnológicas: Evidências de uma Pequena Amostra de Empresas de Software no Rio de Janeiro, 2004 Autor(a): Eduardo Coelho da Paz Miranda

Leia mais

BR-EMS MORTALITY AND SUVIVORSHIP LIFE TABLES BRAZILIAN LIFE INSURANCE AND PENSIONS MARKET

BR-EMS MORTALITY AND SUVIVORSHIP LIFE TABLES BRAZILIAN LIFE INSURANCE AND PENSIONS MARKET BR-EMS MORTALITY AND SUVIVORSHIP LIFE TABLES BRAZILIAN LIFE INSURANCE AND PENSIONS MARKET 2015 1 e-mail:mario@labma.ufrj.br Tables BR-EMS, mortality experience of the Brazilian Insurance Market, were constructed,

Leia mais

GUIÃO Domínio de Referência: CIDADANIA E MULTICULTURALISMO

GUIÃO Domínio de Referência: CIDADANIA E MULTICULTURALISMO PROJECTO PROVAS EXPERIMENTAIS DE EXPRESSÃO ORAL DE LÍNGUA ESTRANGEIRA - 2005-2006 Ensino Secundário - Inglês, 12º ano - Nível de Continuação 1 1º Momento GUIÃO Domínio de Referência: CIDADANIA E MULTICULTURALISMO

Leia mais

Educação Vocacional e Técnica nos Estados Unidos. Érica Amorim Simon Schwartzman IETS

Educação Vocacional e Técnica nos Estados Unidos. Érica Amorim Simon Schwartzman IETS Educação Vocacional e Técnica nos Estados Unidos Érica Amorim Simon Schwartzman IETS Os principais modelos Modelo europeu tradicional: diferenciação no secundário entre vertentes acadêmicas e técnico-profissionais

Leia mais

Project Management Activities

Project Management Activities Id Name Duração Início Término Predecessoras 1 Project Management Activities 36 dias Sex 05/10/12 Sex 23/11/12 2 Plan the Project 36 dias Sex 05/10/12 Sex 23/11/12 3 Define the work 15 dias Sex 05/10/12

Leia mais

Murillo de Andrade Berti 4ALEN, 2015

Murillo de Andrade Berti 4ALEN, 2015 No work! No school! In its latest paper, IBGE pointed to a significant growth of a part of young Brazilians who neither work or study: so called "No-No Generation". The most recent National Research revealed

Leia mais

T Ã O B O M Q U A N T O N O V O

T Ã O B O M Q U A N T O N O V O D I S S E R T A Ç Ã O D E M E S T R A D O M A S T E R I N G D I S S E R T A T I O N A V A L I A Ç Ã O D A C O N D I Ç Ã O D E T Ã O B O M Q U A N T O N O V O U M A A P L I C A Ç Ã O E N V O L V E N D O

Leia mais

User interface evaluation experiences: A brief comparison between usability and communicability testing

User interface evaluation experiences: A brief comparison between usability and communicability testing User interface evaluation experiences: A brief comparison between usability and communicability testing Kern, Bryan; B.S.; The State University of New York at Oswego kern@oswego.edu Tavares, Tatiana; PhD;

Leia mais

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL. To be considered Charity of the Year applicants should meet the following requirements:

ST. PAUL S SCHOOL. To be considered Charity of the Year applicants should meet the following requirements: ST. PAUL S SCHOOL CHARITY OF THE YEAR APPLICATION FORM How to apply for funding 1. Application - Requirements and Conditions To be considered Charity of the Year applicants should meet the following requirements:

Leia mais

Self-reported diabetes: a feasible solution for national surveys in developing countries as Brazil.

Self-reported diabetes: a feasible solution for national surveys in developing countries as Brazil. Self-reported diabetes: a feasible solution for national surveys in developing countries as Brazil. Valéria M. Azeredo Passos, Janaina Caldeira Pereira, Sandhi Maria Barreto INTRODUCTION Type 2 diabetes

Leia mais

ACFES MAIORES DE 23 ANOS INGLÊS. Prova-modelo. Instruções. Verifique se o exemplar da prova está completo, isto é, se termina com a palavra FIM.

ACFES MAIORES DE 23 ANOS INGLÊS. Prova-modelo. Instruções. Verifique se o exemplar da prova está completo, isto é, se termina com a palavra FIM. ACFES MAIORES DE 23 ANOS INGLÊS Prova-modelo Instruções Verifique se o exemplar da prova está completo, isto é, se termina com a palavra FIM. A prova é avaliada em 20 valores (200 pontos). A prova é composta

Leia mais

Multicriteria Impact Assessment of the certified reference material for ethanol in water

Multicriteria Impact Assessment of the certified reference material for ethanol in water Multicriteria Impact Assessment of the certified reference material for ethanol in water André Rauen Leonardo Ribeiro Rodnei Fagundes Dias Taiana Fortunato Araujo Taynah Lopes de Souza Inmetro / Brasil

Leia mais

Guião A. Descrição das actividades

Guião A. Descrição das actividades Proposta de Guião para uma Prova Grupo: Ponto de Encontro Disciplina: Inglês, Nível de Continuação, 11.º ano Domínio de Referência: Um Mundo de Muitas Culturas Duração da prova: 15 a 20 minutos 1.º MOMENTO

Leia mais

Institutional Skills. Sessão informativa INSTITUTIONAL SKILLS. Passo a passo. www.britishcouncil.org.br

Institutional Skills. Sessão informativa INSTITUTIONAL SKILLS. Passo a passo. www.britishcouncil.org.br Institutional Skills Sessão informativa INSTITUTIONAL SKILLS Passo a passo 2 2 British Council e Newton Fund O British Council é a organização internacional do Reino Unido para relações culturais e oportunidades

Leia mais

Analysis, development and monitoring of business processes in Corporate environment

Analysis, development and monitoring of business processes in Corporate environment Analysis, development and monitoring of business processes in Corporate environment SAFIRA is an IT consulting boutique known for transforming the way organizations do business, or fulfil their missions,

Leia mais

Digital Cartographic Generalization for Database of Cadastral Maps

Digital Cartographic Generalization for Database of Cadastral Maps Mariane Alves Dal Santo marianedalsanto@udesc.br Francisco Henrique de Oliveira chicoliver@yahoo.com.br Carlos Loch cloch@ecv.ufsc.br Laboratório de Geoprocessamento GeoLab Universidade do Estado de Santa

Leia mais

What is Bullying? Bullying is the intimidation or mistreating of weaker people. This definition includes three important components:1.

What is Bullying? Bullying is the intimidation or mistreating of weaker people. This definition includes three important components:1. weaker people. This definition includes three important components:1. Bullying is aggressive behavior that involves unwanted, negative actions. 2. Bullying involves a pattern of behavior repeated over

Leia mais

Descrição das actividades

Descrição das actividades Proposta de Guião para uma Prova Grupo: Em Acção Disciplina: Inglês, Nível de Continuação, 11.º ano Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do Trabalho Duração da prova: 15 a 20 minutos Guião D 1.º MOMENTO Intervenientes

Leia mais

Interoperability through Web Services: Evaluating OGC Standards in Client Development for Spatial Data Infrastructures

Interoperability through Web Services: Evaluating OGC Standards in Client Development for Spatial Data Infrastructures GeoInfo - 2006 Interoperability through Web Services: Evaluating OGC Standards in Client Development for Spatial Data Infrastructures Leonardo Lacerda Alves Clodoveu A. Davis Jr. Information Systems Lab

Leia mais

BIBLIOGRAFIA. Faupel, A. & Sharp, P. (2003). Promoting emotional literacy. Guidelines for schools, local authorities and

BIBLIOGRAFIA. Faupel, A. & Sharp, P. (2003). Promoting emotional literacy. Guidelines for schools, local authorities and RESUMO EXPANDIDO Pode definir-se Literacia Emocional como a capacidade para reconhecer, compreender, expressar e gerir estados emocionais, do próprio e de outras pessoas, existindo associações entre esta

Leia mais

Mestrado em Ciências Jurídicas Especialização em História do Direito 2015-16

Mestrado em Ciências Jurídicas Especialização em História do Direito 2015-16 Mestrado em Ciências Jurídicas Especialização em História do Direito Unidade curricular História do Direito Português I (1º sem). Docente responsável e respectiva carga lectiva na unidade curricular Prof.

Leia mais

Guião M. Descrição das actividades

Guião M. Descrição das actividades Proposta de Guião para uma Prova Grupo: Inovação Disciplina: Inglês, Nível de Continuação, 11.º ano Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do trabalho Duração da prova: 15 a 20 minutos 1.º MOMENTO Guião M Intervenientes

Leia mais

Salud Brasil SECRETARIA DE VIGILÂNCIA EM SAÚDE

Salud Brasil SECRETARIA DE VIGILÂNCIA EM SAÚDE Salud Brasil SECRETARIA DE VIGILÂNCIA EM SAÚDE IV EXPOEPI International Perspectives on Air Quality: Risk Management Principles for Oficina de Trabalho: Os Desafios e Perspectivas da Vigilância Ambiental

Leia mais

OUTRA FORMA DE VER? A CONSTRUÇÃO DO AUTOCONCEITO DE CRIANÇAS CEGAS E AMBLIOPES

OUTRA FORMA DE VER? A CONSTRUÇÃO DO AUTOCONCEITO DE CRIANÇAS CEGAS E AMBLIOPES UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA PORTUGUESA CENTRO REGIONAL DE BRAGA FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS OUTRA FORMA DE VER? A CONSTRUÇÃO DO AUTOCONCEITO DE CRIANÇAS CEGAS E AMBLIOPES II Ciclo de Estudos em Ciências da

Leia mais

UNIDADE DE PESQUISA CLÍNICA Centro de Medicina Reprodutiva Dr Carlos Isaia Filho Ltda. SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH

UNIDADE DE PESQUISA CLÍNICA Centro de Medicina Reprodutiva Dr Carlos Isaia Filho Ltda. SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION FOR CLINICAL RESEARCH Duolao Wang; Ameet Bakhai; Angelo Del Buono; Nicola Maffulli Muscle, Tendons and Ligaments Journal, 2013 Santiago A. Tobar L., Dsc. Why to determine the

Leia mais

ACEF/1112/02477 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia

ACEF/1112/02477 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia ACEF/1112/02477 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia ACEF/1112/02477 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia Decisão de Apresentação de Pronúncia ao Relatório da Comissão de Avaliação Externa 1. Tendo recebido

Leia mais

ACEF/1112/04062 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia

ACEF/1112/04062 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia ACEF/1112/04062 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia ACEF/1112/04062 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia Decisão de Apresentação de Pronúncia ao Relatório da Comissão de Avaliação Externa 1. Tendo recebido

Leia mais

Estimating the SF-6D value set for a population based sample of Brazilians

Estimating the SF-6D value set for a population based sample of Brazilians Estimating the SF-6D value set for a population based sample of Brazilians Luciane Cruz, Suzi Camey, Juliana Hoffmann, John Brazier, Donna Rowen, Marcelo Fleck, Carisi Polanczyk Federal University of Rio

Leia mais

Cultural Identity of Young Volunteers Differences and understanding Empowering People. Volunteer Profile Questionnaire

Cultural Identity of Young Volunteers Differences and understanding Empowering People. Volunteer Profile Questionnaire Volunteer Profile Questionnaire 1 Índice 1 VOLUNTEER PROFILE QUESTIONNAIRE... 1.1 Country... 1. AGE... 1. GENDER... 1..1 GENDER vs... 1. Qualification... 1..1 QUALIFICATION GREECE VS PORTUGAL... 1. Are

Leia mais

Welcome to Lesson A of Story Time for Portuguese

Welcome to Lesson A of Story Time for Portuguese Portuguese Lesson A Welcome to Lesson A of Story Time for Portuguese Story Time is a program designed for students who have already taken high school or college courses or students who have completed other

Leia mais

Português 207 Portuguese for Business

Português 207 Portuguese for Business Português 207 Portuguese for Business Spring 2012: Porugal and the EU Instructor: Jared Hendrickson Office: 1149 Van Hise Office Hours: Monday and Thursday, 11:00 am-12:00 pm e-mail: jwhendrickso@wisc.edu

Leia mais

GUIÃO A. Ano: 9º Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do Trabalho. 1º Momento. Intervenientes e Tempos. Descrição das actividades

GUIÃO A. Ano: 9º Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do Trabalho. 1º Momento. Intervenientes e Tempos. Descrição das actividades Ano: 9º Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do Trabalho GUIÃO A 1º Momento Intervenientes e Tempos Descrição das actividades Good morning / afternoon / evening, A and B. For about three minutes, I would like

Leia mais

Efficient Locally Trackable Deduplication in Replicated Systems. www.gsd.inesc-id.pt. technology from seed

Efficient Locally Trackable Deduplication in Replicated Systems. www.gsd.inesc-id.pt. technology from seed Efficient Locally Trackable Deduplication in Replicated Systems João Barreto and Paulo Ferreira Distributed Systems Group INESC-ID/Technical University Lisbon, Portugal www.gsd.inesc-id.pt Bandwidth remains

Leia mais

Interface between IP limitations and contracts

Interface between IP limitations and contracts Interface between IP limitations and contracts Global Congress on Intellectual Property and the Public Interest Copyright Exceptions Workshop December 16, 9-12:30 Denis Borges Barbosa The issue Clause

Leia mais

A. Situação / Situation

A. Situação / Situation A. Situação / Situation A Assembleia Mundial da Saúde (OMS) aprova em 1969 o Regulamento Sanitário Internacional, revisto pela quarta vez em 2005. Esta última versão entrou em vigor no plano internacional

Leia mais

Ficha de unidade curricular Curso de Doutoramento

Ficha de unidade curricular Curso de Doutoramento Ficha de unidade curricular Curso de Doutoramento Unidade curricular História do Direito Português I (Doutoramento - 1º semestre) Docente responsável e respectiva carga lectiva na unidade curricular Prof.

Leia mais

Course Computer Science Academic year 2012/2013 Subject Social Aspects of Computers ECTS 5

Course Computer Science Academic year 2012/2013 Subject Social Aspects of Computers ECTS 5 Course Computer Science Academic year 2012/2013 Subject Social Aspects of Computers ECTS 5 Type of course Compulsory Year 2º Semester 2nd sem Student Workload: Professor(s) Natalia Gomes, Ascensão Maria

Leia mais

NORMAS PARA AUTORES. As normas a seguir descritas não dispensam a leitura do Regulamento da Revista Portuguesa de Marketing, disponível em www.rpm.pt.

NORMAS PARA AUTORES. As normas a seguir descritas não dispensam a leitura do Regulamento da Revista Portuguesa de Marketing, disponível em www.rpm.pt. NORMAS PARA AUTORES As normas a seguir descritas não dispensam a leitura do Regulamento da Revista Portuguesa de Marketing, disponível em www.rpm.pt. COPYRIGHT Um artigo submetido à Revista Portuguesa

Leia mais

Inglês. Guião. Teste Intermédio de Inglês. Parte IV Interação oral em pares. Teste Intermédio

Inglês. Guião. Teste Intermédio de Inglês. Parte IV Interação oral em pares. Teste Intermédio Teste Intermédio de Inglês Parte IV Interação oral em pares Teste Intermédio Inglês Guião Duração do Teste: 10 a 15 minutos De 25.02.2013 a 10.04.2013 9.º Ano de Escolaridade D TI de Inglês Página 1/ 7

Leia mais

Semestre do plano de estudos 1

Semestre do plano de estudos 1 Nome UC Inglês CU Name Código UC 6 Curso LEC Semestre do plano de estudos 1 Área científica Gestão Duração Semestral Horas de trabalho 54 ECTS 2 Horas de contacto TP - 22,5 Observações n.a. Docente responsável

Leia mais

Prova Oral de Inglês Duração da Prova: 20 a 25 minutos 2013/2014. 1.º Momento. 4 (A), are you a health-conscious person?

Prova Oral de Inglês Duração da Prova: 20 a 25 minutos 2013/2014. 1.º Momento. 4 (A), are you a health-conscious person? Prova Oral de Inglês Duração da Prova: 20 a 25 minutos 2013/2014 GUIÃO A Disciplina: Inglês, Nível de Continuação 11.º ano Domínio de Referência: O Mundo do Trabalho 1.º Momento Intervenientes e Tempos

Leia mais

Treinamento para Pais Cidadania digital No Nível Fundamental. Parent Academy Digital Citizenship. At Elementary Level

Treinamento para Pais Cidadania digital No Nível Fundamental. Parent Academy Digital Citizenship. At Elementary Level Parent Academy Digital Citizenship At Elementary Level Treinamento para Pais Cidadania digital No Nível Fundamental Pan American School of Bahia March 18 and 29, 2016 Digital Citizenship Modules Cyberbullying

Leia mais

Universidade de São Paulo USP Departamento de Engenharia de Produção EESC Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção

Universidade de São Paulo USP Departamento de Engenharia de Produção EESC Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção Universidade de São Paulo USP Departamento de Engenharia de Produção EESC Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção APLICAÇÃO DOS ESTILOS DE APRENDIZAGEM NA FORMAÇÃO DE EQUIPES :um estudo de

Leia mais

Problemas de Mensuração na Presença de Inflação Alta e Variável:

Problemas de Mensuração na Presença de Inflação Alta e Variável: Curso Bem-Estar Social Marcelo Neri www.fgv.br/cps Problemas de Mensuração na Presença de Inflação Alta e Variável: 1) A alta instabilidade de renda superestima as medidas de desigualdade. Mudanças na

Leia mais

Bárbara Rodrigues da Silva 3ALEN, 2015

Bárbara Rodrigues da Silva 3ALEN, 2015 Pets reality There are about 30 millions abandoned pets only in Brazil. Among these amount, about 10 millions are cats and the other 20 are dogs, according to WHO (World Health Organization). In large

Leia mais

1. Lingüística Periódicos. 2. Língua Inglesa Periódicos

1. Lingüística Periódicos. 2. Língua Inglesa Periódicos ISSN 0102-7077 the ESP São Paulo Vol. 25 nº especial p. 1-114 2004 The Especialist/Centro de Pesquisas, Recursos e Informação em Leitura da Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo CEPRIL. V. 1, n.

Leia mais

e-lab: a didactic interactive experiment An approach to the Boyle-Mariotte law

e-lab: a didactic interactive experiment An approach to the Boyle-Mariotte law Sérgio Leal a,b, João Paulo Leal a,c Horácio Fernandes d a Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, FCUL, Lisboa, Portugal b Escola Secundária com 3.º ciclo Padre António Vieira, Lisboa, Portugal c Unidade

Leia mais

Federal Court of Accounts Brazil (TCU) Auditing Climate Change Policies

Federal Court of Accounts Brazil (TCU) Auditing Climate Change Policies Federal Court of Accounts Brazil (TCU) Auditing Climate Change Policies JUNNIUS MARQUES ARIFA Head of Department of Agriculture and Environmental Audit TCU s mandate and jurisdiction 1. Role of Supreme

Leia mais

Software reliability analysis by considering fault dependency and debugging time lag Autores

Software reliability analysis by considering fault dependency and debugging time lag Autores Campos extraídos diretamente Título Software reliability analysis by considering fault dependency and debugging time lag Autores Huang, Chin-Yu and Lin, Chu-Ti Ano de publicação 2006 Fonte de publicação

Leia mais

Ontology Building Process: The Wine Domain

Ontology Building Process: The Wine Domain Ontology Building Process: The Wine Domain João Graça, Márcio Mourão, Orlando Anunciação, Pedro Monteiro, H. Sofia Pinto, and Virgílio Loureiro Summary Context Ontology Wine Domain Existing Wine Ontologies

Leia mais

Consultoria em Direito do Trabalho

Consultoria em Direito do Trabalho Consultoria em Direito do Trabalho A Consultoria em Direito do Trabalho desenvolvida pelo Escritório Vernalha Guimarães & Pereira Advogados compreende dois serviços distintos: consultoria preventiva (o

Leia mais

SPATIAL DISTRIBUITION OF TURBITY IN A STRETCH OF MADEIRA RIVER MONITORING MADEIRA RIVER PROJECT PORTO VELHO (RO)

SPATIAL DISTRIBUITION OF TURBITY IN A STRETCH OF MADEIRA RIVER MONITORING MADEIRA RIVER PROJECT PORTO VELHO (RO) SPATIAL DISTRIBUITION OF TURBITY IN A STRETCH OF MADEIRA RIVER MONITORING MADEIRA RIVER PROJECT PORTO VELHO (RO) 4th scientific meeting of the ORE-HIBAM. September 2011 4a Scientific Meeting ORE-HYBAM

Leia mais

Validation of the Paratest as efficient method for parasitological diagnosis

Validation of the Paratest as efficient method for parasitological diagnosis Validation of the Paratest as efficient method for parasitological diagnosis TEODORO B. K.; ROBERTO T. N.; BRASIL D. M. E SOUZA L. B.; SOUZA M. C.; PAULETTO M. C. A. C.; MAMED J. A.; SBRAVATE-MARTINS C.

Leia mais

WWW.ADINOEL.COM Adinoél Sebastião /// Inglês Tradução Livre 75/2013

WWW.ADINOEL.COM Adinoél Sebastião /// Inglês Tradução Livre 75/2013 PASSO A PASSO DO DYNO Ao final desse passo a passo você terá o texto quase todo traduzido. Passo 1 Marque no texto as palavras abaixo. (decore essas palavras, pois elas aparecem com muita frequência nos

Leia mais

Online Collaborative Learning Design

Online Collaborative Learning Design "Online Collaborative Learning Design" Course to be offered by Charlotte N. Lani Gunawardena, Ph.D. Regents Professor University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA July 7- August 14, 2014 Course

Leia mais

Finanças Comportamentais: Diferenças a tolerância de risco entre cônjuges Replicando uma pesquisa e propondo alternativas complementares

Finanças Comportamentais: Diferenças a tolerância de risco entre cônjuges Replicando uma pesquisa e propondo alternativas complementares Roberto Carneiro Gurgel Nogueira Finanças Comportamentais: Diferenças a tolerância de risco entre cônjuges Replicando uma pesquisa e propondo alternativas complementares Dissertação de Mestrado Dissertação

Leia mais

V Simpósio de Pesquisa em Educação e Mostra de TCs de 10 a 14 de novembro de 2014 5 - EIXO: ALFABETIZAÇÃO, LETRAMENTO, EDUCAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA

V Simpósio de Pesquisa em Educação e Mostra de TCs de 10 a 14 de novembro de 2014 5 - EIXO: ALFABETIZAÇÃO, LETRAMENTO, EDUCAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA 5 - EIXO: ALFABETIZAÇÃO, LETRAMENTO, EDUCAÇÃO MATEMÁTICA A IMPORTÂNCIA DOS JOGOS NO PROCESSO DE ALFABETIZAÇÃO Ana Lúcia de Oliveira Jéssica Maria Bulin Profa Dra Lígia Formico Paoletti http://lattes.cnpq.br/4928386512604987

Leia mais

INVESTIMENTOS EM EDUCAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO ECONÔMICO

INVESTIMENTOS EM EDUCAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO ECONÔMICO TEXTO PARA DISCUSSÃO Nº 525 INVESTIMENTOS EM EDUCAÇÃO E DESENVOLVIMENTO ECONÔMICO Ricardo Paes de Barros * Rosane Mendonça ** Rio de Janeiro, novembro de 1997 * Da Diretoria de Pesquisa do IPEA. ** Bolsista

Leia mais

MARCELO DE LIMA BRAZ REDUÇÃO DA QUANTIDADE DE REPROCESSO NO SETOR DE PRODUÇÃO DE CALDOS ALIMENTÍCIOS NA EMPRESA DO RAMO ALIMENTÍCIO (ERA).

MARCELO DE LIMA BRAZ REDUÇÃO DA QUANTIDADE DE REPROCESSO NO SETOR DE PRODUÇÃO DE CALDOS ALIMENTÍCIOS NA EMPRESA DO RAMO ALIMENTÍCIO (ERA). MARCELO DE LIMA BRAZ REDUÇÃO DA QUANTIDADE DE REPROCESSO NO SETOR DE PRODUÇÃO DE CALDOS ALIMENTÍCIOS NA EMPRESA DO RAMO ALIMENTÍCIO (ERA). Poços de Caldas / MG 2014 MARCELO DE LIMA BRAZ REDUÇÃO DA QUANTIDADE

Leia mais

LÍNGUA INGLESA CONTEÚDO E HABILIDADES DINÂMICA LOCAL INTERATIVA AULA. Conteúdo: Reading - Typographic Marks

LÍNGUA INGLESA CONTEÚDO E HABILIDADES DINÂMICA LOCAL INTERATIVA AULA. Conteúdo: Reading - Typographic Marks Conteúdo: Reading - Typographic Marks Habilidades: Utilizar as Marcas Tipográficas para facilitar a compreensão e também chamar a atenção do leitor. Typographic Marks O que são marcas tipográficas? As

Leia mais

USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 USPTO No. 15143095 WORK PLAN FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND

Leia mais

Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016

Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016 Prova de Seleção Mestrado LINGUA INGLESA 15/02/2016 Instruções aos candidatos: (1) Preencher somente o número de inscrição em todas as folhas. (2) Usar caneta preta ou azul. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Leia mais

APRESENTAÇÃO. ABNT CB-3 Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade Comissão de Estudo CE 03:064.01 Instalações Elétricas de Baixa Tensão NBR 5410

APRESENTAÇÃO. ABNT CB-3 Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade Comissão de Estudo CE 03:064.01 Instalações Elétricas de Baixa Tensão NBR 5410 APRESENTAÇÃO ABNT CB-3 Comitê Brasileiro de Eletricidade Comissão de Estudo CE 03:064.01 Instalações Elétricas de Baixa Tensão NBR 5410 Instalações elétricas de baixa tensão NBR 5410:1997 NBR 5410:2004

Leia mais

Erasmus Student Work Placement

Erasmus Student Work Placement Erasmus Student Work Placement EMPLOYER INFORMATION Name of organisation Address Post code Country SPORT LISBOA E BENFICA AV. GENERAL NORTON DE MATOS, 1500-313 LISBOA PORTUGAL Telephone 21 721 95 09 Fax

Leia mais

CULTURAS, POLÍTICAS E PRÁTICAS INCLUSIVAS NO SECTOR PÚBLICO E PRIVADO UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM DUAS ESCOLAS DO 1.º CICLO, DO CONCELHO DE SINTRA

CULTURAS, POLÍTICAS E PRÁTICAS INCLUSIVAS NO SECTOR PÚBLICO E PRIVADO UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM DUAS ESCOLAS DO 1.º CICLO, DO CONCELHO DE SINTRA UNIVERSIDADE TÉCNICA DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE MOTRICIDADE HUMANA CULTURAS, POLÍTICAS E PRÁTICAS INCLUSIVAS NO SECTOR PÚBLICO E PRIVADO UM ESTUDO DE CASO EM DUAS ESCOLAS DO 1.º CICLO, DO CONCELHO DE SINTRA

Leia mais

METODOLOGIA DE AVALIAÇÃO DAS STARTUPS DO MIDI TECNOLÓGICO

METODOLOGIA DE AVALIAÇÃO DAS STARTUPS DO MIDI TECNOLÓGICO METODOLOGIA DE AVALIAÇÃO DAS STARTUPS DO MIDI TECNOLÓGICO RESUMO As incubadoras de empresas são ambientes dotados de competência gerencial, técnica e administrativa que impulsionam a promoção do nascimento

Leia mais

NCE/11/01206 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos

NCE/11/01206 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos NCE/11/01206 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos NCE/11/01206 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos Decisão de Apresentação de Pronúncia ao Relatório da

Leia mais

REAL ESTATE MARKET IN BRAZIL

REAL ESTATE MARKET IN BRAZIL REAL ESTATE MARKET IN BRAZIL JOÃO CRESTANA President of Secovi SP and CBIC National Commission of Construction Industry SIZE OF BRAZIL Population distribution by gender, according to age group BRAZIL 2010

Leia mais

Neutron Reference Measurements to Petroleum Industry

Neutron Reference Measurements to Petroleum Industry LABORATÓRIO NACIONAL DE METROLOGIA DAS RADIAÇÕES IONIZANTES IRD- Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria Neutron Reference Measurements to Petroleum Industry Karla C. de Souza Patrão, Evaldo S. da Fonseca,

Leia mais

Braskem Maxio. Resinas da linha Braskem Maxio Braskem Maxio Grades. Redução de Consumo Energético Lower Energy Consumption.

Braskem Maxio. Resinas da linha Braskem Maxio Braskem Maxio Grades. Redução de Consumo Energético Lower Energy Consumption. Maio / May 2015 Resinas da linha Grades Redução de Consumo Energético Lower Energy Consumption RP 141 RP 347 RP 340S RP 340R RP 149 H 105 Produtividade Higher Productivity H 202HC CP 191XP VA8010SUV Redução

Leia mais

Preposições em Inglês: www.napontadalingua.hd1.com.br

Preposições em Inglês: www.napontadalingua.hd1.com.br Preposições na língua inglesa geralmente vem antes de substantivos (algumas vezes também na frente de verbos no gerúndio). Algumas vezes é algo difícil de se entender para os alunos de Inglês pois a tradução

Leia mais

Tese / Thesis Work Análise de desempenho de sistemas distribuídos de grande porte na plataforma Java

Tese / Thesis Work Análise de desempenho de sistemas distribuídos de grande porte na plataforma Java Licenciatura em Engenharia Informática Degree in Computer Science Engineering Análise de desempenho de sistemas distribuídos de grande porte na plataforma Java Performance analysis of large distributed

Leia mais

Participatory Map of Rio de Janeiro

Participatory Map of Rio de Janeiro Leandro Gomes Souza Geographer Luiz Roberto Arueira da Silva Director of City Information Pereira Passos Institute - City of Rio de Janeiro About us Pereira Passos Institute (IPP) is Rio de Janeiro municipal

Leia mais

Relatório de Acção Action Report

Relatório de Acção Action Report Relatório de Acção Action Report CasA+ Building Codes 17 Novembro Expo Energia 09 16 de Dezembro de 2009 Data: 17 Novembro Título: Casas dos anos 70 e 90 revelam mais ineficiência energética Meio: Rádio

Leia mais

2. HUMAN RESOURCES 2. RECURSOS HUMANOS 1 RECRUTAMENTO E SELECÇÃO 1 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 2 QUALIFICAÇÃO DOS TRABALHADORES

2. HUMAN RESOURCES 2. RECURSOS HUMANOS 1 RECRUTAMENTO E SELECÇÃO 1 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION 2 QUALIFICAÇÃO DOS TRABALHADORES RECURSOS HUMANOS HUMAN RESOURCES . RECURSOS HUMANOS RECRUTAMENTO E SELECÇÃO. HUMAN RESOURCES RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION O recrutamento e a situação contratual, no ano em análise, e face ao anterior, caracterizaram-se

Leia mais

MARLI DA COSTA RAMOS SCATRALHE FAMÍLIA E ESCOLA: DOIS SISTEMAS INTERDEPENDENTES NA COMPREENSÃO DOS SIGNIFICADOS NO PROCESSO ESCOLAR DO FILHO/ALUNO

MARLI DA COSTA RAMOS SCATRALHE FAMÍLIA E ESCOLA: DOIS SISTEMAS INTERDEPENDENTES NA COMPREENSÃO DOS SIGNIFICADOS NO PROCESSO ESCOLAR DO FILHO/ALUNO MARLI DA COSTA RAMOS SCATRALHE FAMÍLIA E ESCOLA: DOIS SISTEMAS INTERDEPENDENTES NA COMPREENSÃO DOS SIGNIFICADOS NO PROCESSO ESCOLAR DO FILHO/ALUNO CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO FIEO Osasco 2009 MARLI DA COSTA RAMOS

Leia mais

BRIGHAM AND EHRHARDT PDF

BRIGHAM AND EHRHARDT PDF BRIGHAM AND EHRHARDT PDF ==> Download: BRIGHAM AND EHRHARDT PDF BRIGHAM AND EHRHARDT PDF - Are you searching for Brigham And Ehrhardt Books? Now, you will be happy that at this time Brigham And Ehrhardt

Leia mais

Census in the 21st Century: Improving Data Utilization and Dissemination Side Meeting

Census in the 21st Century: Improving Data Utilization and Dissemination Side Meeting Census in the 21st Century: Improving Data Utilization and Dissemination Side Meeting Session 1 The 2010 Round of Censuses: New approaches to conducting and disseminating census data and implications for

Leia mais

NCE/10/00806 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos

NCE/10/00806 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos NCE/10/00806 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos NCE/10/00806 Decisão de apresentação de pronúncia - Novo ciclo de estudos Decisão de Apresentação de Pronúncia ao Relatório da

Leia mais

Software product lines. Paulo Borba Informatics Center Federal University of Pernambuco

Software product lines. Paulo Borba Informatics Center Federal University of Pernambuco Software product lines Paulo Borba Informatics Center Federal University of Pernambuco Software product lines basic concepts Paulo Borba Informatics Center Federal University of Pernambuco Um produto www.usm.maine.edu

Leia mais

Capital Humano e Capital Social: Construir Capacidades para o Desenvolvimento dos Territórios

Capital Humano e Capital Social: Construir Capacidades para o Desenvolvimento dos Territórios UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE LETRAS DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOGRAFIA Capital Humano e Capital Social: Construir Capacidades para o Desenvolvimento dos Territórios Sandra Sofia Brito da Silva Dissertação

Leia mais

Métodos Formais em Engenharia de Software. VDMToolTutorial

Métodos Formais em Engenharia de Software. VDMToolTutorial Métodos Formais em Engenharia de Software VDMToolTutorial Ana Paiva apaiva@fe.up.pt www.fe.up.pt/~apaiva Agenda Install Start Create a project Write a specification Add a file to a project Check syntax

Leia mais

Types of Investments: Equity (9 companies) Convertible Notes (10 companies)

Types of Investments: Equity (9 companies) Convertible Notes (10 companies) IMPACT INVESTING WE STARTED... A Venture Capital Fund Focused on Impact Investing Suport: Financial TA Criterias to select a company: Social Impact Profitabilty Scalability Investment Thesis (Ed, HC,

Leia mais

Reitor / President Marcos Macari, Ph.D. Vice-Reitor /Vice-President Herman Jacobus Cornelis Voorwald, Ph.D.

Reitor / President Marcos Macari, Ph.D. Vice-Reitor /Vice-President Herman Jacobus Cornelis Voorwald, Ph.D. UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA JULIO DE MESQUITA FILHO Reitor / President Marcos Macari, Ph.D. Vice-Reitor /Vice-President Herman Jacobus Cornelis Voorwald, Ph.D. Pró-Reitora de Pós-Graduação / Graduate

Leia mais

CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO METROPOLITANO DE SÃO PAULO CURSO ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS

CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO METROPOLITANO DE SÃO PAULO CURSO ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS CENTRO UNIVERSITÁRIO METROPOLITANO DE SÃO PAULO CURSO ADMINISTRAÇÃO DE EMPRESAS UMA VANTAGEM COMPETITIVA COM A TERCEIRIZAÇÃO DE SERVIÇOS AMANDA ZADRES DANIELA LILIANE ELIANE NUNES ELISANGELA MENDES Guarulhos

Leia mais

Formação continuada de professores em escolas organizadas em ciclo

Formação continuada de professores em escolas organizadas em ciclo Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro PUC Elisangela da Silva Bernado Formação continuada de professores em escolas organizadas em ciclo Dissertação de Mestrado Dissertação apresentada como

Leia mais

Manual de Apresentação de Dados REACH-IT

Manual de Apresentação de Dados REACH-IT Manual de Apresentação de Dados REACH-IT Parte 16 - Pedidos de Anexo I: Instruções para o modelo de documento justificativo de pedido de Versão 1.0 Página 1 de 7 Instruções Na IUCLID, por cada informação

Leia mais

Estudar o Inglês Quando a Língua Materna é o Português/ Studying English as a Portuguese Native Speaker

Estudar o Inglês Quando a Língua Materna é o Português/ Studying English as a Portuguese Native Speaker Ficha de Unidade Curricular [FUC] 1 1. Unidade curricular / Curricular Unit Estudar o Inglês Quando a Língua Materna é o Português/ Studying English as a Portuguese Native Speaker 2. Designação do Ciclo

Leia mais

A Aviação no Comércio Europeu de Licenças de Emissão Especificidades para pequenos emissores

A Aviação no Comércio Europeu de Licenças de Emissão Especificidades para pequenos emissores A Aviação no Comércio Europeu de Licenças de Emissão Especificidades para pequenos emissores Departamento de Alterações Climáticas, Ar e Ruído (DACAR) Divisão de Poluição Atmosférica e Alterações Climáticas

Leia mais

design para a inovação social

design para a inovação social design para a inovação social mestrado em design - 15 16 universidade de aveiro gonçalo gomes março de 2016 s.1 ergonomia ergonomia > definição Ergonomia A ergonomia (do grego "ergon": trabalho; e "nomos":

Leia mais

ESTRUTURA DE CAPITAL: UMA ANÁLISE EM EMPRESAS SEGURADORAS

ESTRUTURA DE CAPITAL: UMA ANÁLISE EM EMPRESAS SEGURADORAS ESTRUTURA DE CAPITAL: UMA ANÁLISE EM EMPRESAS SEGURADORAS THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE: AN ANALYSE ON INSURANCE COMPANIES FREDERIKE MONIKA BUDINER METTE MARCO ANTÔNIO DOS SANTOS MARTINS PAULA FERNANDA BUTZEN

Leia mais

TUTORIA INTERCULTURAL NUM CLUBE DE PORTUGUÊS

TUTORIA INTERCULTURAL NUM CLUBE DE PORTUGUÊS UNIVERSIDADE DE LISBOA FACULDADE DE PSICOLOGIA E DE CIÊNCIAS DA EDUCAÇÃO TUTORIA INTERCULTURAL NUM CLUBE DE PORTUGUÊS SANDRA MARIA MORAIS VALENTE DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTRADO EM CIÊNCIAS DA EDUCAÇÃO Área de

Leia mais

Conteúdo Programático Anual

Conteúdo Programático Anual INGLÊS 1º BIMESTRE 5ª série (6º ano) Capítulo 01 (Unit 1) What s your name? What; Is; My, you; This; Saudações e despedidas. Capítulo 2 (Unit 2) Who s that? Who; This, that; My, your, his, her; Is (afirmativo,

Leia mais

Geração automática de suíte de teste para GUI a partir de Rede de Petri

Geração automática de suíte de teste para GUI a partir de Rede de Petri Raquel Jauffret Guilhon Geração automática de suíte de teste para GUI a partir de Rede de Petri Dissertação de Mestrado Dissertação apresentada como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre pelo

Leia mais

PREFEITURA MUNICIPAL DE BOM DESPACHO-MG PROCESSO SELETIVO SIMPLIFICADO - EDITAL

PREFEITURA MUNICIPAL DE BOM DESPACHO-MG PROCESSO SELETIVO SIMPLIFICADO - EDITAL CADERNO DE PROVAS 1 A prova terá a duração de duas horas, incluindo o tempo necessário para o preenchimento do gabarito. 2 Marque as respostas no caderno de provas, deixe para preencher o gabarito depois

Leia mais

FUNDAÇÃO INSTITUTO CAPIXABA DE PESQUISAS EM CONTABILIDADE, ECONOMIA E FINANÇAS GEORGE PINHEIRO RAMOS

FUNDAÇÃO INSTITUTO CAPIXABA DE PESQUISAS EM CONTABILIDADE, ECONOMIA E FINANÇAS GEORGE PINHEIRO RAMOS FUNDAÇÃO INSTITUTO CAPIXABA DE PESQUISAS EM CONTABILIDADE, ECONOMIA E FINANÇAS GEORGE PINHEIRO RAMOS FATORES DETERMINANTES E INFLUENCIADORES DE COMPRA DA MÚSICA GOSPEL VITÓRIA 2013 2 GEORGE PINHEIRO RAMOS

Leia mais

ESCOLA SUPERIOR DE ENFERMAGEM DE COIMBRA Coimbra, May 2013. Carlos Souza & Cristina Silva

ESCOLA SUPERIOR DE ENFERMAGEM DE COIMBRA Coimbra, May 2013. Carlos Souza & Cristina Silva ESCOLA SUPERIOR DE ENFERMAGEM DE COIMBRA Coimbra, May 2013 Carlos Souza & Cristina Silva Population: 10,6 million. According to INE (National Institute of Statistics) it is estimated that more than 2 million

Leia mais