1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR - SUMMARY A. PRONOMES Subject pronouns (pronome pessoal) = I, You, He, She, It, We, They São aqueles que iniciam as orações, localizam-se antes do verbo. Object pronoun (oblíquo) = me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them. Colocam-se sempre depois do verbo. Tom is leaving now. I m going with him. / Maria is very nice, I like her. Possessive adjectives = my, your, his, her, its, our, their Usado antes de substantives para indicar posse ou parentesco. Julia and her brother. / Your hands are dirty. Possessive pronouns = mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs Não é seguido de substantivo. This is your coat. That s mine. (= my coat) This isn t Maria s bag. Hers is blue. ( = her bag) Demonstrative adjectives and Demonstrative pronouns Singular Plural Perto This These Longe That Those Antes de substantivo: This letter is for you./ How much is that apple? Sem substantive: This is for you. / How much is that? Reflexive pronouns = myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, themselves She s looking at herself in the mirror. / I built it myself. / I myself built this house. B. PRESENT SIMPLE I, YOU, WE, THEY HE, SHE, IT (+) I walk everyday. (-) I don t walk every day. (+) He walks everyday. (-) He doesn t walk every day.
2 (?) Do you walk every day? (?) Does he walk every day? p/ he, she, it (+) adiciona-se s no verbo; -es se o verbo terminar em s, -sh, -ch, -o, - x, - z; e -ies se o verbo terminar em y precedido de consoante. Adverbs of frequency: always, usually, often, sometimes, hardly ever, never Expressions: once/twice/three times a week; every two days. C. SIMPLE PAST: definite time in the past Mesma forma para todas as pessoas Dois tipos de verbos: regulares e irregulares. Regulares: +ed, ex: watch = watched, close = closed; worry = worried; stop = stopped (1 syllable + CVC ) irregulars: table Yesterday, last year/week/sunday; the day after yesterday Alteração só na afirmativa. Outras - auxiliar (+) She went to the club yesterday. (+) They watched TV yesterday. (-) She didn t go to the club yesterday. (-) They didn t watch TV yesterday. (?) Did she go to the club yesterday? (?) Did they watch TV yesterday? D. -ING forms. 1. Present Continuous Verb to be (am, is, are) + verbo principal (ing) I am /am not; He, She, It is/isn t; We, You, They are / aren t (+) She is going to the club. (-) She isn t going to the club. (?) Is she going to the club? Past continuous was/were + verbo principal (ing) I was working yesterday afternoon. 2. Depois de alguns verbos ( like, love, hate, can t stand, stop, start, admit, enjoy, dislike, feel like, mind, keep, remember, resist, suggest, try, regret ) 3. Com alguns determiners (the, my, this) Does my smoking annoy you? I don t mind your going without me. I hate all these useless arguing. 4. Depois de preposições (exceto to ) e algumas expressões com to You can t make an omelette without breaking the eggs He s talking about moving to the country. What is a toothpaste for? It s for cleaning the teeth. I look forward to; object to; to be /get used to; prefer to 5. Como sujeito de frases Smoking is bad for you. / Reading is my favourite activity.
3 6. adjetivos formados de verbos interesting, boring, tiring, relaxing, etc. E. TAG QUESTIONS A tag question é uma pequena pergunta feita no final de uma afirmativa ou negativa para confirmar ou saber se determinada informação é verdadeira. O sujeito da oração é o mesmo que vai para o final na tag question. Se a frase for afirmativa a TAG será negativa, ex: She is your sister, isn t she? Se a frase for negative a TAG sera afirmativa, ex: She isn t your sister, is she? Se a frase for formada com tempos compostos de mais de um verbo então esquecemos o 2º, o 3º etc. e dó trabalhamos com o 1º da estrutura verbal, ex: She hasn t taken the book, has she? She is going to work in the club, isn t she? Quando tempos um único verbo devemos ver se estamos falando de passado ou presente (simples), se for passado utilizaremos o auxiliary do passado: DID para a tag afirmativa e DIDN T para a tag negativa; no caso do presente DO/DOES para a tag afirmativa e DON T e DOESN t para a tag negativa. Ex: They went to the cinema, didn t they? / They work everyday, don t they? / She likes apples, doesn t she? Imperative will you, ou won t you, ou can t you. Stop talking, will you? / Stop talking, won t you? / Stop talking, can t you? BE CAREFUL! I am a doctor, aren t I? Let s go out, shall we? REMEMBER: affirmative sentence negative question tag negative sentence affirmative question tag a) Normalmente nós usamos com a frase afirmativa uma question tag negativa. Frase afirmativa Tag question negativa Ann will arrive at 10 o clock, won t she? Tom went to the cinema, didn t he? They were very angry, weren t they? They have been to Rio, haven t they
4 She s working a lot, isn t she? She studies every day, doesn t she? b) E normalmente com uma frase negativa usamos uma question tag afirmativa. Frase negativa Tag question afirmativa Tom won t be late, will he? They don t like us, do they? This isn t your sister, is she? c) Exceções: Let s go out for a walk, shall we? Open the door, will you? / won t you? / can t you? Don t talk too much, will you? I m late, aren t I? Both, Either, Neither Neither nor(nem nem) You can buy neither this nor that bag. Either or(ou ou) You can buy either this or that bag. Both and(tanto quanto) Both the aunt and the uncle are doctors. 1. Present simple, Past simple, Present perfect, Future (will) - She studies hard everyday, doesn t she? (Ela estuda muito, não estuda?) - They don t like reading, do they? (Eles não gostam de ler, gostam?) - You didn t go to work yesterday, did you? - Frank and David went to the cinema last Friday, didn t they? - She has visited her granny, hasn t she? - She ll come on Monday, won t she? (Ela virá na segunda, não virá?) F. WISH (+ past simple / past perfect, would + infinitive) O verbo WISH exprime um desejo por uma situação que não existe no presente. É um desejo de mudar uma situação real em uma irreal. Normalmente expressa um arrependimento acerca de uma situação.
5 1. Você lamenta uma situação no presente: - I wish I had a house like that. (Eu queria ter uma casa como aquela. Minha casa é tão pequena.) - I wish I was / were taller. (Eu queria ser mais alta. Eu tenho 1.50m) FORM: I wish + past simple 2. Você lamenta uma ação ou situação passada. - I wish I had married David and not John. (Eu queria ter me casado com o David e não com o John) - I wish I d brought the washing in. (I queria ter trazido a roupa pra dentro) FORM: I wish + past perfect (had + particípio) 3. Quando você quer que outra pessoa ajude ou não. Ou Que algo aconteça ou não. Especialmente porque você está chateado. - I wish my husband would wash his own shirts! (Eu queria que o meu marido lavasse as camisas dele) - I wish it would stop raining! (Eu queria que parasse de chover) - I wish you d help a bit. (Eu queria que você ajudasse um pouco) G. FUTURE TIME Futuro de acordo com o que se quer mostrar: - Plans, intentions, predictions, scheduling, requests. - Descrevem ações que estão para acontecer mais tarde no mesmo dia, ou num futuro próximo ou distante. 1. WILL FUTURE / SIMPLE FUTURE / WILL (will + infinitive) Affirmative: In the future people will live on the moon. (No futuro as pessoas morarão na lua) Negative: Interrogative: Short answers: In the future people won t live on the moon. Will people live on the moon, in the future? Yes, they will. / No, they won t. - Mesma forma para todas as pessoas: I / You / He / She / It / We / They will / won t travel - Podem-se usar expressões tais como: Maybe, Perhaps, Probably, I think, it's possible + will a) Incerteza o que você ACHA que irá acontecer. - Sílvio Santos will be the next president of Brazil. (Sílvio Santos sera o próximo presidente do Brasil) - I think Maria will phone me. (Eu acho que a Maria irá me ligar) - OTHER POSSIBILITIES: não há certeza mas uma simples possibilidade MAY / MIGHT - / COULD - The weather may/might/could be better later tonight.(o tempo poderá estar melhor mais tarde);
6 Não há certeza, mas existe uma esperança: The weather will probably be better tonight. (O tempo provavelmente estará melhor à noite) b) Offer (oferecer) - I ll help you with the books. (Eu te ajudarei com os livros) - I ll open the window for you. (Eu abrirei a janela para você) - Shall I / we carry the chairs? (use shall somente com I e We ) (Posso / Podemos carregar as cadeiras?) c) Requests (pedidos) - Will you please help me carry this? (Você me ajudaria a carregar isto?) - Will you please not smoke? (Você poderia não fumar?) - OTHER POSSIBILITIES: Could you help me carry this?, Would you carry this please?, Why don t you help me carrying this? (Por que você não me ajuda a carregar isto?) Would you mind not smoking? (Você se importa em não fumar?) Could you not smoke? Would you not smoke? (Você poderia não fumar?) d) Prediction without evidence (prever o futuro sem evidência) - James will stop smoking soon. (James irá parar de fumar logo) - Flamengo will win the championship in (Flamengo vencerá o campeonato de 2009) e) Promisse (promessa) - Ok, I ll clean my room. (Ok, eu limparei o quarto) - We ll build new houses for the poor.(nós construiremos novas casas para os pobres) f) Decision at the moment we speak (decisão no momento da fala) - Hmm, I ll have an ice cream. (Hmm, eu vou tomar um sorvete). - Look, I still have R$ 2,00. I ll buy some candies. (Olha, eu ainda tenho R$2,00. Comprarei algumas balas) g) usar - let us or let's no lugar de fazer uma pergunta: - Let's go to the cinema this evening! (= Shall we go to the cinema this evening?) = Vamos ao cinema? - Let's eat our lunch now! (= Shall we eat our lunch now?) = Vamos comer nosso almoço agora? 2. GOING TO [verb to be (am / is / are) + going to + infinitive] Affirmative: I m going to see the Olympic Games in China. She s going to see the Olympic Games in China. They re going to see the Olympic Games in China. (Eles irão ver os jogos Olímpicos na China)
7 Negative: I m not going to see the Olympic Games in China. She isn t going to see the Olympic Games in China. They aren t going to see the Olympic Games in China. Interrogative: Short answers: Is she going to see the Olympic Games in China? Yes, she is. No, she isn t. a) Plans - I m going to travel to Rio. I ve checked all prices. (Eu vou viajar para o Rio. Já chequei todos os preços) - She isn t going to travel with me. Maybe, she ll be working. (Ela não vai viajar comigo. Talvez ela estará trabalhando) a) Predictions with evidence - Look at those clouds. It s going to rain. (Olhe aquelas nuvens. Vai chover) - Shh, cross the street. There s a huge dog over there. It s going to bite us. (Shh, atravesse a rua. Há um enorme cachorro logo ali. Ele vai nos morder) - That girl is wearing a wedding dress. She s going to get married. Aquela moça está vestindo um vestido de noiva. Ela vai se casar) 3. PRESENT CONTINUOUS FOR FUTURE ARRANGEMENTS [verb to be (am / is / are) + verb (+ing) ] Affirmative: I m seeing my mother next Saturday. (Eu verei minha mãe no próximo sábado.) Negative: Interrogative: Short answers: She isn t working next week. Are you travelling to São Paulo this year? Yes, she is. No, she isn t. - Certeza quanto ao fato que irá ocorrer; usar time expressions: next week / year 4. SCHEDULING (horários pré-estabelecidos) Normalmente usamos o PRESENT SIMPLE para falar de eventos programados. - Spring break begins on March 22. (A primavera começa no dia 22 de março) - The football game starts at 7:00 p.m. (O jogo de futebol começa às 19:00)
8 - The film ends at 3:00 p.m. (O filme termina às 3 da tarde) 5. FUTURE PERFECT (will have + particípio do verbo) Indica uma ação que estará terminada, concretizada, no futuro. Esse tempo é frequentemente usado com as expressões: in (three weeks ) time / by (Saturday / next year).! by + a time expression = at the latest (no máximo / o mais tardar). - I will have spent all my money by this time next year. (A esta hora no próximo ano eu terei gasto todo o meu dinheiro) - She will have run successfully in three marathons if she finishes this one. - They won t have done all their homework by the time of the film. - By this time next week, I will have worked on this project for twenty days. (A essa hora na próxima semana, eu terei trabalhado neste projeto por vinte dias) - Before he sees his publisher, Charles will have finished four chapters in his new novel. - How long will it have been since we were together? 6. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS [will have been + verbo(ing)] Indica uma ação em progresso que será completada em algum momento no futuro. - Next Thursday, I will have been working on this project. (Na próxima quinta, eu ainda estarei trabalhando neste projeto) - By the time he finishes this semester, Geraldo will have been studying nothing but parasites for four years. (Na hora que ele terminar o semestre, Geraldo não terá estudado nado além de parasitas por quatro anos) - Will they have been testing these materials in the lab before we even get there? (Eles terão testado o material no laboratório antes mesmo de chegarmos?) 7. FUTURE CONTINUOUS [will be + verb(ing)] Indica uma ação que estará em progresso em um determinado momento no futuro. - This time tomorrow I ll be lying on the beach in the sun.(a essa hora amanhã, eu estarei deitado na praia debaixo do sol) - Don t phone me between 7.00 and 8.00, as we ll be having dinner then. (Não me tefome entre 7 e 8 horas, pois estarei jantando) - What will you be doing this time next year? Well I don t know you but I ll be playing in a band in Liverpool.(O que você estará fazendo a essa hora no próximo ano? Bem eu não sei quanto a você mas eu estarei tocando em uma banda em Liverpool). H. PERFECT TENSES 1. Past Perfect O PAST PERFECT TENSE indica que uma ação foi completada em algum ponto do passado antes de uma outra no passado. É formada com o passado do verbo have = HAD e o particípio do verbo principal. Ex: I had walked two miles by lunchtime. She had run three other marathons before entering the Boston Marathon. / My mother had already left when I arrived in the club. ( Minha mãe já tinha saído quando eu cheguei no clube). 2. Present Perfect Progressive O PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE indica uma ação em progresso that iniciou no passado e continua até o presente. Ex: "She has been running and her heart is still beating fast."
9 Singular Plural I have been walking we have been walking you have been walking you have been walking he/she/it has been walking they have been walking Examples: Maria has been writing her dissertation for the last six years[, but she finished yesterday]. Have we been telling the truth to consumers about tobacco? Haven't we been lying to teenagers about smoking? 3. Past Perfect Progressive The PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE indica uma ação continua que foi completada em algum ponto do passado.este tempo é formado pelo HAD + BEEN + verbo(ing), ex: "I had been working in the garden all morning. George had been painting his house for weeks, but he finally gave up." Singular Plural I had been walking we had been walking you had been walking you had been walking he/she/it had been walking they had been walking I. MODAL VERBS: MODAIS Cada um será usado em situações específicas, ex: dar conselho, criticar, expressar incerteza, etc. Normalmente usamos modal + infinitivo. 1. SHOULD Dar conselho You should stop smoking. (Você deveria parar de fumar) (should + infinitivo ) Criticar (should have / haven t + particípio) 2. MAY / MIGHT Incerteza, pode ou não acontecer. You should ve booked the book to study. (Você deveria ter reservado o livro para estudar) You shouldn t ve written those s. (Você não deveria ter escrito aqueles s). I might go to the party. (Talvez eu vá à festa) She might have done her homework earlier. (Ela poderia ter feito a tarefa mais cedo).
10 3. CAN Habilidade / capacidade / permissão I can play the piano. She can go to the cinema after dinner. (Ela pode ir ao cinema após o jantar). - passado de can: could; was/were able to -futuro: will be able to. 4. COULD Habilidade / permissão / probabilidade/ pedido educado I could dance tango very well. She could go to the cinema after dinner. I could work until late if she had given me the key. (Eu poderia trabalhar até tarde se ela tivesse me dado a chave). 5.MUSTN T / CAN T proibição Could you open the door, please? She mustn t go out. (Ela não pode sair). She mustn t have taken the umbrella with her. (Ela não deveria ter levado a sombrinha com ela). 6. WOULD condicional I would study more if I had time available (Eu estudaria mais se tivesse tempo disponível). I would have studied more if I had had time available. (Eu teria estudado mais se eu tivesse tido tempo disponível). 7. NEEDN T Sem necessidade You needn t buy any fruit, we have a lot. (Você não precisa comprar frutas, nós temos muitas). 8. MUST Obrigação interna / necessidade pessoal I must study for vestibular. (Eu devo estudar para o vestibular). She must clean her house. 9. HAVE / HAS TO Obrigação externa I have to work on Saturdays. She has to clean the house everyday. You have to wear a uniform. 10 DON T / DOESN T HAVE TO Ausência de obrigação You don t have to wear a uniform. She doesn t have to work on Saturdays. J. RELATIVE PRONOUNS 1. WHO / WHOM PESSOAS - A doctor is a person. He works in hospitals. = A doctor is a person WHO works in hospitals. - He s got a new girlfriend. She works in a garage. = He s got a new girlfriend WHO works in a garage.
11 - He has married somebody WHOM I really do not like. (formal style) - He s married somebody WHO I really don t like. (informal style) - The boy WHOM you saw yesterday was my nephew. (O menino que você viu ontem era meu sobrinho). - Mary is the girl to WHOM he gave the present. (Mary é a garota a quem ele deu o presente). - This is Mr Rogers. You met him last year. (Este é o Sr. Rogers. Você o conheceu no ano passado). - This is Mr Rogers WHOM you met last year. (Este é o Sr. Rogers que você conheceu no ano passado). 2. WHOSE IDÉIA DE POSSE - These are the books WHOSE writer lives in Rio. (Estes são os livros cujo escritor mora no Rio). 3. WHERE LUGAR - This is the church WHERE John and I got married. (Esta é a igreja onde John e eu nos casamos). - This is the church in WHICH John and I got married. (Esta é a igreja na qual John e eu nos casamos). 4. WHICH COISAS E ANIMAIS - A lion is a wild animal. It eats meat. (O leão é um animal selvagem. Ele come carne). - A lion is a wild animal WHICH eats meat. o pronome THAT poderá substituir WHO ou WHICH se a frase não estiver entre vírgulas. - A doctor is a person THAT works in a hospital - A lion is a wild animal THAT eats meat. - The writer, WHO lives in Rio, is my uncle. - The book, WHICH I showed you, was bought in Rio. K. QUANTITATIVE PRONOUNS AND ADJECTIVES 1. SOME frases afirmativas; antes de substantivos plurais ou incontáveis. Também em orações interrogativas que indiquem oferecimento. - We need some tomatoes to put in the pizza. - They bought some milk today. - Would you like some coffee? (WOULD LIKE) - Would you like somebody to help you with the bags? 2. ANY frases negativas e interrogativas, antes de substantivos plurais ou incontáveis. - We don t need any tomatoes to put in the pizza. - They didn t buy any milk today. - Do you like coffee? - Did you call anyone yesterday at Maria s house? 3. NO usado em frases afirmativas com idéia negativa. - We need no tomatoes to put in the pizza. - They bought no milk today. - Nobody called you on the phone. ( = ninguém)
12 - They have nowhere to go this weekend. (= nenhum lugar) 4. EVERY todo / cada, em frases afirmativas, negativas e interrogativas. - Everything is gonna be alright! - Does everybody enjoy going to the cinema at weekends? - Every day he eats the same dish. + body / one pessoas + thing coisas + where lugar L. DEGREES OF COMPARISON 1. COMPARATIVE a) adjetivo curto = adjetivo+er THAN - Small smaller; Slim slimmer; sexy sexier; Blue bluer - She s taller than her mother b) adjetivo longo = MORE adjetivo THAN - MORE beautiful THAN She s more intelligent than her sister. - LESS beautiful THAN 2. EQUALITY AS (adjetivo) AS; NOT AS (adjetivo) AS - She is as thin as her sister. / She isn t as beautiful as her sister. 3. SUPERLATIVE a) adjetivo curto = THE adjetivo+est - Small THE smallest; Slim THE slimmest; sexy THE sexiest; Blue THE bluest - She s THE tallest mother in the school b) adjetivo longo = MORE adjetivo THAN - THE MOST beautiful She s THE MOST intelligent sister of all. - THE LEAST beautiful 4. COMMENTS a) adjetivos terminados em le,-ow,-er 2 formas de comparativo (item 1) e as duas de superlativo (item 3). b) He s lazier and more stupid than his cousin. (different people) He s more lazy than stupid. (compare two descriptions of the same person) c) I m getting fatter and fatter.
13 d) The older I get, the happier I am. (os adjetivos variam simultaneamente) The later it gets, the colder it becomes. e) She s the oldest girl in the world. They re the oldest girls of the world. N. SO (+)/ NEITHER (-) usados para concordar com frases afirmativas ou negativas no lugar da expressão Me too / I am too. Use SO para concordar com uma informação afirmativa e use NEITHER para concordar com uma informação negativa. (+) Peter said: John is happy, and so am I. =Peter said: John is happy and I am too. (-) Peter said: John isn t tall. Neither am I. John: I am happy today! Peter: So am I. Tempo verbal Verb to be presente (+,-) Verb to be in the past (+,-) Present simple (+,-) Qual auxiliar? am / is / are was / were do I, you, we, they does he, she, it Past simple (+,-) Present continuous (+,-) Past continuous (+,-) Present perfect (+,-) Present perfect continuous (+,-) did am, is, are was / were have / has have / has
14 Past perfect (+,-) Will / won t Would / wouldn t Can / can t Could / couldn t Should / shouldn t Going to had will would can could should am, is, are Em orações: Present simple I speak English and so does she / her sister / my sister. I don t like onions and neither do my brothers. Past simple She went to the cinema yesterday and so did my cousin. They didn t travel last year and neither did my mother. Neither nor (nem nem) You can buy neither this nor that bag. Either or (ou ou) You can buy either this or that bag. (corrigir livro) Both and (tanto quanto) Both the aunt and the uncle are doctors. O. CONJUNCTIONS AND CONNECTORS São palavras utilizadas para ligar orações e palavras, estabelecendo uma relação de coordenação ou subordinação entre elas. 1. Coordinating conjunctions = conjunções coordenadas (and, but, or / yet = no entanto) 2. Alternative ideas = alternativa (either or = ou ou / neither nor = nem nem / or else = senão, ao contrário) 3. Contrast and concession = contraste (although, though = embora / even though = mesmo que / even if = mesmo se / however = entretanto, contudo / nevertheless = contudo, entretanto / but = mas, porém / yet = entretanto / despite, in spite of = apesar de / whereas = ao passo que) 4. Consequence and result idea = consequência (therefore, hence = por isso, portanto, então / thus = logo) 5. Condition and hyphotesis idea = condição / hipótese (otherwise = caso contrário / if, whether = se / as long as = contanto que / unless = a menos que) 6. Manner idea = modo (as = como / as if, as though = como se / as well = da mesma forma) 7. Cause idea causal (because of = por causa disso / in order to, so as to = para, a fim de) / therefore (por isso) / thus (assim) 8. Addition idea = adição ( besides, moreover, in addition, furthermore = além de, além disso / both and = tanto quanto / as well as = bem como / likewise = além disso)
15 9. Time and consequence idea = tempo (while = enquanto / til, until =até que / since = desde que / in the meantime = enquanto isso / yet = ainda / as soon as = tão logo que) 10. Sequence idea = sequência (thus = portanto) / Firstly (primeiramente) / secondly (Segundo*) /thirdly (terceiro*) / Finally (finalmente) / eventually (finalmente) / then (então/depois) / Next (próximo/depois) /meanwhile (enquanto isso) / afterwards (posteriormente) / Whilst (enquanto/quando) / since (desde) 11. Emphasis idea = ênfase: above all (sobretudo) / in particular (paticularmente) / especially (especialmente) / significantly (significativamente) / indeed (de fato / mesmo) / notably (particularmente) 12. Illustrating idea = exemplificar: namely, for instance (por exemplo) / for example (por exemplo) / such as (tal como) / in the case of (no caso de) / as revealed by (como mostrado por) 13. Comparison idea = comparando: equally (igualmente) / likewise (igualmente) / like (como) / similarly (semelhantemente) / as with (como) / in the same way (do mesmo modo) 14. Purpose idea = objetivo (so that = para que /) 15. Ending idea = conclusivas.: to sum up / to summarize P. FORMAÇÃO DE PALAVRAS POR SUFIXAÇÃO 1. Sufixos formadores de substantivos a) Os sufixos mais comuns que formam substantivos de verbos são -er, -or e ar, que significam a pessoa ou coisa que faz ou que está relacionada com. Exemplo: worker (trabalhador) do verbo to work. // programmer (pregramador) do verbo to program liar (mentiroso) do verbo to lie. // conductor (condutor / maestro) do verbo to conduct reader (leitor) do verbo to read // beggar (pedinte) do verbo to beg b) Os sufixos ist e (i)an também são usados para indicar a pessoa por associação a certas coisas e lugares. Exemplo: Quem estuda geology (geologia) é um geologist (geólogo) Quem estuda mathematics (matemática) é um mathematician (matemático) Exceções: a) quem estuda engineering é um engineer b) quem estuda architecture é um architect c) quem estuda medicine é um doctor or physician c) O sufixo ion (-action, -ition) forma substantivos de verbos, significando o processo ou o resultado de. Exemplo: action (ação) do verbo to act //// addition (adição) do verbo to add d) As terminações ment, - ance e ence também são acrescentadas a verbos para formar substantivos que significam a ação de ou o resultado da ação de. Exemplo: development (desenvolvimento) do verbo to develop performance (desempenho) do verbo to perform
16 e) As terminações al e age significam o ato de ou o resultado do ato de. Exemplo: Removal (remoção) do verbo to remove Drainage (drenagem) do verbo to drain OTHER SUFFIXES 1) The Abstract Nouns Suffixes: a) SHIP b) HOOD c) DOM d) NESS friendship, championship, fellowship boyhood, neighbourhood, fatherhood freedom, kingdom, boredom highness, weakness, hardness 2) The Adjective Suffixes: a) FUL b) ABLE, IBLE - c) OUS d) Y e) LY f) ISH g) SOME powerful, skillful, careful comfortable, profitable, responsible, edible dangerous, anxious, courageous healthy, skinny, nosy cowardly, friendly, elderly tallish, yellowish, Spanish tiresome, troublesome 3) The Verbal Suffixes a) EN b) FY c) IZE, ISE d) ATE weaken, sharpen, loosen to purify, identify, classify to apologise, specialise, dramatise to circulate, concentrate, stimulate 4) The suffix LESS denoting absence of, lacking of * e.g sugarless, noiseless, painless 5) The suffix ESS forming feminine gender e.g lioness, waitress, hostess 6) The suffix AL and AGE making nouns from verbs e.g. to arrive/ bury arrival / burial to marry / wreck marriage / wreckage
17 7) The suffix MENT, ATION, ANCE ---- adding to verbs to form nouns e.g. to develop / amaze to separate / inform to perform / assist development / amazement separation / information performance / assistance *Absence of = ausência de / lacking of = falta de PREFIXES 1) Negative meanings or reverse: IN / IM / IL / IR / DIS / DE / UN Examples: a) active / complete / different inactive / incomplete / indifferent b) popular / believable / real - unpopular / unbelievable / unreal c) agree / appear / approve - disagree / disappear / disapprove d) frost / code / value - defrost / decode / devalue e) mature / patient - immature / impatient f) reversible / resistible - irreversible / irresistible g) legible / legal - illegible / illegal 2) Prefixes denoting: a) Excess - over: overpopulated / overcooked / overwork / oversleep b) Insufficiency - under: undercooked / underestimate / underdone c) Below - under: undergraduate / underground / underwear 3) Prefixes MIS, MAL denoting: a) lack of (falta de): mistrust / misfortune b) incorrect (incorreto): mistake / misunderstand / misbehaviour c) bad(ly) done (mal feito): maltreat / malnutrition 4) Prefixes of time and sequence: PRE (antes de), POST (após), Examples: EX (anterior), RE (repetição) a) marital / arrange / school b) classical / war - pre-marital / pre-arrange / pre-school - post-classical / post-war
18 c) husband / president d) build / use - ex-husband / ex-president - rebuild / reuse Q. The Passive Voice A voz passiva é usada quando se quer dar mais ênfase na ação e não em quem a realizou. Também usamos a voz passiva quando não se sabe quem fez a ação, ou quando não é evidente ou não é importante. A voz passiva é formada pelo verbo TO BE no tempo do verbo da voz ativa mais o PAST PARTICIPLE (particípio) do verbo principal. TEMPO VERBAL VOZ ATIVA (active voice). VOZ PASSIVA (passive voice) FORMA Simple present Some people drink coffee every morning Coffee is drunk every morning is / are + participle Simple past My mother made a delicious pizza. A delicious pizza was made by my mother. was / were + participle Simple future They will deliver the package on Friday. The package will be delivered on Friday. will be + participle Present continuous We are picking up the packages on Tuesday. The packages are being picked up on Tuesday. is / are being + participle Past continuous Future continuous His car didn t work so it was repairing. We will be having a meeting next week. His car was being repaired. was / were being + participle Present perfect I still haven t read that book. It s new. That book hasn t been read before. has / have been + participle Past perfect He didn t know if the mailman had delivered the books. He didn t know if the books hadn t been delivered. had been + participle Future perfect I hope the rain will have stopped by the time we leave. I think the package will have been delivered by Wednesday. will have been + participle Present perfect continuous We have been waiting for the bus about fifteen minutes. NOTE: hardly ever used in the passive voice. But: (have been being waited) have been being +
19 participle Past perfect continuous I m glad you mentioned that because I had been thinking about it. NOTE: hardly ever used in the passive voice. But: (had been being thought) had been being + participle Future perfect continuous I will have been studying English for 6 months at the end of June. NOTE: hardly ever used in the passive voice. But: (will have been being studied) will have been being + participle Going to Don t worry; Maria is going to pick up the children at school. Don t worry; the children are going to be picked up at school. is / are going to be + participle Must Students must do their homework every day. The homework must be done every day. must be + participle Have to Mum has to make pizza for dinner. A pizza has to be made for dinner. has / have to be + participle R. REPORTED SPEECH Usa-se para recontar uma informação passada. Statements a) Read the chart: Direct Speech Reported Speech (or Indirect Speech) I don t know your address. She said she didn t know my address. I m working. He told me he was working. You ll be very famous. They said I would be very famous. I m going to travel to Rio. She told us she was going to travel to Rio. I ve been to São Paulo twice. He said he had been to São Paulo twice. I went to a disco last Saturday. She told me she had gone to a disco the Saturday before. She goes to the cinema twice a month. She said she had gone to the cinema twice a month. b) Read the tense changes: Direct Speech Reported Speech (or Indirect Speech) Present Simple Past simple Present Continuous Past continuous Will + infinitive Would + infinitive Is / are going to + infinitive Was / were going to + infinitive Present Perfect Past perfect Past simple Past perfect c) Certain time expressions often change: Direct Speech Reported Speech (or Indirect Speech) tomorrow that day today the next day next (week) the following (week) last (week) (the week) before
20 this that here there these those II Reported Speech: Commands / Imperatives We express order or commands in reported speech by using the infinitive forms: Direct Speech Reported Speech (or Indirect Speech) He said to me, Come back later. He told me to come back later She told me, Don t wait for me. She told me not to wait for her. III Reported Speech: Questions When we report a question in reported speech, we express the original question in statement form. Direct Speech John asked, Does Mary live near here? Beth asked, Are you tired? Where do you live? What s the time? Reported Speech (or Indirect Speech) John asked whether / if Mary lived near there. Beth asked whether / if I was tired. She asked me where I lived. He asked him what time was. IV Reported Speech: Other forms USE EXAMPLES NOTES / PROBLEMS Use verb + (not) to + infinitive to report something someone offered, refused, threatened, agreed, or, promised. He offered to help me. She refused to pay. I agreed to do it. After I agree and promise you can also use that + clause (changing the verb tenses, etc, as after said / told). Use verb + person + (not) to + infinitive to report something someone asked, invited, advised, encouraged, reminded, warned, told, convinced, or persuaded. Use verb + (not) ing to report something someone apologized for, admitted, denied, insisted on, recommended, regretted, or suggested. He encouraged me to write. They warned her not to go. She persuaded him to buy it. I apologized for arriving late. He denied stealing the car. I insisted on knowing the truth. NOT: He encouraged me that I should write. After remind, warn, tell, convince, and persuade you can also use person + that + clause. The doctor warned me that it was dangerous for me to fly. After admit, deny, insist (without on), recommend, regret, and suggest you can also use that + clause. I think you should take a taxi = My friend recommended that I take / I took a taxi. I didn t shoot him. = He denied shooting him. / He denied that he had shot him.! insist on +verb +-ing BUT insist that + clause Good to have a look at: