Mobility, Car-sharing and Carpooling in the Azores [MOBICAR]

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1 Mobility, Car-sharing and Carpooling in the Azores [MOBICAR] 2 nd Report (Preliminary) 1 st Phase January 2011

2 Title: Mobility, car-sharing and carpooling in the Azores [MOBICAR] 2nd Report Project: Mobility, car-sharing and carpooling in the Azores [MOBICAR] (MIT-Portugal University of the Azores) Contributors to this report: Principal Investigators: Isabel Estrela Rego, Helena Calado, Regina Tristão da Cunha Research Assistants: Júlia Bentz, Silvia Cosme This report should be cited as: Rego, I., Calado, H., Cunha, R., Bentz, J., Cosme, S., 2011: Mobility, car-sharing and carpooling in the Azores [MOBICAR] 2 nd Report. Green Islands Project, MIT-Portugal and University of the Azores. 2

3 Index List of tables... 4 List of figures... 4 Executive summary Introduction Survey Preparation Discussion Group Initial design of the Survey Choice of the relevant Revealed Preferences Understanding characteristics of the Respondent and current Mobility Behavior Understanding factors of preference and repulsion on choice of travel mode Attitudes and Life style questions Choice of the relevant Declared Preferences Alternatives, attributes and levels for Declared Preferences Define alternatives, attributes, and attribute levels values Discussion Group survey test and revision of questionnaire Pilot survey implementation Run pilot of revealed preferences and declared preferences survey Extract results from pilot survey data Characteristics of the respondent household Characteristics of the respondent Attitudes and Lifestyles framing mobility behavior Revealed Preferences Results Declared Preferences Results Review and refine questionnaire design Refinement of the zoning and sampling schemes Lesson learned from the pilot survey References Annex Sample of the Pilot Questionnaire Annex Sample of the Main Questionnaire

4 List of tables Table 1. List of questions considered to the Pilot survey revealed Preferences Table 2. List of variables, motives or attributes affecting transport mode choice Table 3. List of Alternatives, Attributes and their Levels for Declared Preferences Table 4. Proposed scenarios to the pilot survey respondents Table 5. List of questions considered to the Main survey Revealed Preferences Table 6. List Sample scheme for the Pilot Survey Table 7. List Sample scheme for the Main Survey List of figures Figure 1. Schematic Discret Choice Framework... 7 Figure 2. Car-related Statements with Evident Agreement Figure 3. Public Transport-Related Statements with Evidente Agreement Figure 4. Carpooling systems-related Statements with Evident Agreement Figure 5. Commuting Time Average (minutes)

5 Executive summary A baseline data collection at the start of the project was deemed necessary, in order to establish the present day characteristics of Azorean mobility features. Furthermore, this information is also vital to assess the progress of the project activities, to identify further intervention points (and adjust our objectives and methodologies accordingly), and to use it as a baseline to be used in future evaluations of the impacts of the project. However, the scarcity of data concerning the mobility patterns and preferences posed some difficulties to the experimental design of the survey, since there was no baseline on which to base sampling and zoning schemes, or even determine the adequate/relevant issues to be focused on the survey. Hence, a preliminary survey was used, to test both the final survey structure, and the experimental design validity, and to allow further refinement of the zoning and sampling schemes. Due to the absence of previous historical data concerning the particular issue of interest of this project, the statistical support to determine the required sample size, the population was divided in disjoint strata (segments), covering the whole island population. Territorial units (counties) were used. Within each stratum, the rules of simple random sampling were applied, and respondents were dimensioned by proportional affectation. Overall, 100 respondents were used to implement the pilot survey. Each respondent was required to expose his current travel behavior, to indicate his own levels of attraction/repulsion with a set of statements, to choose among transport modes for four Declared Preferences scenarios, and to depict some socioeconomic characteristics. This report presents the results of that preliminary study, and focuses on those aspects of personal and household transportation choices that may potentially result in improvements to the quality, consistency, and accuracy of the data to be gathered through the final survey. The report is organized into four main parts, organized as follows: Part 1: Introduction; Part 2: Survey preparation; Part 3: Pilot Survey implementation; Part 4: Lesson learned from the pilot survey Part 2 and 3 of this report are organized according to the chronology of the undertaken preliminary study tasks. Part 4 will summarize the main learned lessons, which will be used to improve the final survey questionnaire and design. 5

6 1. Introduction Transportation surveys are the most typical way to obtain personal travel behavior information used by transportation planners. These questionnaires disclose travel tendencies and patterns to support understanding of demands on the transportation system and to identify areas in which problems can be expected. Simultaneously, they provide information for travel forecasting and other models that are used to design longterm options and to test the efficacy of proposed solutions. A survey to Azoreans mobility is, hence, a vital asset, used to gather the information necessary for building models capable of fostering a deeper understanding of the behavioral dimension that Azorean individuals have in their mobility patterns. This survey intends to unveil the following components: a) Characteristics of the respondents - social, demographic and other; b) Current patterns of mobility - expressed in current transportation needs and habits; c) Attitudes and lifestyles, e.g. the latent values and beliefs inherent in the decisionmaker and those that constrain mobility patterns, d) Declared preferences (taking positions that deal with alternative options for mobility - behaviors intended for the use of public transportation, for using car-sharing for the use of electric cars, etc). To evaluate this, the questionnaire must address the mains issues to be estimated (such as travel profiles, socio-economic characterization of the respondents, etc), through a section designated as revealed preferences, whose objective is to estimate the needed data from an analysis of the past behavior of respondents. An equally important part of such a survey, which intends to evaluate the attractiveness of new alternatives, consists on the estimation of the so called declared preferences : each individual, with certain characteristics (such as ender, age or income), is presented with several available options (e.g. car, public transport, cycling), each one of these alternatives possessing a set of attributes (travel time, cost, etc.). The goal is to determine, for each alternative, an associated utility function (one can think of the output of this function as the measure of attractiveness or desire that the individual has for such alternative). The algebraic shape of this function is typically pre-assumed, and the parameters must be extracted by observation of the individuals choice or decision, as shown in figure 1. 6

7 Attributes of the Alternatives (costs, waiting time, door-to-door time, etc) Respondent Characteristics (age, gender, income, etc.) Systematic Component V in Utility Function U in (Preference) Uncertainty Component ε in Choice Figure 1. Schematic Discret Choice Framework Note that attributes vary with the alternatives, e.g. the travel time by car is not the same as the travel time by bicycle, and the same is true for the costs. But the respondent's characteristics remain the same, over any alternative, that is, the gender of the respondent is unalterable, whatever mode of transport is the car or bike. The models capture discrete choices, thus the influence of the attributes of alternatives and characteristics of the respondent in their preference and consequently in their choices. The objective of this part of the project is to address such features assembling consolidated procedures for the conduct, evaluation, and reliability of a personal and household travel survey. This report identifies and relates those survey procedures (e.g., selecting samples, reporting results, and editing data) within the travel patterns characterization process.. 7

8 2. Survey Preparation The survey preparation included the review of past practices, the analysis of survey data, and the implementation of special purpose data collection efforts, to investigate specific issues. This involved the review of more than 28 past surveys, analysis of Portuguese Census survey (travel data) conducted in 2000, execution of a pretest survey, and execution of a pilot survey to measure the impact of responses (personal and household) and respondent satisfaction. Although one of the main objectives in this study is to understand Azorean mobility patterns, the research conducted was limited to the consideration of personal and household mobility survey and excluded freight. The form of data collection that has been considered appropriate in the context, was face-to-face. All data considered in this study have been of revealed travel behavior and declared preferences. That is to say, the scope of work was to relate individual and household socio-economic characteristics, information on usual travel behavior (existing trip and activity characteristics), attitudinal and life style positions and stated preferences between car, carpooling and car-sharing alternatives. The approach adopted in this study was to conduct the research in two consecutive phases. The first phase comprehended the theoretical preparation (including literature review) on travel surveys, and understanding factors of local attraction or repulsion of different travel modes; the second phase consists in a pilot survey preparation, implementation and analysis. As will be seen later, this Pilot Survey was deemed necessary, due to the extreme lack of pre-existing data concerning the issues of interest Discussion Group Transportation planners have recently begun to realize the potential of focus groups. These groups have been a core technique in the development of marketing procedures for some time, and are of great usefulness in various aspects of survey design. In spite of it being a technique that was not usual in our team, we decided to create a focus group (to be referred to as discussion group ) to help with the design of the survey. We used this practice to improve the design and quality of the survey. 8

9 In the design process, this discussion group did provide important information and perspectives, which, when associated with pretests, were very cost-effective in helping the preparation of the pilot survey. One of the vital issues debated by this group was the very necessity of a preliminary survey. Even though a pilot survey is certainly a good test-be, to allow evaluation and refinement of all aspects of the survey process (Richardson et al., 1995), if has associated considerable costs. However, given that it has been 10 years since the last time mobility questions were done, it was decided to undertake a pilot survey, because not only the existing data was scarce (namely, in the absence of statistical support to determine the required sample size, zoning, attitudinal tendencies and consequential attributes to the model), but also because the changes in population that have since occurred would largely render past data irrelevant Initial design of the Survey At this stage, decisions were mostly taken by the discussion team, having in mind the objectives of the project. The team decided which were the issues that should be evaluated and what exact variables should be determined and/or estimated, embracing all the aspects needed to obtain the desired characterization. The discussion group was also of paramount importance in the evaluation of the suitability of the attributes chosen for the various alternatives, and the levels of these attributes. An attempt was made to keep the questionnaire length under strict control, to avoid fatigue of the respondents, but the questionnaire used in the Pilot Survey turned out to still be excessively long, an aspect which turned out to be one of the major changes that had to be made to the questionnaire, after the Pilot Survey implementation. As is typical in this type of survey, two types of questions were posed to the respondents: Revealed preferences (characteristics of the respondent, current patterns of mobility and attitudes and lifestyles matters), and declared preferences (what-if choices). 9

10 Choice of the relevant Revealed Preferences Understanding characteristics of the Respondent and current Mobility Behavior Revealed preferences are meant to address and evaluate both the characteristics of the Respondent and current Mobility Behavior. They should thus provide an accurate picture of present day situation. They must address the essential information about the demographics of the respondent household and its members, the attributes of the activities (commute and leisure), and the attributes of household travels. This is where we must gather information on inherent socio-economic data (cultural, household formation, income, gender, etc.) and habitual behaviour on travelling (existing trip characteristics, origin and destination, purpose of trip, mode of transportation, departure time, no. of occupants, costs (fuel price/parking fee). A list of the typical issues to be addressed in this section of the survey (revealed preferences) is shown in Table 1, representing the set of questions formulated for the pilot travel survey. This set of questions constitutes a fairly standard survey structure, and should therefore allow an easy comparison with future surveys and investigations. Table 1. List of questions considered to the Pilot survey revealed Preferences Household Location Household Size Relationships Number and type of Vehicles Group Membership Vehicle Body Home address or home position in geographic terms Number of household members Matrix of relationships between all members of the household Summary of number of vehicles from vehicle data Number of persons in the group who live in respondent s household Type e.g., car, van, RV, SUV, etc. Gender Age Paid Jobs Job Classification Driving License Education Level Respondent Male or Female Years old Number of paid positions and hours worked at each in the past week Employee, self-employed, student, unemployed, retired, not employed, etc. Whether a current drivers license is held, driving experience. Highest level of education achieved 10

11 Trip and Activity Location of origin Location of destination Start Time End Time Means of Travel Alternative Modes Mode Sequence Group Size Costs Distance Location of origin Parking Where the trip started Where the activity was performed, unless traveling Hour Hour and duration of travel What mode(s) was used (if a car passenger or driver) Possible alternatives to that mean of travel Describing trip and tour Number of persons traveling with respondent as a group Total amount spent on tolls, fares, and respondent s share Total kilometers spent on tolls, fares, and respondent s share Where the trip started Amount spent to park As can be seen in this table, our survey did also include a section describing the actual household characteristics, since, as will be later seen, our respondent is precisely the household (randomly represented by one of his members with the appropriate age), to avoid excessive correlation in travel behavior that would result from having two respondents of the same household. The variables to be collected include, among others, the number of household members, their ages, genders and occupation status, drivers license and, car availability and transit pass ownership, number of cars in the household and household income range. In some questions, however, the behavior of other household members was also inquired. Also, we tried to include questions allowing us to evaluate interactions between the surveyed person and other household members (trips made together with other household members, etc.) In addition, we included questions not only about the last previous day, but also about regular variations across the week and also questions about leisure and maintenance mobility habits Understanding factors of preference and repulsion on choice of travel mode Attitudes and Life style questions Travel behavior is largely dependent on situational characteristics, which affect the availability and relative attractiveness (or repulsion) of various travel modes and travel necessity. As a result of this, a general literature review was undertaken early in the project. Some of the latent variables, motives or attributes affecting transport mode choice were collected from the literature review and were separated into four categories of 11

12 responses: variables influencing any type of travel use, variables influencing car choice, variables influencing public transport mode choices and variables influencing carpooling systems choice. A summary of these variables, and of some relevant references concerning them, can be found in Table 2: Table 2. List of variables, motives or attributes affecting transport mode choice Variable Category Variables/Motives/Attributes Author/Date Any type of travel mode Car Habit Air pollution Exposure to traffic control devices Road blockage due incidents Scenic views, Visibility, Weather conditions, Work zones Attitudes: commute benefit, Attitudes: pro-environmental policy, Attitudes: pro-high density, Attitudes: travel dislike, Attitudes: travel freedom, Attitudes: travel stress, Excess travel, Life style: family / community oriented, Life style: frustrated, Life style: status seeking, Life style: workaholic, Mobility constraint, Objective mobility, Personality: adventure seeking, Personality: calm, Personality: loner, Personality: organizer, Relative desired mobility, Socio-demographics, Subjective mobility. Feeling of power, Sensations, Superiority, Cheap, Comfortable, Convenience, Easy, Environmentally friendly, Fast and Speed, Flexibility, Safety, Value of activities while driving. Value of driving, Variety seeking, Habit, Poor planning, Lack of information, Misperceptions. Verplanken et al., 1997 Zeid, 2007 Mokhtarian and Ory, 2005 Steg, 2004 Mokhtarian et al., 2004 Flexibility Vugt et. al, 1996; Public Transport Carpooling Systems Easy-going and environmentally, Fixed schedule, Privacy and comfort, Productive use of time, Reliability and control, Safety and familiarity, Time and flexibility, Value of time. Bus stop availability, Bus stop furniture and maintenance, Cleanliness, Complaints, Cost, Environmental protection, Frequency, Information, Overcrowding, Personal security, Personnel, Promotion, Reability, Route characteristics, Safety on board. Attachment to cars, Opportunity to talk, Meet colleagues. Proussaloglou, 2004 Eboli and Mazzula, 2007 Beirão and Cabral, 2007 Travelers attitudes towards the current transport system will affect their preference for alternative different transport modes. To understand how behavior could be changed, latent variables must be identified (and originate attitudinal questions to be incorporated into the questionnaire), in the hope that responses will allow accurate forecast of population attitude towards the selected new alternatives. Some factors, which were 12

13 considered to be more likely to be inherent in our population, have been previously studied: Weather conditions, (Zeid, 2007), Instrumental motives: Cheap, (Steg 2005), Comfortable, (Steg 2005), Environmentally friendly, (Steg, 2005), Attachment to cars, (Beirão and Cabral, 2007), Opportunity to talk, (Beirão and Cabral, 2007), Meet colleagues, (Beirão and Cabral, 2007), Flexibility, Vugt et. Al, 1996; Time and Flexibility, (Proussaloglou et. Al, 2004), Comfort, (Cantillo and Ortúzar, 2006). A set of statements was therefore prepared, as part of the questionnaire, to allow respondents to manifest their attractiveness or repulsiveness to the proposed phrases Choice of the relevant Declared Preferences The declared preferences part of the survey aims to analyze the evaluation of users in relation to options with multiple attributes, in hypothetical options alternatives or new attributes. The objectives of this particular part of our survey can thus be summarized as follows: Assess the acceptability of electric cars and car-sharing; Quantify the sensitivity level of service to these new modes, varying the values of access time, walking time, driving time, costs, etc. Measure the willingness-to-pay; Investigate the effects of attitudes and perceptions. Typically, questions are posed by presenting several alternatives, each one of them with certain attributes and attribute levels. The respondent must decide which alternative to choose, given the particular values in the attributes. Then, for another set of levels of attributes choose again, and so on. At the end of a series of choices between alternatives (each choice with a different set of attributes levels), we will be capable of evaluating the individual influence of each attribute on the choices of users, and thus obtain a model (typically a multinomial logit model) that predicts the probability that the user choosing one or another alternative, depending on the levels of the attributes of the various alternatives. 13

14 Alternatives, attributes and levels for Declared Preferences One of the important extensions of the original utility theory is random utility theory, where the utility of an alternative is considered as a latent or unobserved variable, consisting of the sum of a systematic part (which is a function of attributes of the alternative), and a random error term. The idea is that, even if travelers or commuters may know precisely the utility they obtain from different alternatives, the analyst may not know (almost certainly, he will not) this utility with certainty. Sources of randomness include unobserved variables, measurement errors, and many other facts. Utility maximization is still used as a criterion, but the setup is now stochastic. The utility of every alternative is a function of attributes of the alternative and random factors, and must be inferred from the observed choices. The underlying assumption is still that respondents choose the alternative that, form them presents the maximum utility, among the alternatives given in the choice set. A first step to be made for such a survey (and ours was not an exception) is, therefore, to define an adequate set of alternatives, attributes and attributes levels, capable of covering the full spaces of choices possible in the population, and of revealing the attitudes towards the intended new transport alternatives. From the choices made by all respondents, we should then be capable of calculating the utility function that users use to evaluate the different alternatives (which amounts to determining the coefficients beta see equations below - they unconsciously use to weigh the attributes: 1. Car mode systematic component utility 2. Carpooling mode systematic component utility: 3. Car-sharing mode systematic component utility: All this assumes, of course, that users are rational, and will, therefore choose the alternative most useful to them. 14

15 From these utility functions, we can easily calculate the probability of users choosing each alternative (the underlying mathematical model is a multinomial logit):, and Having obtained the beta coefficients β atr, the model is finished. We can infer the utility given by users to each of the alternatives for each set of levels of attributes, even to levels we have not specifically presented. For example, if the authorities wants to raise the price of parking, we can calculate the new utilities, determining, therefore, which option users will choose under these new conditions, and with what probability Define alternatives, attributes, and attribute levels values As previously stated, defining alternatives, attributes and levels adjusted to Azorean reality was one of the first tasks of the established discussion group. We relied, of course, on the fact that the group was constituted by people residing in Azores, with a deep understanding of the context and environment, and, therefore, in sync with population views. Since we wanted to evaluate the Azoreans mobility characteristics, we began to consider all the transportation modes possibilities (bicycle, walking, private car, transit, carpooling, car-sharing, etc.). However, given the complexity of the sheer number of combinatorial choices, we decided to narrow down our study to the initial proposed modes - carpooling and car-sharing - as the best alternatives to diminish greenhouse emissions and reduce energy consumption. With these first two alternatives determined, it was decided that private car would be the third one. In fact, carpooling systems modes are more likely to compete with similar modes: e.g. carpooling vs. car as sole driver; car vs. carsharing. The most significant (and applicable) attributes from the literature review were used, with the knowledge that the pilot survey would correct any mismatches of this preliminary decision, and allow the adjustment of the considered attributes. For car, carpooling and car-sharing alternatives, cost and time were considered the most relevant attributes. Scenarios were created, in which the drivers are given a trade-off between travel time 15

16 and cost. From their responses, a model can be run and their value of time will be obtained (from the relation of the coefficients of travel time and cost). Both time and cost, however, being such important attributes, were decomposed in more than one attribute. As it can be seen in table 3, the usually known as Door-to-door Time, or total commute time was segmented into: Access time (Time to walk from origin to car), Time in vehicle (time of driving the car) and Walking time (time spent walking from car parking to destination). For the costs, it was decided that this global attribute should comprise: Additional costs (includes parking costs and any other service fare), Weekly Fuel Cost (the price paid weekly for gas), and Average Monthly Costs (inserts car acquisition costs, car maintenance, and any fare paid to a club or organization that operates carpooling systems). One attribute that we believe was relevant to carpooling mode alternative was the number of days that the group is in function. It was considered that if a system does not offer a daily service, commuting could be more difficult. After reviewing practiced prices and estimated distances and times, the levels of attributes were determined. The levels considered appropriate for the attributes of the private car, carpooling and car-sharing alternatives were the following: 16

17 Table 3. List of Alternatives, Attributes and their Levels for Declared Preferences Alternative 1: Private Car Alternative 2: Carpooling Alternative 3: Car-sharing Attribute Levels Attribute Levels Attribute Levels Access Time (atr 11) Time in Vehicle (atr 12) Walking time (atr 13) Additional Costs (atr 14) Weekly Fuel Costs (atr 15) Average Monthly Costs (atr 16) Number of days of group operation (atr --) 0 minutes 2 minutes Access Time Access Time 9 minutes 4 minutes (atr 21) (atr 31) 3 minutes 9 minutes 12 minutes 7 minutes 12 minutes 7 minutes 9 minutes 18 minutes 14 minutes Drive Time (atr 22) Drive Time (atr 32) 14 minutes 22 minutes 9 minutes 19 minutes 26 minutes 19 minutes 2 minutes 4 minutes 4 minutes Walking Time Walking Time 5 minutes 4 minutes (atr 23) (atr 33) 6 minutes 0 0 1,70 Additional Costs 1,70 Additional Costs 1,9 /hour+0,33 /km 2,30 (atr 24) 2,30 (atr 34) 2,70 2,70 2,40 /hour+0,39 /km 5 Weekly Fuel 2,25 Weekly Fuel 11,25 Costs (atr 25) 6,75 Costs (atr --) Average Monthly 35 Average Monthly Costs (atr 26) 70 Costs (atr 35) Number of days of group operation (atr 27) 2 days 3 days 5 days Number of days of group operation (atr --) Having defined the alternatives, attributes, and levels of attributes, we presented a series of scenarios to the user. In each scenario, the respondent decides what is the alternative (car, carpooling or car-sharing) he prefers, given the levels of the attributes contained in this option. The survey respondent is asked to decide through a total of four options, separated in two different scenarios (carpooling with friends and colleagues, and carpooling with the support of an operator). For both of these two situations, the inquired person will tell if in those conditions, he/she would opt for private car, carpooling or car-sharing (each scenario has the alternatives, attributes and levels explicit, for easy reference). The 17

18 proposed scenarios were presented as shown in Table 4. 18

19 Table 4. Proposed scenarios to the pilot survey respondents Primeiro Cenário: Características das Alternativas Modo como se desloca Tempo de Acesso (Tempo de deslocação a pé desde casa até ao estacionamento) Tempo de condução Tempo a andar desde o estacionamento ao local de trabalho Custos adicionais Custo semanal com combustíveis Custo médio mensal com a utilização do veículo (estacionamento, combustíveis, percentagem de manutenção, seguro e desvalorização) Número de dias em que o grupo funciona 35. Qual das alternativas prefere? Alternativa 1: Automóvel privado Conduz o seu automóvel privado. Desloca-se desde a sua origem (ex. casa) até ao seu destino (porta-aporta). Caminha desde o lugar onde estacionou o automóvel até ao lugar destino. 3 min 14 min 4 min 2,70 /dia em estacionamento Alternativa 2: Partilha de viatura (Carpooling) Aderiu a um grupo de partilha de viatura, em sistema de carpooling, que funciona só em alguns dias da semana. Viaja como condutor ou como passageiro, alternadamente com os seus colegas de trabalho. O veículo usado é sempre o do condutor desse dia. Desloca-se desde a sua origem (ex. casa) até ao seu destino (porta-a-porta) ou caminha até a um ponto de encontro quando é passageiro. Caminha desde o lugar onde o veículo é estacionado até ao seu destino. 9 min (Tem de caminhar até ao ponto de encontro nos dias em que é passageiro) 22 min (Tem que ir buscar os seus colegas e por isso demora mais 8 min). 6 min (nos dias em que é passageiro) 2,70 /dia em estacionamento (só nos dias em que é condutor) Alternativa 3: Partilha de viatura (Carsharing) A reserva dos veículos é efectuada 24h por dia, através do site ou através de um número telefónico. Conduz o seu automóvel partilhado. Desloca-se desde a sua origem (ex. casa) até ao local onde o automóvel partilhado está (clube, empresa), só depois ruma ao seu destino final. Caminha desde o lugar onde entregou o automóvel até ao lugar de destino. 9 min 14 min 4 min 11,25 /semana 6,75 /semana Custo do serviço 1,9 /hora + 0,33 /quilómetro 135 /mês 95 /mês 10 /mês (adesão ao Clube) dias/semana Prefiro a 1 Prefiro a 2 Prefiro a Discussion Group survey test and revision of questionnaire The survey design was subjected to a pretest. This test of all elements and sequence of the elements of the pilot survey was completed by a small subsample of respondents in order to improve the instrument. 19

20 The questionnaire was pretested by having the discussion group and proxy persons completing the questionnaire, and then reviewing limited aspects of it, to determine whether any design changes were necessary. During the design phase, several sequential revisions of the questionnaire were conduced, to test various refinements of the questions, procedures, sampling, etc. This was an essential step, due the specific circumstances of the inexistence of useful information concerning transportation. 3. Pilot survey implementation 3.1. Run pilot of revealed preferences and declared preferences survey A pilot, preliminary survey (containing both Declared and Revealed Preferences) was conducted on early July 2010 (see annex 1). It was used to test the final survey structure, to test the experimental design validity, and to allow further refinement of both the zoning and sampling schemes. Since there weren t historical data to compute, even roughly, the survey sample sizes (it s difficult to estimate the variances of responses to questions that were never made), the population was divided in strata (segments) disjointed and covering the whole island population. Territorial units (counties) were used. Within each stratum, the rules of simple random sampling were applied, and respondents were dimensioned by proportional affectation. Overall, 100 respondents were used to implemented the pilot survey. Each respondent was required to expose his current travel behaviour, to indicate his own levels of attraction/repulsion with a set of statements, to choose among transport modes for four Declared Preferences scenarios, and to depict some socioeconomic characteristics. The pilot survey was carried out in the six districts (Ponta Delgada, Ribeira Grande, Lagoa, Vila Franca do Campo, Povoação e Nordeste) of São Miguel Island, where the project is being implemented. Sampling of the households for interview was thus from the sub-locations in the divisions of the districts where the project is working. 20

Project Management Activities

Project Management Activities Id Name Duração Início Término Predecessoras 1 Project Management Activities 36 dias Sex 05/10/12 Sex 23/11/12 2 Plan the Project 36 dias Sex 05/10/12 Sex 23/11/12 3 Define the work 15 dias Sex 05/10/12

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