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1 Project no Project acronym: TRACES Project title: Transformative Research Activities. Cultural diversities and Education in Science Dissemination level: PU Thematic Priority: Science in Society Funding scheme: Collaborative project Deliverable N : 4.4 Brazil Case Studies Due date: Month 21 Actual submission date: 03/04/2012 Start date of project: 01/07/2010 Duration: 24 months Name of Coordinator: University of Naples Federico II Name of lead partner for this deliverable: Uniao Brasileira De Educacao E Assistencia

2 Project partner UNIAO BRASILEIRA DE EDUCACAO E ASSISTENCIA PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL National coordinator JOÃO BATISTA HARRES Research team ANA MARIA MARQUES DA SILVA MAURIVAN GUNZTEL RAMOS VALDEREZ MARINA DO ROSÁRIO LIMA MARLISE HEEMANN GRASSI Collaborators: Dr. Patrícia Pinto Wolffenbuttel (Education School PUCRS), Gabriela Carolina Cattani Delord (Masters Degree in Science and Mathematics Education-PUCRS), Andréia Scherer da Silva (Masters Degree in Exact Science Teaching UNIVATES), Carolina Vidor (Physics School PUCRS). Contact information: 1

3 SUMARY 0 BASELINE DOCUMENT Brazilian System Education General Plan/ Motivation for Field Actions and Case Studies Case Studies and Meta-analysis 18 1 TRACES FIELD ACTIONS: REPORT BRAZIL The Local Context of the Field Actions in Guaíba CS The local context of the Field Actions in Lajeado CS The local context of the Field Actions in PIBID - CS BRAZILIAN CASE STUDIES ANALYSIS Case Study GUAÍBA CS Case Study Lajeado - CS Case Study PIBID CS GENERAL CONCLUSIONS: RECOMMENDANTIONS AND GUIDELINES Guaíba Case Study Conclusions CS Lajeado Case Study Conclusions - CS PIBID Case Study Conclusions CS Recommendations and Guidelines REFERENCES ANNEXES Annexes of Case Study GUAÍBA CS Annexes of Case Study Lajeado - CS Annexes of Case Study PIBID CS3 222 LIST OF CHARTS 2

4 Chart 0.1 General Brazilian Education System (based on Eurydice, 2010) 11 Chart 0.2 Main interaction focus of Brazilian case studies 17 Chart 0.3 Case studies, research questions and dimensions of metaanalysis 18 Chart School background of Case Study 1 GUAÍBA 19 Chart Teachers background of Case Study 1 - GUAÍBA 20 Chart Development of the Field Actions of CS1 Guaíba 24 Chart Schedule of the field actions of CS1 - Guaíba 28 Chart Development of field actions of the CS2 37 Chart School background of Case Study 3 - PIBID 40 Chart Pre-service teachers background of Case Study 3 - PIBID 40 Chart Supervisor teachers background of Case Study 3 - PIBID 41 Chart CS3 Field Actions development 44 Chart List of documents Case Study 1 CS1 55 Chart Document Identification and analyzed subjects 86 Chart Profile of pre-service teachers 109 Chart List of documents analyzed in CS3 109 Chart Activities and documents of CS3 - PIBID 125 LIST OF PICTURES Picture 1 Pictures about student s work 79 Picture 2 Drawing about research 123 3

5 LIST OF ANNEXES ANNEX 1.1 ANNEX 1.2 ANNEX 1.3 ANNEX 1.4 ANNEX 1.5 ANNEX 1.6 ANNEX 1.7 ANNEX 1.8 ANNEX 2.1 ANNEX 2.2 ANNEX 2.3 ANNEX 2.4 ANNEX 2.5 ANNEX 2.6 ANNEX 2.7 ANNEX 3.1 ANNEX 3.2 ANNEX 3.3 ANNEX 3.4 ANNEX 3.5 ANNEX 3.6 ANNEX 3.7 ANNEX 3.8 Initial questionnaire for pre and in-service teachers Researcher s observations about the research actions in the classroom accomplished by teachers and students. Interview in focal group with the students during the school science works show Banners presented by students in the school Science works show Self-evaluation questionnaires applied to teachers in the end of the development of the filed actions Interview with teachers in a focal group in the end of the field actions Interview done in the focal group with parents during the final event in GuaÍba Questionnaire answered by parents Interview with educational supervisor Interview with teachers Interview with parents Focus group with students Morning Focus group with students Afternoon Focus group with former Students Applied questionnaire to teachers Initial questionnaire for future teachers and teachers/supervisors Pre-service focus group interview Supervisors data sheet and questions about participation in research for supervisors Pre-service teachers drawing on what a scientist does Card/questionnaire filled by pre-service teachers Written synthesis school team evaluations Initial and final version of physics experiment and power point results Pre-service self-assessment about the experimental class ANNEX 3.9 ANNEX 3.10 ANNEX 3.11 Banners and abstracts of school teams Self-assessment of fellowship students about their participation in PIBID Final questionnaires for supervisors 4

6 0. BASELINE DOCUMENT 0.1 Brazilian System Education a. Brazilian Education Education in Brazil is regulated by the Federal Government, through the Secretary which defines the guiding principles for the organization of education programs. Local governments are responsible for establishing state and education programs following the guidelines and using the funding supplied by the federal government. b. History When Kingdom of Portugal's explorers arrived in Brazil in the 15th century and started to colonize their new possessions in the New World, the territory was inhabited by indigenous peoples and tribes who had not developed either a writing system or school education. The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was, since its beginnings in 1540, a missionary order. Catechizing was one of the main goals of the Jesuits, but they were also committed to teaching and education, in Europe and overseas. The missionary activities, in the cities and in the countryside, were complemented by a strong commitment to education. This took the form of the opening of schools for boys, first in Europe but rapidly extended to America and Asia. The foundation of Catholic missions, schools, and seminaries was another consequence of the Jesuit involvement in education. As the spaces and cultures where the Jesuits were present varied considerably, their evangelizing methods were very often quite different from one place to another. However, the society's engagement in trade, architecture, science, literature, languages, arts, music and religious debate corresponded, in fact, to the same main purpose of Christianization. By the middle of the 16th century the Jesuits were present in West Africa, South America, Ethiopia, India, China, and Japan. This enlargement of their missionary activities took shape to a large extent within the framework of the Portuguese Empire. 5

7 In a period of history when the world had mainly an illiterate population, the Portuguese Empire, was home to one of the first universities founded in Europe the University of Coimbra, which is still one of the oldest universities in continuous operation. Throughout the centuries of Portuguese rule, Brazilian students, mostly graduated in the Jesuit missions and seminaries, were allowed and even encouraged to enroll at higher education in mainland Portugal. The Jesuits, a religious order founded to promote the cause and teachings of Catholicism, had gained influence with the Portuguese crown and over education, and had begun missionary work in Portugal's overseas possessions, including the colony of Brazil. By 1700, and reflecting a larger change of the Portuguese Empire, the Jesuits had decisively moved from the East Indies to Brazil. In the late 18th century, Portuguese minister of the kingdom Marquis of Pombal attacked the power of the privileged nobility and the church, and expelled the Jesuits from Portugal and its overseas possessions. In 1759, Pombal seized the Jesuit schools and introduced education reforms all over the empire. In Brazil, the reforms were also noted. In 1772, even before the establishment of the Science Academy of Lisbon (1779), one of the first learned societies of Brazil and the Portuguese Empire was founded in Rio de Janeiro: the Sociedade Scientifica (Socyte Cientific). Also, in 1797, the first botanic institute was founded in Salvador, Bahia. During the late 18th century, the Escola Politécnica (Polytechnic School) of Rio de Janeiro was created in 1792 by the Portuguese authorities as a higher education school for the teaching of the sciences and engineering. A royal letter of November 20, 1800 by the King John VI of Portugal established the first institution in Brazil systematically dedicated to teaching the arts. During colonial times, the arts were mainly of religious or utilitarian nature and were learnt in a system of apprenticeship. A Decree of August 12, 1816 created the Escola Real de Ciências, Artes e Ofícios (Royal School of Sciences, Arts and Crafts), which established an official education in the fine arts and built the foundations of the current Escola Nacional de Belas Artes. 6

8 In the beginning of 19th century, in 1808, the Portuguese royal family, headed by D. João VI, arrived in Rio de Janeiro, escaping from the Napoleon's army invasion of Portugal in D. João VI gave impetus to the expansion of European civilization to Brazil. In a short period between 1808 and 1810, the Portuguese government founded the Royal Naval Academy and the Royal Military Academy, the National Library, the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden, the Medico-Chirurgical School of Bahia and the Medico-Chirurgical School of Rio de Janeiro. Brazil achieved independence in Until the 20th century, it was a large rural nation with low social and economic standards comparing to the average North American and European realities at the time. Its economy was based on the primary sector, possessing an unskilled and increasingly larger workforce, composed by both free people (including slave owners) and slaves or their direct descendants. Among the first law schools founded in Brazil, were the ones in Recife and São Paulo in 1827, but for decades to come, most Brazilian lawyers still studied at European universities, such as in the ancient University of Coimbra, in Portugal, which had awarded all type of degrees to several generations of Brazilian students since the 16th century. In 1872 there were 9,930,478 inhabitants (84.8% free and 15.2% slave). According to the national census made in this year, among the free inhabitants (8,419,672 people), 38% were white, 39% mulattoes (white and black mix), 11% black and 5% caboclos (white and Indian mix). Only 23.4% of the free men and 13.4% of the free women could read and write. In 1889, six decades after independence, only 20% of the total population could read and write. In the former colonial power, Portugal, about 80% of the population was still classified as illiterate. In the 20th century, between 1946 and 1948, with the massive post-war expansion, the government focused on strengthening Brazil's tertiary education, while simultaneously neglecting assistance to primary and secondary education. Today, Brazil struggles to improve the public education offered at 7

9 earlier stages and maintain the high standards that the population has come to expect from public universities. In 1964, a military coup imposed an authoritarian regime which ruled the nation from March 31, 1964 to March 15, During the military government, many teachers were chased due to their ideological position.doc3.7education was as anti-democratic as the government in the thought out the military regime. Teachers were arrested and fired. Universities were invaded by militaries. Students were arrested, injured while facing the police and some were killed. The students could not express themselves and the National Students Union was forbidden to work. On the other hand Universities expanded considerably in this period in Brazil. In the worst period of the military dictatorship, when any popular expression that opposed the government interest was hidden mainly by force, The National Educational Guidelines, under the law is issued in This law most outstanding characteristic is the attempt of developing a run professional Education. According the slogans proposed by the government such as Great Brazil, Either love it or Hate it, Economical miracle country, etc; it was planned to have education contributing to the Brazilian economical production increasing. Even with the end of the military regime, in 1985, the debates on educational reasons were still focused on the political scope rather than the pedagogical one. The new National Educational Guidelines law was sent to the Federal House however due to the constant debates it was only approved in December 1996, eight years after the first delivery. Between January 1995 and December 2002, during Fernando Henrique Cardoso s government, education went through a significant political moment. Just in the beginning of his government, through a provisional executive act, he made the National Educational Council less bureaucratic and more political. It was implemented in this period the global secondary school access, ENEM (high-school National exam) and SAEB (Evaluation System of the Basic Education). 8

10 In 1996 the president issues the law nº 9394/96, The National Educational Guidelines. This law has the teacher as the essential element quality in the education quality. The most important innovating topics are among others: - student s reconstructive process; - teacher s performance as adviser, motivator and assessor; - education as the starting and arriving point; - the appropriate learning environment; - learning as a continuing rebuilding using everything to promote its development. Summing up, the new law: - aims to value the professional who works with the education and stimulates the continuing professional improvement as part of the profession; - establishes some time for studies, planning and evaluation in the working hours; - implements the functional progression based on tittles, habilitation and performance evaluation; - presents important ideas such as higher education for basic students. Important changes in the Brazilian education occurred after the approval of the law in February The primary and lower secondary school lasts nine years, changing the last year of the pre-primary school into the first years of the primary and lower secondary school. Thus, the student has to be enrolled in the first year with six years old and not with seven years old as it was before. Concerning a qualitative evaluation of the Education there is still a long way to be traced. A study of the OCDE 1 in 2007 that evaluates the science learning has compared the education quality among 57 countries. The study has showed that the average performance of fifteen years old Brazilian students can only place the country on the 53º position in Math (among 57 countries) and on the 48º one in reading (among 56 countries). In 2010 the International 1 OCDE is an organization that aims the economical cooperation and improvement it is an international organization formed by thirty countries. 9

11 Program of Student s Evaluation (PISA) accomplished in 2009 in 65 countries showed that Brazil is on the 53º place. The Evaluation of fifteen years old students on Literature, Math and science showed that almost the half of the Brazilian students do not reach the basic level in Reading. Areas such as São Paulo that are considered economically rich also have problems. São Paulo has not reached even the national average in none of the three subjects evaluated science, reading and Math. Getúlio Vargas s foundation studies states that 35% of Brazilian social inequalities can be explained through the teaching disparity. According to PNAD 2 data, the literacy rate in the country is 90% among the population with more than fifteen years old. The number reaches 96% among the one who are less than fifteen years old. The literacy rate is kept when compared to 2007 that had only 90% of the population, which corresponded to 14,1 million illiterates in the country. The so called functional illiteracy reached in % of the population. According to PNAD, the percentage of people in the school in 2007 was 97% in the ages of six and fourteen years old and 82% among fifteen and seventeen year s old people. The total average time of study among the ones who are more than ten years old was around 6, 9 years. The Brazil s Education Rate (2009) is 0,891 (67º out of 179 countries). Despite its shortcomings, Brazil has developed substantially in a quantitative way since the 1980s. The nation witnessed an increase in school enrollment for children age 7 14, from 81% in 1980 to 96% in the year In the age demographic, in the same period, this rate rose from 50% to 83%. Literacy rates went up from 75% to 90%. c. Organization and Structure Education in all states is divided into three levels, with several grades in each division. The first education level is free for everyone (including adults) and mandatory for children between the ages of The second education level, for the ages 15-17, is also free but it is not mandatory. The third education 2 PNAD refers to national research through home sample done by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics - IBGE) 10

12 level is the higher education (including graduate degrees), is free at public universities. The structure of the education system in Brazil is showed in the Chart 0.1. i. Pre-primary Level Pre-primary education is optional, and exists to aid in the development of children under 6 years old. It aims to assist in all areas of child development, including motor skills, cognitive skills, and social skills while providing fertile ground for the later acquisition of knowledge and learning. There are day nurseries for children under 2, kindergartens for 2-3 year olds, and pre-primary schools for children 4 and up. In general, public pre-primary schools are provided by city government. 11

13 Age Pre-primary Pre-primary Mandatory Education Primary Lower Secondary Upper Secondary Post-secondary Tertiary Education LEGEND: Pre-primary 1 (0-2, Kindergarten, ISCED 0) Pre-primary 1 (3-5, Kindergarten, ISCED 0) Primary (6 10, integrated curriculum, ISCED 1) Lower Secondary General (11 14, disciplinary curriculum, ISCED 2) Upper Secondary General or Vocational (15 17, disciplinary curriculum, ISCED 3) Post secondary vocational, non tertiary (17, ISCED 4) Tertiary Education (18, select process, ISCED 5) Mandatory Education ISCED: International Standard Classification of Education Chart General Brazilian Education System (based on Eurydice, 2010) ii. Mandatory Education Primary and Lower Secondary Levels Primary and Lower Secondary Levels are mandatory for children ages In Brazil these two stages consist the whole level called in Portuguese Ensino Fundamental (Elementary School). Each grade of these levels is called year. The First year aim is to achieve literacy. Generally speaking, the only prerequisite for enrolling in first year is that a child should be 6 years old, but some education systems allow children younger than 6 to enroll in first year (as long as they turn 6 during the first academic semester). Older students who, for whatever reason have not completed their fundamental education are allowed to attend, though those over 18 are separated from the younger children. The National Council of Education establishes a core curriculum consisting of Portuguese language, history, geography, science, mathematics, arts and physical education (for years 2, 3, 4 and 5, age 7-10). As for years 6, 7, 12

14 8 and 9 (age 11-14), one foreign language is compulsory, usually English. Each education system supplements this core curriculum with a diversified curriculum defined by the needs of the region and the abilities of individual students. The length of the school year is set by the National Education Bases and Guidelines Law (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação, 1996) at least 200 days. Elementary schools must provide students with at least 800 hours of activities per year. The actual school calendar is set by individual schools which, in rural areas, often organize their calendars according to planting and harvesting seasons. During the first stage (years 1-5) of Elementary School, each group of students is usually assisted by a single teacher. In the second stage (years 6-9) there are as many teachers as subjects. Public elementary schools are funded by city and state governments. The education is similar to the British. iii. Upper Secondary Level Upper Secondary Level takes 3 years. The minimum is 2,200 hours of coursework over 3 years. Students must have finished their Elementary school before enrolling in secondary school. Upper Secondary Education core curriculum comprises Portuguese (including Portuguese language, Brazilian and Portuguese literatures), foreign language (usually English, also Spanish and very rarely French today), History, Geography, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Recently Philosophy and Sociology, which were banned during the military dictatorship ( ), became compulsory again. It is possible to take professional training along with mainstream secondary education. Professional training courses usually last 2 years and can be taken during the 2nd and 3rd years of Secondary education. Such schools usually have a greater amount of instructional hours per week and the complete course lasts 3 or 4 years. Besides regular education, other modes of education are offered, such as suppletory education which substitutes and complements regular schooling, providing permanent education. The Youth and Adults Education (Educação de 13

15 Jovens e Adultos EJA) is a mode which aims to ensure a quality public education, built collectively, from criticism to pursue the full citizenship of those who historically have been excluded from formal processes of education, having restorative functions, equalizer and qualifying. Any youth or adult who did not follow or finish primary or secondary schooling at the appropriate age has the possibility of making up for the delay by attending courses and supplementary examinations customizing the mode of education to this special type of student. Upper secondary education is provided by state governments. But there is some upper secondary vocational schools provided by national governments. The cities governments rarely provided this level. iv. Tertiary Education and Teacher Education To pursue higher students must have finished their secondary education. In addition, students must pass a competitive entrance examination (known as vestibular) for their specific course of study. The number of candidates per available place in the freshman class may be in excess of 30 or 40 to one in the most competitive courses at the top public universities. In some particular courses with small number of vacancies, this number can be as high as 200. As is the case in many nations, higher education in Brazil can be divided into undergraduate and graduate work. In addition to providing education, Universities promote research and provide separate classes to the community. The standard Brazilian undergraduate degree (bachelor of Arts) is awarded in most fields of arts, humanities, social sciences, mathematical sciences, or natural sciences, and mostly requires 4 years of at a certified university. Five-year degrees leading to a professional diploma are awarded in select state-regulated careers such as architecture, engineering, veterinary medicine, psychology, and law. The professional degree in medicine requires in turn six years of full-time post-secondary studies. Students who wish to qualify as elementary school (second stage) and secondary school teachers must complete a separate graduated program that 14

16 like a BA (Bachelor of Arts), also has a normal length of 4 years, but has stronger emphasis on contents and teaching methods classes. Despite recent demanding to have the complete graduate degree to teach at this teaching level, since LDB in 1996, there are still many teachers who work and have only finished the upper secondary school. This is due to the country s size and the short number of higher Education Public Institutions that form and prepare teachers. There is also a graduate in technology (whose graduates are called technologists), which emphasizes professional education geared to the labor market and the development of studies in the area of technology, especially in health, information technology, engineering and management. The degree in technology normally requires 2 to 4 years of studies in a certified university or college. Students who hold undergraduate degree are qualified for admission into graduate school. Graduate master's degrees are normally awarded following the completion of a two-year program requiring a number of advanced graduate courses, plus the submission by the degree candidate of a dissertation. Doctoral degrees on the other hand mostly require four years of full-time studies during which the degree candidate is required to complete further advanced graduate coursework, and submit an extensive thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to current knowledge in the field of study to which the dissertation topic belongs. In 2009 there were higher education institutions in Brazil. Which are 245 public and are private. The university institutions which must do research, mainly public, are only General Plan/ Motivation for Field Actions and Case Studies The field actions of TRACES research BRAZIL were developed in three case studies. These case studies have as characteristic different field actions developed in similar social and cultural context. All chosen schools are public 15

17 and located in middle-low and middle class neighborhoods. They are all in the south of Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul state. The case study Guaíba (CS1) involves a group of Science teachers who work in different Secondary municipal public schools in Guaíba. This city is located in Porto Alegre s metropolitan region. These teachers enrolled themselves to participate in the TRACES course through a publication elaborated by the municipal Education department. This publication invited Science teachers to participate in a course at the university (PUCRS) for the group planning of actions in the classroom based on the Educate through Research (MORAES e LIMA, 2002). This case study was chosen to analyze how the theorical and practical formation on ETR, developed in a collaborative and dialogical perspective between university and school, can improve the practice in the classroom. Therefore the study case s question is: How the participation in a dialogical and collaborative way teachers-researchers group can improve school practice in ETR approach? The case study Lajeado (CS2) involves teachers, students, ex students, parents and community connected to a public school. The school is called Guido A. Lermen and is in Lajeado that is 100 km away from Porto Alegre. The school s curricular structure is based on educating cycles and in this context have been innovating the teaching. It is done from a planning that considers the social-cultural characteristics and the community participation which includes them in the organization and development of interdisciplinary projects. This case study was chosen due to the interest to understand the implementing process by a group of teachers who believe in a different and innovating pedagogical approach but belong to a traditional teaching view. Thus the research questions are: What are the barriers of this process? What is the academic knowledge role? The case study PIBID (CS3) involves a group of pre-service physics teachers and four in-service physics teachers from public schools in Porto 16

18 Alegre. They are all part of an institutional fellowship program for teaching beginning (PIBID/PUCRS) funded by the federal government. The greatest program s goal is to support the future undergraduate teachers (those who have fellowships) and let them aware of the school reality. In this program, teachers/professors, undergraduate teachers and teachers who work promote interacting activities between the university and the school. TRACES team objective in the study case is focused in investigating as the reflexive moments guided by ETR can help future teachers to build and implement this kind of actions at school. So the research question in this case is: How the interaction among in-service teachers, pre-service teachers and researchers affect the gap between research and practice? This case study s features allow analyzing three different ways of interactions between the community and the school. The case study Guaíba (CS1) examines the teachers learning with the university s help and after what they can develop at school. In order to do so actions were planned based on an innovating theoretical perspective ETC, proposed by the university. The case study Lajeado CS2 analyses mainly what the university can learn with the school. This analysis is focused on understanding how the innovation was independently developed in the school that was investigated. Finally the case study 3 (CS3) studies mainly the interaction between university and school. At the same time it studies the support the school receives from the community to the practice qualification and by knowing more the school s reality, how the educating processes and its researches can be qualified. The scheme bellow (Chart 0.2) shows the main interaction s direction (planning, implementation and data assessment) between university and school in each one of the study cases. CASE STUDIES UNIVERSITY SCHOOL CS1 Guaíba CS2 Lajeado 17

19 CS3 - PIBID Chart 0.2 Main interaction focus of Brazilian case studies The Field Actions started in May 2011 and happened until January All case studies involved actions at the PUCRS s Science and Technology Museum. 18

20 0.3 Case Studies and Meta-analysis The TRACES research meta-analysis dimension established for the three case studies in Brazil are showed on the Chart 0.3 bellow. For each one of them, we also presented a context synthesis of the study case and the corresponding research problem. CASE STUDIES TRACES-BRAZIL CS1 Guaíba CASE STUDIES RESEARCH QUESTION How can the participation in a dialogical and collaborative teachersresearchers group improve school practice in ETR approach? DIMENSIONS OF META-ANALYSIS CS2 Lajeado What are the barriers and facilities of this process? What is the academic knowledge role? CS3 PIBID How the interaction among in-service teachers, pre-service teachers and researchers affect the gap between research and practice? 1. What role does teacher education play? 2. What role does an educational authority play in the change process? 3. What role does the school structure play in the change process? 4. What role does educational resource play? 5. What role does the social community play in the change process? 6. What role does research in science education play in the change process? Chart 0.3 Case studies, research questions and dimensions of meta-analysis 19

21 1. TRACES FIELD ACTIONS: REPORT BRAZIL 1.1 The Local Context of the Field Actions in Guaíba-Case Study 1 a. Table of descriptive information of the unit of intervention: Guaíba s Municipal department of Education (SME) i. Type: nine public schools located in Guaíba ii. Size: eight teachers and 270 students iii. Level: Lower Secondary School iv. Schools background School Total number of students Total number of teachers Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental São Paulo Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Anita Garibaldi Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Breno Guimarães Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental São Francisco de Assis Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Zilá Paiva Rodrigues Jardim Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Rio Grande do Sul Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental José Carlos Ferreira Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Inácio de Quadro Escola Municipal de Ensino Fundamental Amadeu Bolognesi Chart School background of Case Study 1 GUAÍBA v. Teachers background 20

22 Basic Background: Graduate degree in Science Education Teac her School(s) Age Years teaching São Paulo and Anita Garibaldi Breno Guimarães São Francisco de Assis Zilá Paiva Rodrigues Jardim Rio Grande do Sul Years graduated Other academic background Classes Students No Post-graduate course in Environmental Education Post-graduate course in School management and supervision No No José Carlos Ferreira Post-graduate course in Environmental Education Inácio de Quadros Amadeu Bolognesi No No Chart Teachers background of Case Study 1 - GUAÍBA vi. Socio cultural background Schools are located in the urban area of Guaíba city, except one that is in the rural area. There are around inhabitants. The schools are mainly in popular neighborhoods (low-middle class). Most of students are white as well as most of people who live in Rio Grande do Sul where the predominant descent is Portuguese, German and Italian. b. Schools Qualitative Descriptions i. History, social context and school s structure 21

23 Guaíba County was created in 1926 and is in Porto Alegre s metropolitan region, capital of Rio Grande do Sul. The process of urbanization in this area took place in Before it there were many fights among Indians, Italian and Portuguese settlers in this region. Due to many fights to protect their territory, these people had a great demographic reduction. However, the colonial and national development has led them to a cultural disruption and a physical territory reduction which has caused serious consequences to their descents and it is still felt today. Guaíba is 32 km away from the Porto Alegre city and it is along Guaíba Lake, which tributaries flow through Lagoa dos Patos until the Atlantic Ocean. Besides, the region is the place where federal roads that link Brazil to Argentina and Uruguay meet. Guaíba has a great substructure with energy, communication service, teaching network and health service, complemented by a considerable qualified handiwork available. Nowadays areas such as agribusiness, trade and tourism are in a great development. Today Guaíba County supports 17 Elementary (Primary and Secondary schools. The municipal department of Education coordinates different projects in the schools that aim to provide students the basic education to build up the citizenship and the entire development of learning abilities. Some of the projects offered are: a) Contadores de histórias nas bibliotecas (Story tellers in the libraries): The objective of the project is to promote interaction among students, encouraging reading, stimulating the individual and collective development through the imaginary creation; b) Coral municipal Canto and Encanto 3 (Municipal choir group): The project aims to provide the musical artistic development through perception, musical performance and vocal expression; c) Educação no trânsito na cidade Tri-legal (Education in the traffic Very nice city) 4 : The objective of this project is to let drivers aware of the 3 Canto and Encanto is the name of the municipal Choir Group. 4 Cidade Tri Legal is the name of the program that aims to educate people to respect the traffic rules. 22

24 importance of respecting the traffic rules and being responsible towards life. It also provides Kids moments to think, build, experience real traffic situations and explore creativity through several fun activities related to traffic; d) Desenvolvimento de potenciais (Development of potentials): the objective of this project is to develop a work to include disabled students and to identify students with high abilities. Trained teachers deal with student s difficulties and offer school s enrichment, developing psychomotor activities through sports, dance and capoeira5; e) Educação especial, educação inclusiva e laboratório de apoio pedagógico interdisciplinar (Special education, inclusive education and interdisciplinary pedagogical support laboratory : The objective of this project is to include students who have educational needs through specialized assistance in the classroom and available teaching sources in the public schools. The teachers who are working in this service are taken training courses weekly assisted by multidisciplinary professionals. The group assists the management and pedagogical staff of the Public schools; f) Núcleo Teatral (theater group): The objective of this project is to promote teachers and student theater courses and workshops; g) Vida (Life): This project aims to reach all school community (teachers, parents and students) through the development of several cultural activities. The project offers dance, theater, music, Knitting, crochet work, handicrafts and painting workshops. Guaíba s Education department has also supported and encouraged the science teachers participation in the activities developed by TRACES Project. The CS1 schools are located in regions that are far from downtown, except the São Paulo Public Elementary School, located in the rural area. The means of getting to the schools are regular once most of them live near them. The general classrooms conditions are also regular and similar to most of the 5 Capoeira is a brazilian martial art. 23

25 school engaged in the project. All of them have an appropriate environment to the number of students as well as clean, organized, bright and airy rooms. c. Field Actions Profile of CS1 - Guaíba i. Origin Actions planned in advance by university researchers and implemented at schools that are engaged in the project. These actions are developed according to each school s context. ii. Relationship with educational authorities The actions were implemented based on a collaborative planning developed together with the Public department of Education. The SME6 talked to Science teachers of all schools. Eight teachers were interested in the project and one of them developed the activities in two schools. SME was in charge of the teacher s transportation from Guaíba to the University in Porto Alegre in order to participate in meetings organized every fifteen days. Besides, SME has not only supported student s transportation to PUCRS Science and Technology Museum (MCT/PUCRS) but also organized the final meeting with parents, teachers and TRACES researchers at the Department s Headquarters in Guaíba. iii. Level of investment The investment for these Field Actions was focused on the following activities: - University s program meetings every fifteen days; - Researchers group visit to the schools engaged in the project; - Public School s teachers and students visit to MCT/PUCRS; - Participation in the TRACES steering committee meeting in Porto Alegre (July 2011); - Exhibition promotion of students science research at MCT/PUCRS (TRACES participants did not pay entrance fee for the activities). 6 SME refers to Public Department of Education 24

26 It took 60 hours of planning and action in order to develop these activities. iv. Demand TRACES team was interested in studying and analyzing deeply the Educating Through Research (ETR) approach in practice at lower secondary science classes. v. Time scale The Field Actions of the Study Case 1 were accomplished during six months according Chart vi. Unit of analysis: The participation in a dialogical and collaborative teachers-researchers group improving school practice in ETR approach. d. CS1 qualitative description i. Theoretical references of the Intervention Educating Through Research (ETR) The Educating through research is understood as a set of principles on the act of researching. It places the student as the protagonist of his/her learning. It has as a goal to overcome the traditional teaching and learning conceptions, characterized by the simplification and comprehension of what is teaching and learning. 25

27 Month 2011 April May June July August Septemb er October Activity - TRACES s research presentation to the SME and initial data assemble. - Resolutions about the work and about the research at school and the first debate on the research s principles. - Questions assemble about what participants would like to know about the research in the classroom and answers analyses of teachers answers to the questions. - Advisory to teachers for the research work with students at school. - Study about the museum as a teaching resource. - Evaluation of the work s progress at schools. - Teachers previous visit to the museum in order to plan the visit with the students: routing elaboration. - Students visit to the museum - Evaluations of the visits to the Museum and guidelines for the work development. - Guidance for the Science school works samples. - Meeting with TRACES researchers, participants of the Brazilian Steering Committee meeting. - Advisory to teachers for the research work with students at schools. - Guidance for Science work s samples. - Organization and accomplishment of the Science works Sample - Field Actions evaluation. - Closing celebration of the Field actions at SME in Guaíba, with parents, students, teachers, principals and SME staff s participation. Chart Development of the Field Actions of CS1 Guaíba To use inquiring in the classroom does not mean to transplant the classical research to the classroom. It aims to create teaching situations which students deal systematically with some principles that are part of the researching act. Such principles can be inquiring, the constructions of arguments and the permanent dialogue between everyday situations, writing production and school subjects. The questioning in this context is vital for student s knowledge building. That s why the questions are useful for both previous knowledge raising and to help broadening conceptual subject. Questioning is really important because it 26

28 allows the critical reading of things that are around the subject. Based on this perspective he will select and rank information and make choices. The Educating Through Research (ETR) allows teachers to lead the work in the classroom discussing and debating with students about the subject when it is possible. It allows students to review information, to show previous knowledge and the knowledge construction development. To start the subject with challenging questions is very important to encourage students expose their arguments, establish explaining hypothesis and relate the situation problem presented with others that are relevant for the theme. In these activities the teacher instead of giving the answers, instigates students with new questioning. He should point out the weak points and help students finding answers for the challenge. Therefore, questioning can mean a powerful instrument of formal and political in the educational process (DEMO, 1998). When the teacher promotes in the classroom a real dialogue atmosphere, listening and valuing students speeches, he is giving them the recognition of their first ideas and the enrichment of their arguments. This allows students to incorporate questioning as a fundamental instrument for the critical analysis of every day events. The argumentation exercise in class is a fundamental act for the students to redo their ideas more clearly and precisely, turning the ideas into more complex ones. According to this perspective, a meaningful aspect relates to the importance of teachers and students to understand arguing as an important element in the building of emancipating knowledge. Being of a critical nature this critical knowledge tends to value the reasons and also to search for a balance between reasons and results (SANTOS, 2000). This knowledge can strongly help students critical education and contribute for their conscious action in the community. Another point to be emphasized is the need of having in class an atmosphere of deep debate and respect to the premises presented. This atmosphere helps to establish among students a relationship of mutual 27

29 influence. Through dialogue, the Education Through Research teacher creates permanently situations for the student to structure orally or writing arguments, regarding to the contents worked in the classroom. This is worth for the contents related to scientific knowledge and to world issues. Therefore, working with argument aims to qualify the student to be able to gather elements to base an idea. It also aims the understanding of the conceptual knowledge worked in class based on the revealing of the knowledge built. Writing in this perspective means to register the avenues of thought" (BERNARDO, 2000, p. 55). For that reason, this is an essential activity in the learning process, especially with regard to the building of arguments. However, some important points must be taken into consideration when working with writing is required. The first point is about the understanding the exercise writing is fundamental as it contributes with students to break the cycle copy/memorization. Through this breaking, they start to rebuild the knowledge in a creative way. Therefore, teachers committed to educating through research should present differentiated proposals, in order to avoid routine requests such as making lists, statements writing and answers to questions. For writing in class to accomplish its goals, the second point to be mentioned is the need of teachers and students to understand the construction of texts as a process and not as a product. Student s text can be faced as a mere instrument to diagnose learning experiences. It needs to be understood as an object study, which the improvement will help in the learning construction. Thus, the writing production needs to be included as a daily task when the teacher proposal is to work using the research principles. The third aspect to comment is related to the importance of the idea that a class needs to be a forum for discussion of produced texts. A collaborative reading of this material, besides being a moment of a written text validation, it also work as an opportunity for the construction of the emancipating knowledge, which means the consolidated knowledge in the group discussion of the arguments presented. These moments of discussion about the text produced 28

30 are, according Landsmann (1995), opportunities for the author to go back to what has already been done, modify understandings and qualify the constructed product. Educating Trough Research (ETR) improve a formal and political quality to the learning process (DEMO, 1998). The ETR approach structure the pedagogical work in order to provide the formation of an autonomous learner, willing to solve problems. It sets a process that also aims to ripe the critical, ethical and cooperative aspects of a subject. Therefore, this subject will be able to demand a political participation in the fight for the improvement of life quality in both individual and collective sense. ii. Motivation and Relevance CS1 field actions were originated from a project previously developed with teachers and students in the municipality of Guaíba, during This project aimed a theoretical study and the performance of activities based on the Educating Through Research (ETR). The project was linked to the development of actions in the environment of MCT/PUCRS. The interest of teachers and researchers in continuing these actions and the institutional SME and University support, based on research, motivated the resumption of activities. iii. Content and nature of actions/intervention In the development of CS1 field actions - Guaíba studies and reflections about the practice with teachers were carried out. The researchers assisted the teachers with planning and carrying out the research activities with students at schools. Two visits were also part of the actions and its highlight was the student science research exhibition at MCT/PUCRS. Date Activities 08/04/11 1st Meeting - Work presentation of TRACES Research and initial data collection 29

31 15/04/11 2nd Meeting - Definitions about the work involving research at school and preliminary discussion on the research principles. 1 Participants presentation. 2 Talking about participants conception on research. 3 Collection of questions about what the participants would like to know about research in the classroom. 4 Comments on the prepared questions. 29/04/11 3 th Meeting - Analysis of teacher s responses to questions. Discussion about research meanings in the classroom and definition of subjects for research 1 Reading Analysis a) Resuming the activity proposed: What question would I like to ask the author? b) Individually write responses to questions: - What does the text say to me? What do I say to the text? What do I say to my classmates about the text? Afterwards, divided into groups of three, production of consensus answers. And finally, a big group discussion on the slide presentation (provide pens and slides). 2 Define subjects for the research among students and the way to carry out the process in the classroom. 3 Task for next week: collect questions from students about the theme of the research, type them and send through until 0 06/05/11 4 th Meeting - Reports on the activities held in the schools 1 Teachers report on the work with the students during the week. Report on the progress of the activity - students impressions. 2 Discussion about sent questions: a) What s the connection between the questions and the comprehensiveness of the proposed themes? b) What s the connection between the proposed questions and the time available for the research development? c) What s the viability to do the research about the proposed themes? What themes could be search, focused in the proposed goals for the academic year of 2011? d) How to evaluate learning in face of the proposed questions by students? e) What to do at that? How to progress? f) Discuss different ways to collect information in the search for the answers. 3 Activity about the Museum as a didactic resource. 4 Evaluation of the work progress. 13/05/11 5 th Meeting - Previous visit to the Museum by teachers 1 Practice Activity: Developing a itinerary to visit the Museum 2 Itinerary evaluation 3 Guided visit to the Museum - Pre-visit 30

32 20/05/11 6 th º Meeting - Advice teachers about research work with students 1 Visit Analysis to the Museum: Write and report two experiences learned during the visit to the Museum 2 Functional aspects about the visit to the Museum 3 Analysis of the developed proposals by teachers to the visit to the Museum 4 Report of actions done with students on the following of research works: definitions about the research (questions) problems, procedures used until the moment, etc. 24/05/11 7 th Meeting - Visits to the Museum of all students involved from the nine schools to 27/05/11 03/06/11 8 th Meeting - Evaluations of the visits to the Museum and guidance for the work continuity 1 Evaluation of the visits to the Museum, identifying two relevant facts that occurred before, during and after the visit, explaining in the Educating Through Research (ETR) approach (individual activity). 2 Narrative of the actions on the following of the researches of the students from the filling of a questionnaire. 3 Schedule organizations for the visits and observation at the schools involved 17/06/11 9 th Meeting - Teaching and Learning conceptions 1 Study about teaching and learning conception 2 Reports of activities done with the students 3 Guidance about the Science School Work Show - PUCRS Museum 15/07/11 10 th Meeting - Dialogue with TRACES Researchers 19/08/11 11 th Meeting - Monitor the activities and new guidance for the Students Science Research show at Science Museum 1 Teachers report on students works 2 Guidance about preparing the posters 02/09/11 12 th Meeting - Finishing the posters 1 Definitions about the interview with a group of parents 2 Guidance about the Show 3 Analysis of the posters 4 Discussion of a text about the origin of knowledge and school learning 23/09/11 13 th Meeting - Science School Work Show - PUCRS Museum 9h - Arrival at the Museum - Welcome to students 9h30min - Setting of the exhibition 10h - Visit to the Museum 11h30min - Gathering for lunch at the ground floor of the Museum 13h30min - Beginning of the exhibition 16h30min - End of the show and the dismounting of the exhibition 17h - Return to Guaíba 30/09/11 14 th Meeting - Evaluation of the activities developed in the classroom 03/10/11 15 th Closing Ceremony of field actions with parents, students, teachers, school principals and SME staff. Chart Schedule of the field actions of CS1 - Guaíba iv. Negotiation process along the Field Actions 31

33 The negotiation process that occurred along the field actions was very positive and there weren t conflicts. Since the acceptance to take part in the project all the authors showed themselves to be receptive and collaborative. This collaboration was presented not only in the participation of teachers and students in the meetings and in the realization of all activities but also the supplying of information asked by researchers. For the analysis of CS1 field actions data were collected from: - questionnaire about teachers background; - records of the researchers' observation of classes when teachers worked the Educating through Research (ETR); - evaluation questionnaire on the progress of the activities completed by teachers; - banners produced by the students about the developed researches; - individual interviews with students during the Science work Show; - focus group interviews with students during the Science work Show; - teachers self evaluation questionnaire held at the end of the field actions; - focus group interview with teachers held at the end of the field actions; - focus group interview with parents at the end of the field actions; - questionnaire with students' parents that presented at MCT. v. Quality criteria - TRACES TRACES quality criteria of CS1 field actions can be summarized as follows: a) The FA weren t developed out of "ready recipes. They were built together with TRACES' researchers, school teachers, and students. However, as a background the theory of research in class ETR was used. The presence of a SME manager in all activities helped to the good progress of actions, mainly in situations that would depend on Guaíba s Education department decisions; 32

34 b) For the accomplishment, school and students social contexts were taken into consideration. The students could choose the subjects for the research representing their own interests that show their context. 33

35 1.2 The Local Context of the Field Actions in Lajeado-Case Study2 a. Table of descriptive information of the unit of intervention: Municipal School Guido A. Lermen (CS2 Lajeado) i. Type: public school, municipal administration. ii. Size: 320 students and 26 teachers iii. Level: complete Basic School iv. School background: School founded in January 1991 and from the year 2000 the System of Cycles was brought up. v. Teachers background The whole school has 26 teachers, 24 are women and 2 are men. Their average age is 37. The average teaching time is 17 years and the average time teaching at Guido A. Lermen School is 10 years. Most of the teachers work in the field of their pre-service teacher education developing an interdisciplinary work. Two out of the 26 teachers are graduated in teaching (Medium level), but they are studying Pedagogy (university level). The rest of them have a graduation degree equivalent to university level. As a complimentary Education 8 of these teachers are attending postgraduate courses and 2 of them have masters degree. vi. Social cultural background The school is not located downtown, where there are sixty thousand inhabitants. The school is located in a middle class neighborhood. As all area in the Rio Grande do Sul 7 state, the major descent is German and Italian immigrants. b. Qualitative description of the School 7 Rio Grande do Sul is a state located in the south of Brazil. 34

36 i. History, social context and school structure Guido A. Lermen School is located in the Centenário 8 neighborhood in Lajeado and was founded on January 26th, When it was opened there were only 89 students and 5 teachers, a cleaning person and 4 classrooms. Along the time the community grew as well as the school demand. So it was necessary to expand the school structure. Centenário neighborhood has a recent urbanization (1991), it is made of residential and industrial area, small trade and services business houses, and a park. The students live in the Centenário neighborhood and in the neighborhoods around. The ones who do not live near the school come by school bus offered by the mayor hall. Nowadays the school has 320 students and the following team: 26 teachers, a secretary, a library, 4 cleaning persons, an Educational coordinator, 2 pedagogical coordinators, a principal, a vice principal and a guard. The school has 10 classrooms, a computing lab, a learning lab, a library, teacher s room, a secretariat, and the principal s room. ii. The education cycles and Guido A. Lermen School The last general Educational Law9 is from This law allows schools to put into practice the Educational Cycles. Guido A. Lermen proposal is made of three cycles organized based on the students ages: - first cycle: six years old students; - second cycle: students from 10 to 12 years old; - third cycle: students from 13 to 15 years old. The educational Guidelines have been issued for eleven years however only 11% of the Brazilian schools have followed this educational proposal (Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira, 2005). The cycle system have been used at public schools in São Paulo, Belo 8 Centenário is a small county in Lajeado. Lajeado is a small town at Rio Grande do Sul State. 9 LDBEN- The new educational guidelines Law of the national education defines and regulates the Brazilian educational system based on the current principles in the 1996 constitution. 35

37 Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Belém, Chapecó, Caxias do Sul, Vitória da Conquista, Blumenau a Angra dos Reis, between others. The Educational Cycles system allows a different way to organize time, the structure and the learning process. Projects permit a flexible curriculum and are usually connected to this proposal. In general, these projects are integrated with the social practice and the labor world. The system of cycles has different ways to evaluate and support students. It also collaborates with the in-service teachers Education. The school has a greater mobility to be integrated with the community aiming a social role. iii. The educational cycles and the school curricular proposal The philosophy of Guido A. Lermen School is the participation, the commitment and the critical spirit toward the whole student s education. Teaching has to allow the development of the students potentialities encouraging them to discover themselves as the historical subjects, as well as turn them into citizens. So the school s objective is to provide students the means to socialize, to be critical and independent ones. It tries to develop the expression, the logical thought, arts, science and the creativity. It has as lemma: loving and not comparing. The school intends to change the traditional way the subjects are prepared and developed everyday in the classroom. Moreover the activities are focused on the students interests, valuing their life experiences. Based on these concepts, Guido A. Lermen School aims to makeup projects that improve and change the community. The subjects have to meet each proposal and not follow the logics that a subject is each other pre requisites. They believe that through teaching and learning projects, students can express their knowledge, needs and curiosities about the world round them. Knowledge has to be in all aspects of the student s life as well as being applied in everyday situations. So, activities such as games, study trips, lectures, researches, experiments, movies, experiences exchange, readings and others are offered to students. 36

38 The activities done in the classroom and when the cycles are integrated are theoretically organized based on the thematic complex 10, approach that originates themes that are developed. Besides these three activities, the school also participates and develops three projects: a) Regras: por que não? (Rules: why not?): this project is applied in all Lajeado s public schools, aims to discuss, think, build and evaluate rules that have as a goal a healthy living in the classroom and in the community.(www.lajeado-rs.com.br); b) Pais presentes (Participative Parents): This project is also developed in the municipal scope and has as objectives: family and school awareness about the need of being more committed in the process of their children and students education; the even higher qualification of parents and teachers who deal with kids, pre-teenagers and teenagers; the thought on how to promote positively their kids and students education aiming a better present and future (www.lajeado-rs.com.br); c) Românticos conspiradores (Romantic conspirators): This project is an autonomous network of cooperation among teachers of basic schools and universities. The goal is to exchange ideas and experiences at meetings, blogs and forums about themes related to education (romanticosconspiradores.blogspot.com); In a constructivism approach, the evaluation has as a goal to identify and investigate how students have been building their knowledge. Following that it is possible to bring a new dimension to the pedagogical and educational action, reorganizing the next actions of the student, teacher, group and other school community segments. The main objective of the evaluation is to move towards the understanding and development of the learning process. vi. Evolution of the cycled proposal at Guido A. Lermen School 10 Thematic complex is a way to organize school s activities especially for each school by educational cycles. Projects that intend to improve and change the community are developed; students express their knowledge, needs and curiosities about the world around them. Four sources and guidelines of the curriculum are articulated in this proposal: socio-anthropologic, socio- pedagogical, epistemological and philosophical (KRUG, 2001). 37

39 As in other Lajeado s municipal s schools, at Guido A. Lermen School, the educational cycles were implemented in After three years of the cycled proposal implementation teachers realized, disappointed, that in most aspects Guido A. Lermen School was still being, in fact, graded mainly related to the subjects. The group of teachers believed that the resources that the cycled school had and educational proposal dynamics, could be also developed in a regular school. In other words, teachers had not already identified the difference between cycled and regular school. On the first term of 2002, Lajeado s Mayor hall, together with UNIVATES University Center has offered a course to discuss the proposal of the education by educational cycles. Important experts on the theme were invited. During this course, teachers from cycled schools had opportunity to exchange ideas and experiences with the other cycled municipal schools. Besides learning they could also evaluate the journey until the moment. After this event, school teacher s analyzed different theorists to rethink the Educational cycle proposal. That led to the reformulation and improvement of the proposal which is still, according to the group, being build. The whole trajectory unified ever more the teachers who named themselves as an equipa 11. Guido A. Lermen School has already been the subject of three researches done at Masters: a) Equipa: um coletivo docente relfexivo e transformador na escola púlica (Equipa: A reflective and innovators group of teachers at the public school). This research refers to the master dissertation of the teacher Tatiana Santos, school s pedagogical coordinator. The goal of the research was to think about the process involved on the construction of a teachers team at a public school that is organized in Educational cycles. Therefore, this research aimed to study the relationship in a group made of people who discuss, read, dream and struggle for a school that is transformed and transforming (SANTOS, 2008). 11 This nomination is a consequence of the identification with the work developed by the group of teachers of the Project Escola da Ponte (Porto-Portugal). 38

40 b) Meus alunos e minha aldeia me fazem experimetnar idéias pra ensinar Geografia (My students and my community make me try ideas to teach geography). This research refers to the Masters Dissertation of the teacher Denise Theves. This teacher works on the geography and history areas at Guido A. Lermen School. She analyzed practices of pedagogical interaction on geography subject, looking for a teacher s action that could bring students real life situations to the classroom, overcoming the fragmentation of the knowledge and pure transmission of the knowledge (THEVES, 2009). c) Saberes da area de ciência construídos ao longo do Ensino Fundamental (Science learning built throughout the secondary school). This research refers to a masters dissertation of an ex teacher named Márcia Jungkenn from Guido A. Lermen School. The research intends to investigate the formation and the relevance of the awareness of Science curriculum in Secondary school at Guido A. Lermen School (JUNGKENN, 2010). c. Profile of the Field Action CS2 Lajeado i. Origin: Actions planned mainly from the University ii. Relation with educational authorities There was no interaction with the authorities related to the nature of the field actions. It was authorized stopping the classes and funded by the Municipal Education Department the trip of all school teachers to TRACES meeting, in July, in Porto Alegre. On the same day the teachers of Guido A. Lermen School visited PUCRS Museum In order to prepare the activities with the students. iii. Level of investment The investment for this activity had TRACES financial collaboration that has rented two buses to take teachers and students from Lajeado to Porto Alegre. PUCRS has not charged CS2 group entry in the Museum. In the same activity, Guido A. Lermen School organized with its own funds, lunches for students. It was a 20 hour planning activity and it was spent 4 hours with activities at PUCRS Museum. 39

41 It started with a first Guido A. Lermen School interest in taking students to know PUCRS Science and Technology Museum. Thus the Field Action involved as a central core the guided visit to the Museum. iv. Time scale It took five months to accomplish the field actions of this study of case 2, according the Chart Time at 2011 July August September October November December Activity Teachers pre-visit to PUCRS Museum Planning of the Guided visit Debates moments between teachers and researchers Visit to the museum Activities in the classroom Data analysis Chart Development of field actions of the CS2 v. Unit of analysis: The barriers and facilities of the process and the academic knowledge role. d. Qualitative Description of the Case Study Guaíba - CS2 i. Theoretical framework of intervention: Education Through Research This section is equal to the section 1.1.d.i of Guaíba case study (p. 25), since the theoretical framework of the three case studies is the same, ie, Education Through Research (DEMO 1998). i. Motivation and relevance Guido A. Lermen School was chosen to be an object of TRACES case study for being a school that develops long an alternative pedagogical project. With relatively little outside help, this school has been developing a new practice in which the human being, as a whole, is higher valued than the contents development. 40

42 The teachers and the pedagogical team Guido A. Lermen School periodically organizes discussing and reading workshops in order to reflect in a collaborative way about what has been achieved and about what the school still has to achieve towards its goals and pedagogical ideals. ii. Content and nature of actions-intervention The field actions began at Guido A. Lermen in July, In this month the teachers attended a meeting with the TRACES researchers and also visited PUCRS Museum. This previous visit brought together the projects that would be developed based on the information gathered in the visit to the museum. After the visit, during August, PUCRS and UNIVATES teachers and researchers members of TRACES team, met at Guido A. Lermen School to decide what areas would be used at the Museum and the subjects that would be studied. The subjects Health, Environment and Human Body were chosen. The visit to the Museum in Porto Alegre was also planned. Still in July, in an activity parallel to TRACES team meeting, Guido A. Lermen School s teachers pre-visited the Museum of Science and Technology of PUCRS, conducted by the museum s employees. Recommended activities, possible tasks and itineraries to develop the school s visit were presented. After that, together with TRACES researchers, the teachers organized the activities that were going to be proposed to students. In August and in September, observations, researches about the previous knowledge of the students and negotiations with the teachers were carried out. The students should continue the jamboree-games that were happening at school. To make that possible, in October, an itinerary containing investigative questions about subjects that were being developed in projects and in the jamboree was distributed for each student. On their return the students had to answer some questions to prepare a report. There was an item in it that asked what the student would like to focus on. After having the reports, the most quoted subjects were listed. In November the results were presented in a group meeting of teachers from the 41

43 third cycle. Together, teachers and TRACES team organized researches activities with the students during integration moments. The researches were presented during the integration moments of the three stages of the third cycle, with the help of the support group; stronger students helping the weaker ones, under the orientation of teachers and TRACES team researchers. During the presentations, the students also filled out a learning report containing reflexive questions about the activities done. Interviews with students, parents and teachers that got involved with the research were conducted. iii. Negotiation process along the Field Actions A research group at school was organized for the structuring of this Field of Action in which all teachers participated, discussing and preparing the activities of this CS2. The strategies were developed along the process. The pedagogical intervention was built in a collaborative way among the teachers and TRACES team. This was done with the students learning reports, oral reports from teachers and class observation. iv. TRACES quality criteria Some quality criteria from TRACES first research stage to develop the field actions of the CS2 were used: a) The activities planned for Guido A. Lermen School were not based on both ready guidelines and briefing teaching material. TRACES teachers and researchers have planned the Field Actions together; b) In order to plan the Field Actions, TRACES team has considered the project that already existed in the school. Both, the completed ones and the ones in progress were starting in an attempt to contextualize the actions of the school one. Thus, the Field Actions were introduced in the jamboree context that was in process to respect the system, the school premises and the class hours; 42

44 c) The TRACES research in the Field Action has involved parents, students, former students, teachers and the pedagogical team to understand the whole, mainly the aspects related to the social context. 43

45 1.3.1 The local context of the Field Actions in PIBID - Case Study 3 a. Table of descriptive information of the unit of intervention: Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência - PIBID i. Type: four 4 public schools located in Porto Alegre ii. Size: twenty future teachers, four school teacher supervisors and one professor (TRACES researcher) iii. Level: Upper Secondary School iv. Schools background School Leopoldo Hoff Piratini Rio Branco Tubino Year founded Levels primary and secondary school Students Teachers Chart School background of Case Study 3 - PIBID v. Pre-service teachers background N Average years old (standard deviation) Average of Semester of undergraduated program (standard deviation) Months on PIBID 1 (standard deviation) Sex (2,3) 4,1 (2,1) 9,0 (3,6) 1 Max. 12 months 10 M 10 F Chart Pre-service teachers background of Case Study 3 - PIBID 44

46 vi. In-service (supervisor) teachers background Supervisor SUP1 SUP2 SUP3 SUP4 School Leopoldo Hoff Piratini Rio Branco Tubino Age Years teaching Years graduated Other academic background No Attending Master Degree- Postgraduate in Physics Teaching Attending Master Degree- Postgraduate in Science and Mathematics Education Classes Students Chart Supervisor teachers background of Case Study 3 - PIBID VII. Socio-cultural Background The schools are located outside Porto Alegre downtown in an area where there are one and a half million inhabitants living in. The schools are located in middle class neighborhoods. Most of students in these schools are white people. As in whole area of Rio Grande do Sul state the predominant descent are Portuguese, German and Italian immigrants. No b. Qualitative description of schools i. Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência PIBID (Institutional Schoolarships Program for Pre-service Teaching) PIBID program offers fellowships for pre-service teaching students. The program is supported by CAPES (staff development coordination for higher education), organ connected to the Secretary of Education. PIBID s goal is to promote the interaction between university and school, through activities that integrate future teachers (teaching courses students) working teachers and researchers/professors of the university. 45

47 PIBID program has begun in 2008 in Brazil. Nowadays, 149 universities (121 public and 25 private one that are community oriented) all over the country take part at PIBID. Today, PIBID offers around fellowships for teaching courses students in Brazil (www.capes.gov.br). Goals such as encouraging young people to realize the social relevance of a teaching career; to promote an articulation among theory and practice, and the integration among schools and formative institutions; to contribute to raise the quality of the courses to prepare educators and the schools performance in national evaluations, are defined in this program. Each university follows different strategies to develop the goals of the program. ii. PIBID at PUCRS PUCRS started its participation in PIBID program in September 2010, almost together with TRACES research. The specific project at PUCRS is called collaborative work between university and school for teacher Education. In total, 100 fellowships are offered at PUCRS to the future teachers and 20 fellowships to the working teachers (supervisors) from ten state public schools in Porto Alegre. The coordinators of each area at the university also receive a fellowship. The program covers five areas in ten schools. In each school the program had actions in two of five areas: Physics, Portuguese, Mathematics, Primary Education and Chemistry. Therefore, in Physics, as in the other four areas, the program keeps twenty fellowships for the future teachers, a fellowship for the supervisor (the working teacher) of four schools. In each school, a working teacher supervises five future physics teachers. The main data of the students and of the supervisors are shown in chart e All the schools are located in neighborhoods near PUCRS. iii. Historical, social context and schools structure The Leopoldo Hoff School is located in Chácara das Pedras neighborhood in Porto Alegre and it was founded in The school is medium size and works the three shifts (mornings, afternoons and evenings). 46

48 Due to its location it also has students from Vila Bom Jesus and Vila Jardim neighborhoods. The school has a science lab, two video projections rooms, a playful room (not very much used), a covered area, three open sport courts, a square, a library and a wonderful green area. The school also offers a computer lab with 17 computers with internet access. There is wireless access in some areas of the school either. The teacher s room has a computer and a touchscreen board in one of the classrooms. The Piratini School is located in Auxiliadora in Porto Alegre and it was founded in The school is medium size and works the three shifts (mornings, afternoons and evenings). The students are mostly from the same neighborhoods. The school has a science lab, two video projections rooms, a playful room (not very much used), a covered area, three open sport courts, a square, a library and a wonderful green area. The school also offers a computer lab with 17 computers with internet access. There is wireless access in some areas of the school either. The teacher s room has a computer and a touchscreen board in one of the classrooms. Rio Branco School is located in Santa Cecilia neighborhood in Porto Alegre and it was founded in The school is medium size and serves student in the three shifts (mornings, afternoons and nights). Due to its location, the students comes from some nears neighborhoods. The school has a computer lab with internet access, a science lab in not a good condition, a math lab in good condition, a video projection room, two open sport courts, a square, a library and a green area. There isn t a Science Lab. Tubino School is located in the neighborhood of Petropolis in Porto Alegre and it was founded in It s a medium size school and serves the students in three shifts (mornings, afternoons and evenings). Due to its location it also has students from Vila Bom Jesus and Vila Jardim neighborhoods. The school has computer lab with internet access, a video projection room, two open sports court, a square, a library and a green area. It also has a Science Lab. c. Case Study 3 PIBID Field Actions Profile 47

49 i. Origin: Planned actions mainly from the University ii. Relationship with educational authorities There wasn t an interaction with authorities regarding the field actions nature. The schools had already been invited to participate in the PIBID willing to receive future fellowship teachers. In contrast, the schools receive support to many school activities, lab material and bulk material. In addition, school students may be involved in activities planned together between the university and the school such as museum visits, science fair organizations, workshops, etc. iii. TRACES s team investments TRACES s team investments for these field actions have been focused on the follow-up of the weekly meetings of the university programs. The followup of the fellowship students activities is done regularly by the supervisors and by the program coordination. TRACES research team also conducted two workshops in the weekly meeting at the university. One was on how to structure science experiments from the perspective of Educating Through Research and other was about visits to the Science Museum. These two activities involved about twenty hours. iv. Demand It came from TRACES team interest in studying and deeply analyzing some actions of interaction between the university and the schools NO AMBITO of PIBID program. These activities were planned in PIBID program regardless TRACES project. However, at the moment of its implementation, the planning also involved TRACES team. Period at 2011 Abril May Activity Activities LAUNCHING and presentation of TRACES Project to the future teachers and to the working teachers Graduation in Educating Through Research(ETR) and preparation for investigative experiments 48

50 Junho July Setember from October to December Application and evaluation of the investigative experiments Graduation on the use of the Science and Technology Museum Guided visit of the students to schools and to the museum Data analysis Chart CS3 Field Actions development v. Time scale The time to carry out the field actions of the case 2 study was five months, as the Chart show. vi. Unit of analysis Interaction among in-service teacher, pre-service teachers and researchers working in an innovative national funded PIBID program called. 49

51 d. Qualitative Description of CS3 - PIBID i. Theoretical framework of intervention: Education Through Research This section is equal to the section 1.1.d.i of Guaíba case study (p. 25), since the theoretical framework of the three case studies is the same, ie, Education Through Research (DEMO 1998). ii. Motivation and relevance PIBID program has been seen as one of the most important teachers education program implemented in Brazil. There are some ongoing researches with partial results that show relevant changes in many schools where the program works. Perhaps it is due to all education system agents dedication. Actually, to implement and develop the program s actions it is necessary the school managers engagement as well as the teachers and educating authorities. (Allowing the interface between university and school) and researchers. Specially, researchers, through interaction theory and practice, can investigate teacher s education background and at the same time they can assess data to reevaluate the teacher education programs. iii. Content and nature of actions/intervention In order to observe the relationship between the university and the school, the field action participated in two PIBID/Physics activities. In the first activity, the future teachers elaborated an experimental guideline that was theoretically based on the ETR. TRACES team held a workshop about ETR and following the application and debates process at the university. The second activity was the organization of a pedagogically guided visit at the university s Science museum. Although the visit had been supported by TRACES Project, this action is not analyzed in the following case study. 50

52 iv. Negotiation process along the Field Actions The CS3 field actions started in May In order to accomplish the field actions data was collected and actions were developed based on questionnaires drawings, oriented debates about ETR, observations about physic experiments besides investigations about activities developed at school. When TRACES project s Field Actions was launched, the principals of the ten schools who are engaged in the PIBID/PUCRS, apart on two groups with five principals, participated in interviews focus groups. The collected data was used for analysis during the first part of the TRACES project (WP2). In May, teachers under graduation were invited to answer a questionnaire with open questions aiming to know their perceptions towards PIBID program. Besides, we asked them to show their feelings towards the university role and the interaction between university and school. Based on these analyses an FA was planned with the following actions. Education in ETR was organized in order to help under graduate teachers build projects about ongoing Physics experiments of the PIBID s program. At this moment the graduated ones, were encouraged to think about their conceptions towards the research. These were represented based on drawings, showed and debated with the whole group (teachers, undergraduate teachers, researchers). The following action was characterized by physics experiment elaborations based on the ETR, these were applied at schools. TRACES team applied a questionnaire for undergraduate teachers to evaluate the physics experiments proposal to be accomplished at school. The criteria for the evaluation were the following: creativity, relevance, inquiry characteristics and also the approach with student s reality. The evaluation s results were showed to teachers so that teachers and undergraduate ones could reformulate the experiments in a critical and enriching way. It was organized a debate on the experiments reformulation at the university (PIBID TRACES). After, the experiments were applied at schools. In order to know how PIBID s fellowships (pre-service teachers) and teachers felt the activity in the classroom, TRACES team elaborated a self evaluation 51

53 instrument. The activities through posters were presented in the State physics teaching meeting, once more allowing the experiences exchanges, now with students of other universities. v. TRACES Quality criteria To develop the CS2 Field Actions, TRACES quality criteria used were: a) The educational activities were not based on ready guidelines or pre defined procedures; b) The pre-service teachers, the supervisor teachers and TRACES researchers elaborated the activities practice and a collaborative way; c) In this case study the actions were elaborated by the licensed students who were helped by supervisors and guided by TRACERS researchers. In order to plan the Field Actions, Brazil s TRACES team considered the ongoing activities of the PIBID program as well as the working hours, the curriculum and the schools contexts. 52

54 2. BRAZILIAN CASE STUDIES ANALYSIS The field actions of TRACES BRAZIL S research were developed in three case studies. The characteristic of these cases was the development of different field actions in similar socio cultural contexts. Fourteen schools were chosen in order to be analyzed by three case studies. They are all public schools and are located in middle or low middle class urban areas. They are all in the south of Brazil in Rio Grande do Sul state. These studies features allow analyzing the interaction between university and school in three different ways. Guaiba case study (CS1) analyzes what teachers have learned and what they were able to develop at school with university s help. To do so innovating theoretical perspectives (Educating through Research ETR) oriented actions were planned and proposed by the university. Lajeado case study (CS2) analyzes mainly what the university can learn with the school. That is why this case is focused on understanding how the innovation was developed in an independent way in the school investigated. Finally the PIBID case study (CS3) analyzed the interaction between university and school. On the one hand it analyzed the support the school receives from the university to e improve pre and in-service teachers practices. On the other hand by knowing better the school reality, the university can choose subsidies to able to qualify the educating process and its perspectives. A qualitative approach is a general way of thinking about leading qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. Qualitative research allows the subjects being studied to give much richer answers to questions put to them by the researcher, and may give valuable insights which might have been missed by any other method. Not only does it provide valuable information to certain research questions in its own right but there is a strong case for using it to complement quantitative research methods. For example if the area of interest has not been previously 53

55 investigated then qualitative research may be a vital forerunner of conducting any quantitative research; for example, it s impossible to carry out a meaningful structured questionnaire survey on patient satisfaction with a service, if the important issues to the patients surrounding the provision of that service are not known. At the other extreme qualitative research may also help to understand the findings of quantitative research; for example, it is very easy to discover that some patients fail to keep appointments at outpatients clinics, but uncovering the reasons for this can be more difficult and conventional surveys may miss some of the important factors (MAYS & POPE, 1995). There are three main methods for collecting data in qualitative research. The resulting data is usually transcribed then analyzed using one of a variety of techniques for analysis (development and interpretation on key themes for example). The three main methods of data collection are focus groups, observations, and in-depth interviews. The ethnographic approach to qualitative research comes mostly from the field of anthropology. The emphasis in ethnography is on studying an entire culture. Originally, the idea of a culture was tied to the notion of ethnicity and geographic location, but it has been broadened to include virtually any group or organization (MILES & HUBERMAN, 1994). Ethnography is an extremely broad area with a great variety of practitioners and methods. However, the most common ethnographic approach is participant observation as a part of field research. This report has a qualitative approach to data analysis (LÜDKE & ANDRÉ, 1986; BOGDAN & BIKLEN, 1994; FLICK, 2009). Regarding the qualitative data analysis, Alves-Mazzotti and Gewandsznajder (1998, p. 170) point out that "[...] this is a complex, nonlinear process, which implies in a work of reduction, organization and interpretation of data which accompanies the entire investigation". In this view, the methodology used is the Discursive Textual Analysis (DTA) (MORAES & GALLIAZZI, 2007). The DTA method of analysis is organized around four main stages: 54

56 (1) Unitarization, characterized by the deconstruction of texts to identify and isolate ideas. This disassembly process results in 'units of analysis', which represent "elements relating to the phenomenon which is being investigated" (MORAES &GALIAZZI, 2007, p.195); (2) Categorization, in which the units of analysis are grouped into initial categories. In the subsequent step, the initial categories are grouped in a lower number and more comprehensive categories, called intermediate categories. Finally the intermediate categories are organized in a lower number of categories. The criterion used for the categories construction is the linkage with the ideas initially fragmented; (3) Meta-text, in which a rigorous analysis of the categories formed gives rise to the production of different text types, called meta-texts, which are continuously improved resulting in the construction of the final text, and comprises the description and interpretation. (4) Communication, the last stage of DTA, in which the constructed arguments are disseminated. Therefore, DTA is an open methodology, a process of self-organization, consisting of construction, deconstruction, rigorous analysis and data validation. The validity and reliability of the results are guaranteed by the strictness with which each analysis step of the methodology is conducted (MORAES & GALIAZZI, 2007). 55

57 2.1 Case Study Guaíba CS1 a. Main problem of the case study i. Problem of the case study 1 How can the participation in a collaborative and dialogical group of teachers and researches promote the use of the Educating Through Research in the classroom? ii. Theoretical framework The research at school and in the classroom has a pedagogical process meaning that aims to overcome the traditional teaching perspective once teaching is not transferring knowledge but creating possibilities for its production or building (FREIRE, 1998, p.25). Even with several nuances related to the research, as way of teaching and learning at school(demo, 1998; MALDANER, 2000; MORAES, GALIAZZI & RAMOS, 2004; DELVAL, 1998; NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 2000; CAÑAL, 1997; FLOR, 2000), the research in the classroom under a pedagogical perspective, consists in having a question and search answers. Defining more precisely, The research in the classroom can be understood as a spiral dialogical movement that starts by questioning the states of the human being, doing and knowing of the participants, building new arguments in order to reach new patterns of the human being, doing and knowing. These patterns are connected with all the participants of this process. (MORAES, GALIAZZI & RAMOS, 2004, p.11). Starting from the students questions means to begin from their reality, their contexts, their interests and their needs. However, this process also demands a qualification of the interpretation done of this reality connected with a more complex and scientific knowledge through the argumentation. To use the research in the classroom is to transform the content into meaningful problems to be investigated. Even so, we do not start from the program but from the reality lived by the students. Its objective is a broader appropriation of the social discourse which the participants who are involved learn how to argue and support their ideas, knowing how to communicate them with quality and straightness (MORAES, 2004, p. 26). 56

58 Galiazzi, Moraes and Ramos (2003) are for Educating Through Research as a learning process in an environment opened for discussion, analysis, supported arguments production and the validation of these arguments. Whenever the student produces the research related to things that are interesting for him and not only for the teacher, he becomes motivated aiming the rebuilding of his knowledge. Consequently he becomes an active subject in the reality he lives in. This meets what Flor (2000) states: We educated to form independent people who are able to understand the reality in a conscious way and not only to keep a critical attitude, as well as being able to take some decisions along their lives (p. 15). Therefore, Educating Through Research is more than learning contents likewise science is more than a corpus to be learned. There is a process and a method to be learned. (NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 2000, p.14). Educating Through Research is in a broader perspective a educational way of the human historic competence translated into the habit of searching for answers. That is why it is also a way of building citizenship. b. Complementary questions TRACES Meta-analysis category i. CM1 Teachers Education In-service Education: What is the teachers education role for the process of change? In this category Guaiba s case study (EC1) analyses how can teachers education change their conceptions about researching in the classroom. So, teachers conceptions are expressed by the way they organize teaching situations to have students learning. The study of teachers conceptions was based on the analysis of data collected before and after teachers participation in the field actions developed in this case study. So, based on the analysis the following sub categories were formulated: (1) The Educating through research and the teacher s role in the learning process and (2) the Educating through research and the student s role in the learning process. ii. CM5 Social community: What is the social community s role in the change process? 57

59 The objective of this category is to analyze how the social community s engagement (represented by students parents) has contributed for the development of the field actions. The analysis is focused on the parents and students testimonies collected through the interviews in the focus group and the opened questions questionnaires that show the influence of the family in the process. iii. CM6 Research on Education in science: What is the research s role in Education in science in the change process? In this category, Guaiba s case study (EC1) looked for the answers of several questions: How was the process of the research launched at the elementary school in the science subject? How was the students engagement like? How was the process of the research guidance for the students? How has the research contributed for the students learning? What are the difficulties found in the research s development with the students? What aspects can be improved? These questions are investigated based on two different perspectives: (a) the teachers point of view and (b) students and parents point of view. Thus, the following categories were formulated based on the analyses: (CM6.1) the research process triggering with the students: from the resistances to the desire of asking and looking for answers; (CM6.2) students engagement and motivation: the visit to the museum as a reason to research; (CM6.3) the process of research guidance for the students; (CM6.4) the research s contribution for students and teachers learning in the classroom, and (CM6.5) the difficulties found and the possibilities of the course direction s correction. 58

60 C. Methodology I. Subjects Eight teachers from nine schools have participated as the main subjects of the research. The field actions in these schools have involved around 270 students. These teachers are graduated either in science and/or biology. The detailed profile of these subjects is described in section 1.1a (descriptive information of the intervention unity). In order to investigate what parents and students reported after the CS1 Field Actions 22 students participated of the data gathering ( 11 boys and 11 girls) aged between 10 and 24 years old and 44 relatives ( 25 mothers, 15 fathers and more 4 in charge of the kids). The relatives age varies between 27 and 63 years old. These subjects education is pretty varied. Only 9 have completed a graduated degree and there are several professions such as housewives, workmen, self-employed, teachers, firefighters, drivers, journalists and others. The interview in focus group with students was done at the PUCRS Science and Technology Museum during the science school works show when students were asked to evaluate the activities developed by TRACES project and report how has the family participated in this process. The interview in focus group with parents was done during the closing ceremony of the CS1 field actions, organized together with TRACES team and by the public education department in Guaiba. There were students who have participated in the school science works show in this event as well as parents, relatives, teachers, TRACES researchers and the managing team of the public education department. During the moment of interaction among the subjects mentioned above some parents were invited at random to participate in an interview in a focus group. 59

61 Seven people have participated. One couple and more five mothers of six students who participated (subjects P1 a P6). The interview that lasted 40 minutes was recorded and after it was also transcribed (Doc1.7). In order to broad the data collection, a questionnaire was sent to parents of students who have participated in the school science works show. It allowed a higher number of parents to record their opinions about the field actions. Almost 75% of these questionnaires were given back once 44 out of the 60 sent were answered. 25 questionnaires were answered by the students mother, 15 were answered by the student s father and 4 questionnaires were answered by some other relative (brother, uncle, etc). Teachers are referred in the analysis as codes T1, T2, etc. The students are referred as codes St1, St2, etc. The parents are referred as P1, P2, and etc. ii. Data collection s tools The data used in the EC1 analysis were collected from nine documents that were applied during, before and after the field actions. The documents and the subjects of each document are specified in the following table Number Document Subjects Personal questionnaire applied to teacher which had their personal information and conceptions about the research Researcher s observations about the research actions in the classroom accomplished by teachers and students. Interview in focus group with the students during the school science works show Banners presented by students in the school Science works show Self-evaluation questionnaires applied to teacher at the end of the development of the filed actions Interview with teachers in a focus group at the end of the field actions Interview done in the focus group with parents during the final event in Guaiba T (1 a 8) T (3, 4, 5, 7) St (1 a 22) - T (1 a 6) T (1 a 6) P (1 a 6) 1.8 Questionnaire answered by parents P (4 a 47) Legend: T teacher, St student, P parents Chart Guaiba s case study s list of documents 60

62 The methodology used in the analysis of the texts obtained from the several documents was the discursive textual analysis. ATD (MORAES & GALIAZZI, 2007). This process starts with the fragmentation of the texts in unit of meaning and the description of the main idea, uttered or implied, of each one. After, the units with similar meaning are grouped in categories called initials. Then the initial categories are grouped again into final categories. Finally, these categories are translated to expressions that denote the emergency in terms of the wording s entire meaning that form the category. After, descriptive and interpretative texts are elaborated based on the categories obtained together with an empirical and theoretical researchers view. d. Interpretation i. CM1 - Teachers Education In order to analyze how teachers education influences their conceptions about researching in the classroom, data about the pre-service teacher education and the participation in-service teacher education activities was collected. The eight teachers who participated in the CS1 are graduated either in science or biology. Teachers descriptions about their experiences in in-service teacher education are in document 1. Some of them have taken some university extension courses that are reference in Rio Grande do Sul: I have participated in the PUCRS project Museum-school (T5, Doc 1.1) and I have taken and extension course in Environmental education at Rio Grande do Sul Federal university (T1, Doc1.1). Concerning the participation in Research (T7, Doc1.1) only one of them had participated in a research group during the pre-service education. Teachers have highlighted as positives aspects of the experience at inservice teacher education the opportunity of changing the routine (T2, Doc1.1), it is a moment that gave us the chance of innovating (T8, Doc1.1) and the possibility of being with coworkers and teachers (T7, Doc1.1). Just 61

63 one negative aspect was mentioned: Little time available to accomplish the proposed activities by the courses and the in-service teacher education. research is: When asked about what a research is the teachers answered that Search for answers, doing experiments in order to raise hypothesis (T1, Doc1.1); Search information about certain issues in order to understand them (T2, Doc1.1); It is the act of turning the knowledge about facts that had already been discovered and studied deeper (T5, Doc1.1); It is to establish goals either to solve problems or to find answers (T7, Doc1.1). Although teachers answers do not always express the concept of research in a complete way it is possible to say that these first conceptions are close to an empirical understanding. They refer to scientific method stages and relate the inquiry process to the discovery of something. The research seems to be understood as a way to improve the knowledge about the reality when the solution of the problems and the comprehension of certain issues are mentioned. The several ways of understanding a research were debated during the activities at the university. During these meetings, the theme research at school was raised to discuss the fundamental assumptions of Educating through research. Freire (1997) highlights the indissociability between teaching and researching when he states that there is no teaching without research and no research without teaching because they meet in each other s body. Through debates on how teachers would start and develop their work based on educating through research at schools. The thematic research was present in all meetings and was stimulated through debates on how teachers start and develop their work with The Educating through research at schools. The work developed in this context during the EC1 field actions has favored theoretical and practical activities with 62

64 studies, reflections and debates. Thus, the document analysis allows us to conclude that these actions have brought changes to teachers view according the following information. During the last meeting between teachers and researchers, at the end of the Field actions, teachers perceptions about Educating through research were recorded before and after their participation in TRACES project activities. The analysis of the reports in the documents 6 and 7 allow us to see changes in teachers conceptions related to two essential aspects: (CM1.1) The Educating through research and the teachers role in the learning process and (CM1.2) The educating through research and the students role in the learning process. These aspects were identified as subcategories of the category teachers education. The conclusions are described bellow. CM1.1 - The educating through research and the teacher s role in the learning process Concerning the educating through research and the teacher s role in the learning process a teacher comments that before the actions of TRACES project students had not been exposed to inquiry activities as a routine. According to one of the teachers, there were few moments when there were works with articles in class; he asked some research as an assignment out of the classroom (T1, Doc1.5). Another teacher reports he used to work with inquiries that were important for him. In his words: before the project I formulated questions that I believed were important for students (T2, Doc1.5). A third teacher understood the research as the pursue for information about a certain issue: The teacher entitles the research and the students tries to answer (T3, Doc1.5). The reports above show that the decision about the conceptual concepts (COLL et al, 1994) to be studied was a teacher s exclusive privilege. The research was about a theme defined by the teacher when proposed. Such situation show a typical teacher s based on learning classes (GRILLO, 2008), which he is the one responsible for students learning process. The content is often an end in itself in this model of class and teaching is seen a knowledge 63

65 transferring process. The teacher is in charge of presenting students the reality in a clear and organized way. According to Grillo (2008) in this pedagogical model the teachers believes that regardless the contents nature the way of teaching is always the same despite the complexity of the concept involved (GRILLO, 2008, p.24). However, the research understanding is simply like the search for information about the theme proposed by the teacher (T3, Doc1.5) contradicts an essential condition of the researching act. The researching act has always as a starting point a problematic situation. The act aims to build the answers based on the organization of the relations among several empirical and theoretical elements. Such answers are not found ready anywhere. Thus, it is possible to say that the understanding of the teacher 3 is coherent to the concerning pedagogical model. For him a research order does not involve a challenge but simply the accomplishment of a set of predictable and linear activities by the student. However, when reporting their teaching practice during the Project experience teachers report changes in their roles towards the teaching process. Such changes indicate a distance from the teacher based learning pedagogy. The most notorious change was related to the belief that the worked contents need to be based on students interests. A research project has to have a theme that catches student s interest (T5, Doc1.6). Starting from student s interests, the research ( or the question) Will be a work/activity, Who knows, always better produced beyond our expectative (T3, Doc 1.5). Based on the question formulated by the students and on the interest about certain issue, much knowledge trigger curiosity (T2, Doc1.5). However, working in order to propose a theme that interest students do not mean the teacher should stop being the coordinator of the learning process and leave decision in students hand. The teacher should have tools to make students get in to the research by themselves. About it Galvão et al (2011) discuss the importance of the scientific literacy in today s society and also support that science education should be in charge of building this learning. 64

66 These authors highlight the importance of contextualizing the activities in order to increase students interests and provide the enthusiasm of engaging the study. Many times students reactions to certain themes come from not informed choices, i.e.; students do not show any interest for a theme because they do not understand its importance for their lives or because they do not understand the importance of certain scientific concepts or procedures to be aware of certain phenomena (GALVÃO et al, 2011, p. 28). Besides respecting students interests, teachers seemed to have stopped thinking only about formal contents, trying to put them together with the investigation (T3, Doc1.5). They say that their role is to rise students expectations. To want more, to think higher and do not get frustrated with possible fails (T6, Doc1.5). It is also to guide, to educate (T2, Doc1.6). However they seem to recognize that student s engagement in the learning process is determining: Today I understand that the students has to be an agent in this process (T1, Doc1.6). As synthesis of CS1 teachers perceptions about the research as educative principle it is possible to state that there was a change in this group of teachers conceptions. The analysis shows that the use of the educating through research provided teachers the ownership of learning associated with the building of meanings. They see the importance of having students participating in the process of building knowledge and identify as teachers responsibility that task of motivating students to learn. CM1.2 The Educating through research and the student s role in the learning process About the student s role in the learning process according to the Educating Through Research (ETR) approach, it was noticed that teachers got surprised with students engagement during the CS1 actions. The Project was a turning point. It was good to make us learn another way, to see differently all student s potential, what he or she can (T2, Doc1.6); 65

67 There were pleasant surprises of students who were not usually interested in the traditional classes. They ended up motivated and producing together with their coworkers (T1, Doc1.5). The documents 6 and 7 recorded the way teachers used to act before the Field actions in the classroom. Teachers used to give students the bystanders role in the classroom happenings. Students were only asked to develop reproduction and copy activities (DEMO, 1998). Demonstrations of disappointment were often noticed. As a teacher says: They were not interested. They were looking at the board and sleeping (T4, Doc1.6). During the months they were working with research in the classroom, teachers tried new ways of playing the role of an adviser in the learning process. Consequently, their students were assuming new roles. A teacher has abandoned the questionnaires and this has caught his students attentions: A student commented: You do not even do questionnaires anymore! (T5, Doc1.6). Another teacher became less directive, showing that He believed in the student s ability of deciding: Now I do not need to tell them what to research (T1, Doc1.6). This same teacher reports that when students explain what they intend to do and ask for his approval he answers: You know it (T1, Doc1.6). For another teacher researching has changed the way students study (T4, Doc1.5) and for T3 (Doc1.6), the fact of students produce their own texts was important: I thought it was great they produced their texts without copying. They have elaborated by themselves what they were seeing, what was happening and what they wanted. Students have started checking dictionaries and have improved the writing competences: They have said they did not know how to write then started taking the dictionary to see how to do it ; They also did not know how to elaborate a text, but now they know it and student X demonstrated confidence about what was writing (T4, Doc1.6). This way, it is important to highlight the teachers perception that the activity with the research has provided students autonomy. One of the teachers 66

68 states: During the works presentation I realized that many things they were presenting I did not know (T2, Doc1.6). It shows the teacher looses the control of the construction done by the student. Under the Educating through research perspective this is a desirable fact. Other teacher complements: I loved the works they produced and presented. They had an excuse; they knew exactly what they wanted (T3, Doc1.6). Besides, student commitment with the research work has also been mentioned: Nowadays they are bringing materials to the classroom in order to produce their works and present them to their classmates (T6, Doc1.6). These teachers verification are coherent with Pozo s (2002) statement, that when dealing with the autonomy theme the teacher s goal is to transfer the control of students learning little by little knowing that the final objective of every teacher is to become unnecessary (p.273). The opportunity of structuring the classroom having the research as the central element allowed teachers change their view about students actions. They should face the challenge of besides choosing question they wanted to be answered, also organize strategies to find answers. To do so students have demonstrated capacity to find answers, elaborate texts, to debate with their classmates and teachers the essential elements for their investigation. Moreover, students should inform the results obtained in the classroom (to their classmates and teachers) and outside the classroom they should inform the participants of the School science works show. Finally, when asked to express in one word or sentence the TRACES role in their lives, teachers have said: It was learning for me (T4, Doc1.6); This Project was a turning point in our practice in the classroom (T3, Doc1.6); It was the verification of what I already believed through a student s potential, it has confirmed that the thing of disarranging is the truth (T5, Doc1.6); We won t manage to work without doing things this way. This is the way I believe it has to be (T3, Doc1.6); 67

69 I want to do it with bigger group (with older students) to see IF there is a difference considering excitement, the way there was with the little ones (younger students) (T5, Doc1.6); I Think I Will keep this methodology with questions that interest them. We learn a methodology and we can t prepare questionnaires anymore (T2, Doc1.6). ii. CM5 School community According to Filho (2000) the relationship between the school and the family is an issue that has been debated by researchers, managers and teaching centers all over the world. The evaluation on family s influence in the process developed by the EC1 field actions was done based on data collected in three documents: Interview in a focus group with the students (Doc 1.3), interview in a focus group with parents (Doc1.7) and open questions questionnaires answered by parents (Doc1.8). One of the most challenging and intriguing aspects of the EC1 was the engagement of relatives once as the questionnaires answers as the parents speech in the focus group were unpredictable. However, the analysis of the collected data has showed that knowing parents allows educators to know the effect of the research activities in the classroom out of the school. This way: Today, more than ever the school s speech shows the need of observing the family to understand the child, as well as to have an agreement between these two educating agents. The better environment to achieve these pedagogical principles at least in the speech scopethe permanent dialogue with parents (NOGUEIRA, 2006, p.161). The interaction between parents and kids during the Field actions development was observed in this context. Parents showed to be aware of the activities and to know that their kids had researched before. It has facilitated them to answer the questionnaires and participate in the focus group with relevant reports. These reports have demonstrated that the research process, when taken out of the classroom by students, have promoted a better 68

70 interaction between parents and kids. Parents have listened to their kids experiences and findings during the process. My son does not talk much about school and we have to be asking him all the time and this time he arrived home telling us. I saw that (the work with the research) has motivated him to talk mainly with me (P1, Doc1.7); Our daughter has asked us to see her work at the museum, but we could not go (P3, Doc1.7). Besides some parents have participated effectively elaborating the student s works, for instance either helping in the models building or in the purchase of the materials. When I had to buy material to do the school work my son used to say: Do not buy it, this time he went to the stationary store with me because he wanted to look for a material. I saw him looking for materials to build an eye model (P2, Doc1.7). Thus, we notice that the development of an innovating activity at school has stimulated the interest and the students involvement in the task. This also gives students research works a greater relevance. This performance in the research activity was noticed and valued by the parents who became part in their kids learning process, supporting and encouraging this new attitude. My father was proud that I came to present my work at the museum (St7, Doc1.3); My father arrived home after work yesterday, he gets home at night and then he saw my work (St6, Doc1.3). iii. CM6 Research on Science Education. In the beginning of the EC1 field actions, eight science teachers from Guaiba were invited through the education department, to do a research work in the classroom under the guidance of TRACES project researchers. First this work was planned based on a theoretical- practical approach during meetings with teachers and researchers. It is important to highlight five out of eight teachers involved that had already participated in a project integrated to PUCRS science and technology Museum (MCT/PUCRS) in This project involved the research at school. 69

71 In order to evaluate the research process in the classroom (ETR) developed by teachers and students in the science subject at the end of the elementary school, the data collected was studied under two perspectives: (a) teacher s point of view and (b) parents and student s point of view. Moreover, this analysis category was divided in the following subcategories: The beginning of the search project with the students: From the resistance to the wish of asking and looking for answers (CM6.1); Students engagement and motivation: The visit to the Museum having the research as goal (CM6.2); The guiding process of students researches (CM6.3); The contribution to the research in the classroom to the students and teachers learning (CM6.4) and The difficulties found and the possibilities of correcting the direction (CM6.5). The analysis for each subcategory based on two perspectives investigated is presented below. 70

72 CM6.1 The research Project triggering with the students: From the resistances to the wish of asking and searching answers After the initial period of the preparation research Project at school meetings (between teachers and researchers), the teachers presents students the activity proposal. The teachers said that the first students reaction was resistance, according to the following sayings: Some students were resistant: but I Will have to work a lot! But why? You haven t even thought this content yet! (T5, Doc1.5); There was resistance, they did not know what to do because they were small (T1, Doc1.5); In the beginning students engagement was slow. They did not even know how to research. But as time went by they started researching in sever sources and in each class there were new findings (T4, Doc1.5). Some students have shown the resistance to the new teaching proposals. These students told they fell more comfortable with the teacher explaining the content the content than being authors of their own findings: I like my class the way it is. I thing I would not teach with movies, I prefer the teacher explaining (St12, Doc1.3); I also prefer the teachers explain, she explain well, more clear, with the movie you might not understand, it is more complicated. (St11, Doc1.3). The resistance is natural when facing new situations. It is difficult for students to change as well as for teachers. Despite the common critics the traditional class is well led by students and teachers. However an action that involves students participation brings resistance, at least in the beginning, when it is not already known how the process will take place. One of the strong reasons for this resistance is the fact the students are used to their routines and mainly with the content being present ready for students. Teachers still say: There are still those students that do not want to do because they are used to have things ready (T1, Doc1.5); There were students Who were totally engaged. The curiosity and interest were stimulating to solve the questions. Other students could not develop the subjects. They want teachers to do it for them (T3, Doc1.5); 71

73 They were not interested. They were looking at the board and sleeping. I gave them somewhat ready and they had to go. Not now (T4, Doc1.6). Based on the teachers statement T4, it is possible to see the correlation between the kind of class provided by the teachers and the students reactions. Thus, give everything ready! It does not mean turning the learning easier, but provoke apathy and lack of interest. According to Deval (1998): The subject s motivation to act is to learn, it is intrinsic, finding the results in the subject himself and in the results He have found. If the knowledge is enough and answers his doubts he will keep his pursue and he will keep learning; on the contrary he will stop (p.154). The first students involvement with the research was through teachers request. They wanted students to create questions about what they would like to learn. The question is the starting step that provokes the search, so the movement of learning through the research begins by asking (MORAES, GALIAZZI & RAMOS, 2004, p.12). This movement was interesting. Some professors established the themes. This movement was interesting. Some teachers have limited their themes. Others have proposed quite broad ones. The ones Who delimitated had good results related to the interesting question. The ones who have proposed broader themes had difficulties because there were very general questions such as who is God?. In one of the meetings with the researchers this issue was solved once the teachers realized the importance of delimitating the theme to have students questions. An important point in the research process was to have students elaborating questions. Besides starting from their knowledge they showed their interests through the questions. It was noticed by teachers: The students were outstanding because of their concern with the water. Many researches had an ecological view (T3, Doc1.5); All the subjects chosen were creative: reflux, plastic surgery, urinary tract, brain, etc (T5, Doc1.5); They kept a big engagement during these months. If it were not for the curiosity and the wish of learning they would have given up (T5, Doc1.6). 72

74 An interesting aspect is that in the teachers T4 situation, they, boys, seemed to be more interested in Fishes. The girls were looking at magazines talking about shoes, artists etc. (teachers T4 class observation, Doc1.2). These reports have highlighted a strong relation between the questions themes and students routine. So, valuing students curiosity was important for the work success once it is linked to their interests and means and innovating uneasiness as states Freire (1996): It s a lot of work for them, but as they are the ones involved the curiosity is real. They get involved and do it. Afterwards it gets easier (T1, Doc16); In fact, in one of the classes observation, it was found that a teacher had allowed her students to develop autonomy to search for responses, to choose the subject and in the communication among them (teacher T5 observation class record, Doc1.20). Hence, it is believed that the motivation for the research starts from the process of asking, because questioning will lead students to the pursuit for explanations. Many other authors have shown their ideas about the importance of questioning as a starting point for the inquiry in the classroom. Izquierdo and Sanmartí (2000), for instance, say: There is an activity in science classes that is considered basic: explaining. For what interests us is the understanding, the establishment of relationships and the meaning negotiation in class. However, all explanation is relative: it depends on a problem or a question background and the knowledge that has produced explanations (p.181). Simirarly, Freira and Faundez (1985) support that: What the teacher should teach because he should know it it would be, for and foremost, teaching how to ask. Because, as I have already said, the origin of knowledge is questioning. And only from questioning one should look for answers, and not the opposite (pg.46). Delval (1998) also highlights that teaching should start from student s problems and interests and not teach things that won t reach him in any way. Roden (2010) argues that the teachers should try to use students questions. Questioning as a process ability is an important part in the scientific process (p.71). The student should be encouraged to ask. It is up to the teacher to providing favorable environment, showing students that they don t need to be 73

75 embarrassed of showing what they know, as well as what they want to learn. Roden keeps exploring the idea that starting by students own questions may provide them taking over their learning and, consequently, so it can be a strong motivator (ibid, p.71). they say that: Pozo and Pérez (1994) also value question as part of the research, when Teaching Science through solving problems assumes, above all, recovering the natural order of things, whereby knowledge should always be an answer to a previously formulated question. Unfortunately, students are often exposed to a great range of ready answers for questions that they had never thought before and that they had not even asked themselves about (p. 6). A decisive argument relates the link between students questions with their initial knowledge. Many times, students have wrong beliefs and naive interpretations that should be considered by teachers. These authors and many other ones, such as BRANSDORF, BROWN & COCKING (2000) emphasize the role of the student question as a way to trigger motivating actions towards learning: a logical and complementary view that the new knowledge should be elaborated from the existing knowledge is that teachers need to pay attention to incomplete understandings, to wrong beliefs and to the naive interpretations of the concepts that students bring with them about a certain subject. Therefore, teachers should begin from these ideas to help students to reach a more mature understanding. If the students ideas and beliefs are ignored, the understanding they develop can be very different from the ones expected by the teacher (p.27). Teachers reported the way students practice the proposal of asking from their own interests: After that, reluctance was over. Then, another stage of the project started. Everybody wanted to propose: teacher, do you think this is a good question? Every week I d work hard answering and helping (T5, Doc 1.6); They prepared the questions. Then I said that they would look for the answers to those questions. They were desperate: how are we going to do this? Little by little I calmed them down (T4, Doc 1.6); There were many questions. A particular group sat and said: no, we re going to research about this one. They were sure that question was the one they wanted to 74

76 develop. So, the question strategy was very important (T2, Doc 1.6); They looked for what they wanted, asked the question and after that I worked with them in all classes in the classroom (T3, Doc 1.6); Others looked for other questions. I didn t need to come to class with a question previously prepared. After that, they found some curiosity to research. It was very good (T1, Doc 1.6). Parents have also realized the importance of developing a research process in the classroom from the students interests. They reported that the thing their children liked the most in the whole process was exactly the fact of researching and learning about a subject they ve chosen by themselves. My son enjoyed to research. He like to get acquired this knowledge, making it his own production (P40, Doc1.7); My daughter liked to research about the Planets. If the subject had been just presented to her it wouldn t have awaked the same interest (P41, Doc 1.7); My son felt valued by being able to choose by himself the work development, and realize that there is something else besides books and theories (P44, Doc1.7). That way, it s possible to see that the process of questioning became stimulating, involving the students in the research process, in the search for new arguments (MORAES; GALIAZZI & RAMOS, 2004). The research was a way to build a space in the classroom where not only teachers questioned, but everybody that felt epistemologically curious (FREIRE, 1996, P. 96). In this environment, the subjects interact and question, in order to satisfy their doubts, their curiosities. In the teachers view: The commitment (of students) was big, really big (T5, Doc 1.6); Pleasant surprises happen. Students that usually aren t interested in the traditional classes, ended up motivated and producing great work (T1, Doc1.5); With the exception of three students that haven t shown interest in developing the research about the issue chosen by them, most of students were excited about it. Many ideas came up. (They) gathered in class and also in opposite shift to produce posters, models, etc. (T2, Doc1.5). Finally, students opinions about the research in the classroom were very enlightening 75

77 We learn more by researching than reading a book, because it s necessary to read several things (St14, Doc1.3); I ve learned not only from my research but also from the other students` research (St12, Doc1.3); I thought that in the project we learned more because we looked for things, we asked the teacher a little, we produced posters, some went wrong and we did it again, we read book, we searched on internet (St19, Doc1.3); While the teacher is explaining everybody keeps talking, but while we are researching everybody is only focused on it. (St19, Doc1.3). CM6.2 Students commitment and motivation: the visit to the Museum as a reason to research Students resistance can also be found from the teacher s necessity to convince them to do the task proposed. In this context, the Museum was an element that has stimulated students to do the work and consequently to overcome the initial resistance. From then on, the students perceived the Science teaching and the learning differently: During the project, different students involvement steps happened. Initially, students had to be convinced to participate and, for this, the visit to the science museum was very important. After the visit, besides wishing to participate they also wanted to be chosen to go back to the museum. As a result, the involvement was even bigger by most students that were extensively involved with their project execution (T5, Doc1.5); The visit to the Museum was a watershed in the Project, because, at first, there were those who were reluctant. When the reluctant students arrived at the Museum and found that entire universe, they thought: oh, I ll be able to be part of it, I ll be able to do something, and I will come back here! Then, the reluctance was over (T5, Doc1.6). Furthermore, teachers have also noticed the importance of students working in groups and learning from the classmates, for the development of the project. According to a teacher, one student would talk and correct the other classmate when there was a mistake. Each one would read and answer until noticing they had gone the same path and also that what was in the books was also in some sites on internet (T4, Doc1.5). 76

78 This was also noticed by the parents. They said that their children enjoyed to work in groups or in pairs and to interact with students from other schools: He enjoyed the group work, the exchange of ideas, the practice of the theoretical knowledge and the development of a model (P1, Doc1.8); (He liked to) meet his classmates to research (P30, Doc1.8); (What he liked the most was to) interact with the other schools (P17, Doc1.8). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the fact that students had to prepare the work to present to other people was motivating. Initially, in each school, the students presented their work to the classmates. While watching one of these moments, a great enthusiasm when reporting to researchers the answers found to the interesting questions they were investigating, has been observed. (teacher T7 class observation record, Doc1.2). In another class observation it was noticed that students were participative and would show the teacher their work many times (teacher T7 class observation record, Doc1.2). In every class involved in the ETR a work was chosen to the Students Science Work Show. The chosen ones should present their work to the classmates, to the teacher and to the Museum visitors during the Students Science Work Show. The Annex presents a copy of the banners made by students groups shown at the museum (Doc1.4). Later, the presentation has also contributed to overcome shyness, typical of this age. Teachers and students reported it. I wanted more freedom to see the work of the others in order to know what they think (St8, Doc1. 3); I also wanted to see what the others have researched and how they did it (St7. Doc1. 3); I wanted to present to other people. Not only to the people that were in the Museum. I wanted more freedom to be able to see other classmates experiments and learn from the others that came, too. (St5, Doc1.3). About the importance of communicating the others about the works result, Moraes, Galiazzi and Ramos (2004) say that: It s necessary that the research actions in the classroom reach a stage of communicating results, of sharing new 77

79 comprehensions, of expressing a new stage of being, doing and knowing, what contributes to its validation at the community where this process is taking place (p. 19). It is also important to emphasize that the students presence at the Museum (MCT/PUCRS) meant the proximity to an unknown academic environment, too. Even briefly, the contact with the university motivated the group to think about the future, mainly regarding to attending a university. One of the students said that she was very curious about what is inside a university, and that she would like to visit a university and see what s in there, how it is (St2, Doc1. 3). Summing up, many motivating aspects were present in the research process in the classroom. It s possible to list some of them: - students questions proposals; - choice of everyday topics, meaningful to their lives; - visit to the Museum, with exciting and challenging activities; - researches achievements in group; - possibility to present the results of the researches to other people, including to the Museum visitors. CM6.3 The orientation process of student researches Students orientation by teachers happened in many ways and in many places and time. It usually happened in the school environment, which has some characteristics. The environment is simple and lacking in resources. The school environment is simple and teachers resources (media, computer) belong to them. The teacher also uses his own microscope that it is lent to the school. The teacher is buying all the material needed for students to develop their research (T7, Doc1.5). The work was done mainly in small groups inside the classroom. Students also did actions at home and in the community. It was found in classes observations that the classrooms were organized for it (teacher class observation record. It was also found that the environment was very agitated in 78

80 a good and natural way. The teacher handles the activity well and also helps with students needs and necessities (T4, Doc1.2); The work hasn t been done all in the classroom. The students would also meet outside. In these moments they would produce something, a text for instance, and then they would bring it to me. We would use some classes only for doing it. They always wanted to have something to bring, a model for example. And only the classroom wasn t enough. Their improvement in the project was good (T1, Doc1.6); Some (students) would meet at home, but most of them would do it in there (in the classroom). They would bring the questions they wanted and (consultations on) internet. They would ask if the work was ok. And they would prepare a small text about the things they had done (T2, Doc1.6). The teacher s mediator role and also of someone who would try to reassure the students was very important during the research development in the classroom. This process was new to them, therefore a source of anxiety. Little by little I calmed them down, I showed them how to do it and they got involved (T1, Doc1.6); The teacher has not used authority. He was clam and stimulates students curiosity. The class is interesting and the students were willing to develop the tasks (T7, Doc1.5); She let the students working freely, but kept moving around, answering and asking questions (T4, Doc1.5); I was there supporting, helping. I think that the file helped them a lot. They (the students) had a path to follow. And it was very good. Students improved (T3, Doc1. 6). In the mediation process, besides confidence to calm students down there is also the teacher s confidence related to knowledge. According Pain (1985), one will not learn from anyone, but one will learn from whoever is in the knowledge s place, it can be a parent or a master. One learns from whom it is supposed to know (p. 3). This way, even in a research process the students will trust in that one who may propose new ways to be experienced. According to teachers, however, it s also necessary to be firm, guiding students during the process. The records of the classes observation will confirm it. It was observed in one of teacher T4 class that she has informed students that they were supposed to prepare an explanatory poster about fish. For that, she gave them butcher paper, magazines and some. While they were 79

81 doing the task, the teacher would go from one group to another to ask them what they were going to do and also to give her opinion. Sometimes she would deny answering the questions and would just say: I don t know you are the ones who should do it (teacher T4 class observation record, Doc1. 2). Finally, it was clear that the teacher would state the research activity stages and the students would develop it. Other teacher s opinions confirm the idea that teachers should guide the research. I said: let s rehearse, you should know it by heart. It is not necessary to memorize it. If you learn the subject, it will be interesting. A (student) that had memorized it, stopped in the middle of the activity. You should learn it, it is not necessary to memorize (T3, Doc1.6). I do it a lot. I conduct the subject I want them to research. They research, they do and present it to me because I Said I want them to do it. It was not their own curiosity. Even the subject was good sometimes. But this class did not show much of a enthusiasm (T2, Doc1. 6). In addition, important criticizing exercise moments have happened in the classroom, during researching it is clear how temporary knowledge is. But I have also explained that not everything that is on internet, in the sites, is really (true). You will have to check on the books. And it is not all correct on the books either. It was an improvement for them because they had to compare it by (T4, Doc1.6). The reports above justify how important it is the mediator role played by the teacher. The teacher supports and conducts the work, while gives students enough freedom to develop their autonomy. In this way, the teacher s monitoring allows the identification of students development and the difficulties they had along the process. CM6.4 The research contribution to students and teachers learning in the classroom The teachers involved in the research were very satisfied at the end of EC1 field actions. They could identify meaningful changes in the students, not only in their attitudes but also in the content learned. The comprehension of the content in the built answers to the questions made by themselves show they had overcame a mere memorization, as demonstrated in the reports that follow: 80

82 Students demonstrated to know the answers for the questions asked (T5, Doc1.5); Researching is important for students learning, and so the classrooms were transformed into research centers where students could check many different sources in order to answer their questions (T4, Doc1.5); I am not memorizing anymore. There (at the Museum I) missed the word and kept talking (T3, Doc1. 6); They (the students) would count whoever would walk by (it helped them to improve their knowledge). They loved, they found it all very interesting (T3, Doc1.6); My (students) would say: it was much easier than I expected. They enjoyed it. Everything was beautiful. They liked to present their work. They said: hey teacher, I could do it! They asked many questions and we answered them all. And it was all known by heart because I said before that they could not just memorize it. They had the best impression from here. They enjoyed the lunch a lot (T3, Doc, 1.6); It doesn t mean that I don t have a methodology to evaluate them. They did a normal test. The work was worth as well (as a grade). Two questions were asked in the test. One was about this project where they had to make a short summary of what they had done, justifying and presenting the question (the researched one). They could really show what they had learned (T3, Doc1.6). These changes were also noticed by the parents. They emphasized two main aspects: the knowledge students have acquired about the subject they deeply researched and the motivation in learning science. This was clear in the following reports: My daughter became more responsible in doing good works and also learned enough to know more about the subject, by doing the activity (P30, Doc1.8); The activity helped her to be more interest in researching and in learning by herself (P32, Doc1.8); (The activity) stimulated the willingness to study, to learn and to pass the knowledge on (P17, Doc1.8); The activity helped the child with the learning process in the school (P20, Doc1.8). Furthermore, the capacity for writing about what was found in the research was increased, making students to feel more secure. Through writing exercises, students can structure better what they think about the subject they are studying. According Galiazzi (2004), when one writes and analyses what 81

83 has been written it s possible to see more clearly what one thinks, as it is shown below. He (the student) was sure about his writing. I think they improved their writing. [...] They said they did not know how to write. They started using the dictionary to check the spelling. They did not know how to elaborate a text either, but they know now (T4, Doc1.6). Reading was also practiced during the research, which is not a common habit at the schools. Most of the students do not usually read. With the research, they have to read to answer. Then, while reading, they increase their vocabulary and consequently their writing. That is very important. They also read outside the school, in internet, in another book and in encyclopedias (T2, Doc1.6). Students used different and active methodologies, including interviews at the community. That contributed to make the communication process easier, an important aspect for living in a society and for citizenship. The teacher allowed students to choose the subject to be studied and helped in the search of the answers and in making the texts. She also encouraged them to present the communication in a creative way (T5, Doc1.5); They interviewed women that had (breast reduction). They also asked for the opinion of a classmate that had it done. They researched a lot (T5, Doc1.6); They asked the parents and the grandparents. The work was about the plants birth time and the grandmother helped to answer time (T6, Doc1.6); The students have ideas. A group researched about anorexia, for instance, and asked relatives at home first to check if they had ideas (T5, Doc1.6). Teachers have also noticed that they were dealing well with the lack of knowledge in some areas. As they researched together with the students, they learned and they were able to work well with the teaching process, which for them was something they did not know. During the presentation I realized, by going to the groups, that there were many things I did not know myself. They bring many things, and we learn together in this research (T2, Doc1.6). Teachers said they were aware that there was a tendency to remain settled. However, when they participate in an innovating process as this one, 82

84 they leave the comfort zone and are able to see other ways of teaching and learning. First we have to be willing to overcome the limitations and to leave the comfort zone. We end up settling in many different aspects and when you propose yourself to do something different and see that it works, is great. We must change the paradigm (T2, Doc1.6). The research work was an intense interdisciplinary action. Students questions, the starting point of the researches, would carry the interdisciplinary perspective. They were never simple questions, linear, linking cause and effect. In general, the questions were complex and multifaceted. They learn to relate, for them it is difficult to relate one thing to the other. In one of the projects they could relate it with another discipline. They were searching the origin of the solar system and another teacher was working with the planets and their Gods. Then, they related which God would be with the planets formation. After that they related it with something else, not directly to the subject (T1, Doc1.6). In this process, students became aware of the importance about the fact that they needed to know about their answers.. The knowledge built in the process was useful for them and not to please the teacher, as it usually happens. In the traditional teaching students answers are usually those ones already expected by teachers. Teachers also noticed this. A student said to me: teacher, I think my answer too one of you researchers was wrong. And I asked (her): what happened? (The researcher asked me why I liked science (and I said) it was because of the teacher. The student came to me straight away: I think I gave the wrong answer, showing that fear of making a mistake. I said: but it wasn t a test. It was just a conversation. You gave your opinion (T5, Doc1.6). All these results motivated teachers to continue with the approach Educating Through Research. Many of them presented reports showing that students have learned. They really knew about it. I really liked it. I think (this) is the way (T3, Doc1.6). When they were finally questioned about the way they would prepare an interesting Science class, the students answered that they would develop 83

85 researches in the classroom and extra activities. In addition, they said if they were teachers they would also prepare classes from students opinions. I would ask the students opinions, what they would like to learn. I would do interesting activities that would stimulate their creativity (St3, Doc1.3); I would make students comfort so they could learn well. There is a teacher that asks what the students want to learn. His class is nice, very lively (St7, Doc1.3); I would talk in order to know what my students would like to do and what they would not like to (St22, Doc1.3). The parents also agreed that the classes with researches in the classroom are more interesting. The work is not superficial, it s closer to the subjects (P9, Doc1.8); Now they have to research, they have to prepare it to present, it is not a matter of just memorizing the subject anymore. (P13, Doc1.8); The classes became more interesting with students participation. [...] It is not just memorizing anymore, there are more researches, the vision is broader. (P42, Doc1.8). In this way, it is possible to see that not only learning in terms of knowledge from the proposed questions but also the development of important competences was identified during the research development in the classroom. In this process, the actions of reading, writing, searching in different sources and collecting data in many ways have been highlighted. It all contributed to make students and teachers to see other ways of learning. CM6.5 The difficulties found and the possibilities of correcting the direction Some difficulties were observed in the research context done by the students and teachers at school. One of the main difficulties was the lack of a proper infrastructure. When researchers observed the research activities in the schools, they found out that the schools generally had good conditions in terms of maintenance, cleaning, lighting and space. The teacher and the school are open for differentiated activities to happen. However, according to the class observation records at schools (Doc1.2), the conditions for the research, such as an appropriate library, easy 84

86 and fast access to computers were limitations found. There was a lack of magazines and books, too. So, the environment would not always contribute. There is no cultural nor research spaces in the school. There were not varied resources. So, the research was limited to the of use Google and the use of very few equipments. This is clear in the teachers and students statements that follow. Some statements from students also confirm it, such as: I would like to have more technology, such as a computer, in the Science classes. I would like to use the computer. There are only two computers at the school with access to internet and the internet is slow. It takes a very long time (St15, Doc1.3). The researchers also found that in one of the schools the students would look for information in old magazines or outdated books. In another school there were computers, but with no access to internet. The teacher was responsible for buying and providing the material to the students, in another school. The only microscope the school had, for example, was bought by the teacher. Another problem was identified is related to the lack of experience students had to research and, at the same time, the great experience they had in copying what is given to them. This is clear in the tendency they have to copy texts from internet. The posters created by students presented as bibliographic references not reliable addresses of sites in internet. There were some information mistakes in the results presented by them and the teachers might have not seen it. This would be a good opportunity to teach students to search in reliable sources, comparing information and being more critical while selecting the answers. So, it is necessary the development of competences associated to writing. The groups, generally, presented answers copied from internet. They still need some autonomy for writing and/or to elaborate summaries and their own conclusions (T5, Doc1.5). The writing difficulty is related in a way to the culture of copying widespread at schools in all disciplines. A teacher highlighted student statements that only the Science teacher would ask them to research (T4, Doc1.6). 85

87 However, it is necessary to emphasize that the difficulties found and mentioned were already expected because the schools involved had the typical conditions as most of the schools. Although the schools infrastructure is not appropriated it was noticed that teachers would work a way to overcome the difficulties. This was not a reason for not doing the researches. Besides the circumstances, the students were creative in their researches, and with just a little possibility they could build elaborated models. Some examples can be seen below Figure 1 Pictures of models built by students. 86

88 2.2 Case Study Lajeado - CS2 a. Main problem in the case study i. Research question How the participation in a dialogic and collaborative group formed by researchers and teachers can further practices at school according to the approach of Education Through Research? ii. Theoretical Background The study taken in the school cycling, that also constituted the case study Lajeado (CS2), was based on benchmarks on pre-service training and on lifelong learning on the fundamentals of interactive teaching and curriculum organization and on systemic perspective of the organized pedagogical work. These were taken into consideration as a reference for the analysis of a group of teachers purposes decided to make changes in an educational and sociocultural context. Usually, the teachers acquire knowledge, according to Tardif (1993), from their personal experiences, from their formation in Elementary School and in High School, from their vocational education for teaching, from the didactical programs and textbooks and from their experience in the profession. The analysis developed is dedicated to the issue of pre-service formation and vocational education and to the knowledge built in the profession, without denying the importance of external factors. The knowledge transmitted by the teachers training institutions have as their object of study the humanities, the teaching and the teacher itself as the ruler of a formal and systematic educational process. This process is usually supported on the acquired knowledge on curriculum, on subject and on pedagogical theories. This ends up forming an ideological framework and knowhow, a way to develop techniques and teaching strategies. These knowledges often do not include the requirements that different sociocultural realities in constant flow present to teachers. 87

89 In this perspective of diversity and change, the necessity of vocational education emerges, based on the ability to learn, to create and to contextualize teaching practices. Taking into account the argument put forward by Tardif and Lessard (1992), that teaching is a key to understand the current transformations of the societies of work, arises the question about the role of universities and public policies in this process. Furthermore, it is substantial to analyze the characteristics of the sociocultural context in which they come to happen, such as the concerns of the communities, parents and teachers expectations and the interchanges among the elements involved. These dimensions were the focus of case study 2 Lajeado, which sought to understand how a group of teachers has built a pedagogical practice considered innovative and detached from conventional practices prevalent in the educational culture of the surroundings. What facilities and difficulties were faced in this journey? What was (is) the role of academic knowledge? The understanding of the facts and phenomena involved in the study inflict the characterization of the context and of curricular structure, the modes of action and benchmarks that guide the action of the school teaching staff. It is taken into account in this analysis the condition of school belonging to the municipal education government; the city is located within the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The school receives cultural influences of different ethnicities, with a predominance of Germanic-Brazilian and Italian-Brazilian socio-cultural identities. The need for cultural studies, already mentioned by Vygotsky (1984), Giroux (1987 and 1997), Giroux, Shumway, Smith and Sosnosky (1984), Forquin (1993) e Thompson (1999), proved relevant in this research. The Guido A. Lermen School is organized according to the school cycling formation. This type of curriculum was adopted in Rio Grande do Sul in the 90s, initially at schools in the city of Porto Alegre. This option was also relied on the experience of many Brazilian municipalities in other states. The thoughts of different theorists, such as Pistrak (1981), Gimeno Sacristán (1991), Coll (1991), Freire (1991) and La Taille (1992), were also taken into consideration. 88

90 The version of the Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais/MEC/Brasil, in 1995, created the possibility of schools working in cycles of formation. The possibility of this option was supported by the assumption that The notion of cycle is pedagogically functional for better corresponding to the evolution of the child's learning and foresees advances in learning specific skills, through a curriculum organization more consistent with the distribution of content over the period of schooling. The adoption of cycles tends to avoid frequent disruptions, or excessive fragmentation of the educational background, ensuring the continuity of the educational process by allowing teachers to adapt the pedagogical action different rates of learning for the period in question (MEC, 1995, p. 11). In 2000, a decision of the Municipal Education Secretary, the city of Lajeado changed the status of five usual schools into school cycling system schools including the school that is focus of this study. The anthropological and sociological perspectives and the interdisciplinary and procedural view of teaching were discussed with the local university, UNIVATES. This university was the responsible for the debate about the epistemological foundations and the strategies to be adopted by the teaching staff to contemplate the principles and knowledge that guide, make them more complex and deepen the pedagogical work and the way to go in the deployment of school cycling. The discussions and reflections came to rely on the assumptions supported by authors as Arroyo (2000, 2004), Krug (2001) and, in some respects, with the thought of Perrenoud (1994 and 1996). The organization of education through school cycling do not reprobate between cycles and stages. Keeping a focus on learning, this organization centers on the assumption that man can be understood as a being in full and permanent development. This development can be triggered by proper mediation, regardless of the age at which the individual belongs (KRUG, 2001). The schools through cycles offer alternatives for the regulation of learning through itinerant teachers, learning laboratories, groups of progression and classes for integration and resources for learning, intended to attend children with special needs. 89

91 The curriculum of the schools through cycling is understood as a historical phenomenon. This is a process built collectively, dynamically, subject to many influences, open and flexible. According to the Municipal Education Government, the curriculum must be observed as a practice with socializing and cultural function of a institution inserted in a set of activities through which a group assures that is members will be able to acquire the social experience accumulated historically and culturally organizes (SMED, 1996, p. 7). In a general view, the curriculum can be represented by Thematic Complexes. The structure of Thematic Complexes derives from reality and form social practices its central focus and unfolds it in semantic fields. These fields are formulated in a hierarchical manner, not linear, which leads to different situations and patterns in the processes of teaching and learning. In order to explain the conceptual issues, the term Thematic Complex is the denomination of a proposal for deep relationships or matters that leads to the creation, production and development (SMED, 1996, p.22). This term entails a vision of fullness, considers each subject of knowledge breaks up with fragmentary knowledge and can be saturated with crosscutting themes that improve or seek to change situations in the community where the school is embedded. Further, the term of Conceptual Field can be understood as the set of concepts that the manner of a web-texture in which the ideas are intentionally integrated in order to organize the learning processes (SMED, 1996, p.26). These ideas are developed inserted into an interdisciplinary process, with cross-conceptual and progressive interactions, that question reality and constructed supported on line of action defined collectively. According to Vergnaud (1989), the concepts cannot be taught and knowledge must be built in very wide-ranging areas, each corresponding to a space of problemsituations closely intertwined. Therefore, the interdisciplinary is an essential characteristic of organized instruction through cycles of formation. It is motivated by necessities of intellectual or scientific order and designates one of the major pivotal issues of 90

92 knowledge. In accordance with Zabala (2002, p.33), interdisciplinary is the interaction of two or more subject areas. These interactions may involve transfer of rules from one discipline to another, giving rise to, in some cases, a new field. The school through cycles, by seeking to pass beyond the disciplinary boundaries, approaches the focus of the comprehensive and complex thinking supported by Capra (1996) and Morin (2002). Capra presents a new paradigm names deep ecology which observes the world as a whole set and recognizes the interdependence of all phenomena. According to Morin and Le Moigne (2000, p.207), the complex thinking is, on the other hand, able to assemble (complexus: what is woven together), to contextualize, to globalize, but at the same time, able to recognize the unique, the individual, the empirical. This way, the plural and complex character in the process of transformation of professional teaching practice highlights the importance of vocational education of teachers in basic and higher education and ascribes special and particular value to knowledge. This knowledge must rely on the role of university as a protagonist of the process, both in the information of licentiate degrees and in extension and advisory services. On the other hand, it should be also considered the knowledge and the knowledge built in the course of their professional activities. The knowledges are a result of a discussion, of a debate, of a questioning people share with their peers. This process must neutralize, to an important extent, the hegemony of subjectivity. If the work changes a worker and their identity, also changes, always with the becoming of time, their know how to work (TARDIF, 2004, p.57). The eleven years of study and the work of the staff at Guido A. Lermen School constitute a trajectory to be analyzed from the perspective of factor that facilitated and the ones that raise difficulties for the achievements. Similarly, in the view of the objectives of the research TRACES, it is essential to recognize the space of Science Education in this conceptual context. It should also be recognizes the academic and scientific bases in which the professional practice 91

93 is developed. The meta-analysis of the selected categories for the Case Study 2 seeks to identify those dimensions. b. Subsidiary Questions - Categories of meta-analysis TRACES i. Category Analysis CM1 Teachers Formation: What is the role of teachers formation in the process of change? In this category, the case study at Guido A. Lermen School is interested in analyzing how a group of teachers was able to, independently; develop a pedagogical and innovative proposal, based on interdisciplinary and integrative perspectives, both in the school educational action in the commitment to the sociocultural context in which it is inserted. The research sought to ascertains the factors that favored and promoted the proposal and the ones that hampered the development of the proposal and what the university can learn from the experience acquired at school. There was a concern on whether the basic knowledge needed to develop innovative actions is generated in the pre-service teacher education of teachers or whether they are a product of vocational education. These two aspects are subcategories. ii. Category Analysis CM5 Social Community: What is the role of the social community in the process of change? In this category, the case study at Guido A. Lermen School examines the role that had and has the school community in the process of pedagogical innovation. The analysis is centered on understanding the involvement of parents and community leaders as well as the influence and the university in this ongoing process. The development of the study leaded the researchers to interviews with former students, presently attending high school education in other schools of the city, in order to understand the perceptions about teaching at Guido A. Lermen School. From the analysis, were made two categories: the action of the school community and the approximation between school and university. 92

94 iii. Category Analysis CM6 Research in Science Education: What is the role of research in science education in the process of change? In this category, the study case at Guido A. Lermen School analyses how the teachers and supervisors receive and utilize at school some of the indications acquired through the research in Education of Sciences, coming from the researches scientific publications, what is the area of research in the curriculum organization and in the development of the Thematic Complex, Conceptual Fields and Learning Projects deriving from them. The analysis is focused on understanding how science researches are inserted in the interdisciplinary net towards an approximation to the systemic perspective. It also evaluates which strategies are adopted by teachers and students of the third cycle. From this analysis, the following subcategories were formulated: "the space of science research in the process of pedagogical innovation" and "the conceptions of teachers research and practices". c. Methodology i. Subjects The subjects analyzed in the case study already have their profiles presented in Section 2.3.a. (Descriptive information of the intervention unit). In order to broaden the understanding of facts and phenomena that emerged in the course of the process were also contacted members of the management group, parents, students and former students. ii. Instruments of data collection For the purpose of the analyzes, different instruments were used, such as questionnaires, focus group interviews, individual interviews, observations, records and evaluations of the visits, individual and collective productions, records taken from official school documents, records of the declarations from teachers at meeting of the teaching staff with faculty supervisors. 93

95 The Chart presents a list of the documents used for the analysis with the corresponding encoding of the subjects involved. Number Document Identification Abbreviation of the subjects 2.1 Interview with Educational Supervisor SUP 2.2 Interview with Teacher T (1 to 3) 2.3 Interview with Parents P 2.4 Focus Group with Students Morning Shift St (1 to 4) 2.5 Focus Group with Students Afternoon Shift St (5 to 11) 2.6 Focus Group with Former Students E-St 2.7 Applied Questionnaire to Teachers T (4 to 13) Legend: SUP educational supervisor, St student, E-st former student, T teacher. Chart Document Identification and analyzed subjects d. Interpretation Following, the analyses are presented in each of the categories of metaanalysis selected for this case study. The analyses were elaborated from units of meaning that emerged during the reading of the teachers and supervisors declarations. 94

96 i. CM1 Teachers Education: What is the role of teachers education in the process of change? With the focus on the category 'Teachers Formation', teachers and school supervisors form Guido A. Lermen School were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and later submitted to the respondents. Two modalities of questioning were adopted: individual interviews and questionnaires. In order to know and understand how teachers, autonomously, can build up an innovative teaching proposal identified with the epistemologies that guide the contemporary teaching action, the research sought to know: What are the difficulties and facilities in the process? What is the role of academic knowledge? The case study was developed through intense social contact between researchers and members of the school community, in a ethnographic, descriptive and reflective procedure, participating different moments of school daily life. The following research actions were developed: - participation in regular meetings of teachers; - participation in meetings of co-ordination group and members of the TRACES research team in Brazil with the teachers from the school; - participation of the teaching staff of the school in meeting with other teachers part of another study (PIBID and Guaíba) and with TRACES; - planning and follow-up visit to the Museum of Science Technology PUCRS; - reading of the official documentation; - contacts with managers of the Municipal Education Governmental; - visits to High School institutions in the cities in which the secondary school graduated students from the school are enrolled. - monitoring of the integrating classes that gather the groups from the third cycle; - monitoring of festivities; - applied of the instruments of data collection referenced in the previous item. 95

97 The collected information was analyzed with scientific rigor, in a reflective exercise, following a neutralization of subjectivity and possible bias of personal impressions. The analysis of information, grouped into units of meaning, leaded to reflections towards the constructions of two subcategories: (CM1.1) preservice teacher education and (CM1.2) in-service teacher education. The analysis is based, above all, on information obtained through the interviews, given by the teachers in questionnaires, observations, and records during meetings. CM1.1 Pre-service teacher education The debate on pre-service teacher education has received contributions in order to provide a reflection that will favor shaping the directions of this process in a world of uncertainty and change. Several dilemmas are presented to the formers (teachers) of formers (teachers), for example: offer a more general education or a specific formation connected to the area of knowledge; take into account the value of teaching or learning; involve formation of tasks for training management, of external relations or focus on the action in the classroom. These dilemmas, particularized by Zabalza (2004), suggest that pre-service teacher education is an open discussion. The declarations of the teachers involved in the research refer to formation in high school degree, still in force in Brazil, and to formation at university degree. By declaring that the pre-service teacher education was important for the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge (T5, Doc2.7) and that helped in the sense of becoming a teacher how to deal with students (DT8, Doc2.7), the respondents recognize the character of professionalization of courses and the value as forming agents. "I think that contributed towards my manner of being a teacher and the beliefs I have, such as that every student can learn that it is possible to do differently, but in relation to cycles and innovation, I think I have seen, read or heard little at this time" (T9, Doc2.7). 96

98 These declarations rise out two significant aspects: the absence of guidance for acting in schools with cycles and the evidence that teachers bring with them the characteristics of their object of study the human beings. The analysis of the set of information collected reveals that there have been few demonstrations on university education and that prominence was given to formation in high school, as evidenced in the statements below: The in-service teaching program gave me the didactic basis needed to work with my students and in the classroom. I think all teachers should have done the inservice teaching program. Since my undergraduate formation was disappointing because it was in the traditional way, with decoreba (habit of learning by heart, without really understanding), without prompting the ability of the one which will soon be in a classroom with 30 students very different from each other" (T7, Doc2.7). The professional in-service teaching program made me able to understand the meaning and evolution of education, the sense of being and working in a school (mainly teaching). During under-graduation degree, I believe that I have learned the basics to work with the final years. The formation in under-graduation degree was minimal (T12, Doc2.7). The most important record was the valorization of formation at undergraduate degree for a teacher (T6) who works in science and considered the process very important, because "in shared teaching each teacher contributes with their expertise, in my case, are the biological knowledge" (Doc2.7). The reports reveal different perspectives considering the issue of preservice teacher education. A teacher, who currently has a manager functions at the school and has a leadership role in driving the innovation process of the school, states: "I m graduated to teaching in elementary school, against my own will, compelled by my mother, but, after, I willingly continued in the area, I went to Pedagogy" (SUP1, Doc2.1). The teachers are subject to knowledge. According to Tardif (2004), "they should have the right to say something about their own education, regardless of being at the university, institutes or anywhere else" (p.240). In this research, this right inserts knowledge to understand the distances that still exist between teaching and research, theory and practice, school and university. 97

99 CM1.2 In-service teacher education In service teacher education is understood as the regular undergraduate and postgraduate courses, short courses, programs offered by educational authorities to which the school is bounded to and also the formation opportunities that occur at school. Among the school teachers, two teachers are taking graduate course at the degree of specialization and ten of them already have completed the specialization degree. The major objective of this in-service teacher education program seems to be to enhance the teaching function, as confirmed by the following quotes: the more we do courses and studies, the better for our work that is enriched (T6, Doc2.7); I wanted exactly this course to improve my work in the Learning Lab. I think I still have much to learn (T9, Doc2.7); I'm always in search of new knowledge (games, books, computers) to make my classes more interesting (T11, Doc2.7). With respect to courses and programs of short duration offered by the city of Lajeado, the teachers understand that some are significant others do not. the ones that are significant are those we seek in a collective way and in accordance with our interests and not those imposed by the city that not always go against our interests (T4, Doc2.7); I seek courses that are in accordance to what I believe (T8, Doc2.7). By highlighting a critique to the relation between theory and practice or the applicability" of the knowledge transmitted through courses programs, the teacher points out that participates when she is able to: "some courses are relevant to my practice, others are very 'beautiful' in theory, but (are) far from practice (T7, Doc2.7). The teachers, when asked on what they understand by "practice", point out the knowledge resulting and validated in their daily practice. These, often, are removed from the knowledge acquired otherwise. 98

100 The teachers believe that all are important, revealing a more welcoming and receptive perspective. One always learns something new that at some point is going to be used in our teaching practice. Sometimes it serves to reflect on our practice, others to innovate and create new ideas (T6, Doc2.7). these courses are good because they make us think and we have in this school the habit of discussing later what we heard. Of course, not all were what we expected (T9, Doc2.7). Some teachers support the programs of the municipal government. For example, the teacher T10 believes that most of the capacity courses offered by the government were profitable (Doc2.7). In the same direction, the teacher T11 says: "I attend all (courses) that are offered. I also seek others, in private. Each situation opens windows, possibilities to innovate our teaching practice (Doc2.7). In relation to the formation courses held at school, it was found that there is agreement in the views gathered through the instruments of research. The following records allow a better understanding. The courses are responsible for allowing the support and the making of the thoughtful reflections and proposals (T4, Doc2.7); The courses are of major relevance, because in these moments occur the pedagogical reflections of the group, the school needs arise (T5, Doc2.7); As sure as can be, all the formation courses that happen at school are always very important, I realize that there has always been a concern to bring something for study, something that at the time was being missed, or need to be reconsidered; as part of the group, I try to make the most of the courses, giving my contribution whenever necessary (T6, Doc2.7); Beyond doubt, the moments of internal formation, especially the educational meetings, are the ones that give me more support for teaching my classes in the classroom and is the only time that makes me reflect on my work here at School Guido A. Lermen. In this way, the advisement group it is far from being what we wish. I am considering the advisement that comes from the town hall. On the other hand, I believe that TRACES adds substantially, pedagogically, to our classes (T7, Doc2.7). 99

101 ii. CM5 Social Community: What is the role of the social community in the process of change? This category aims to understand the role of parents, former students, and other people from the community in the process of school change. The data for the analysis were gathered through individual interviews with parents (Doc2.3) and interviews in focus groups with former students (Doc2.6). The interviewed parents were asked about their participation or monitoring of the process of school change. All the interviewed parents have children currently enrolled. In order to understand the role of the social community of the school, one must take into account that the implementation of the formation courses took place in school for over ten years. This reality can be observed through the content of the answers below, which illustrate that the respondents did not participate and just followed this innovation. When I arrived at the neighborhood, the system through cycles was already established, it was strange to me (P1, Doc2.3); I observed from afar. I consider that my son is well pleased with these changes and he supports them. So, for me, it's all right. It is good like this (P5, Doc2.3). The parents, when asked how they perceive the school and what it has or does not have in relation to other schools, had responses such as: There are two sides. The teachers are very familiar. They interact well with children, and that's good. The only thing that is bad, and this happens in all schools, is that teachers nowadays can no longer raise their voice for the students. This, I think is very wrong, because the relation is becoming such a mess. The laws overprotect children. Of course I'm against aggression, but should have punishment. There is no respect (P1, Doc2.3); I think it would be better wit tests as assessment. They need to want to study. For they becoming more interested in studying (P2, Doc2.3); I think it's okay. They came from another school to this one and continue at the same pace. They are fine. This morning, I spoke with the teachers and I heard that the three of them are all good. I'm very happy with my children, especially with the one from the class 31. He is very good. Since he was very little (P3, Doc2.3); 100

102 There are a lot of different things. My daughter likes this school. Since she came to the school, she likes the teachers, the tours, and leisure activities, all at last. She is a good student, the teachers like her. It is a sign that the school is good too, because she identifies a lot with peers and teachers (P4, Doc2.3); I'll speak for myself. I have three children. The first two began and finished their studies here. The youngest is taking sixth grade. He also will finish his studies here. I, personally, think the school is all fine. Honestly, if it were not so, all of my children would not have studied here (P5, Doc2.3). The parents said, when inquired to opine on the moments that classes take place in an integrated way, bringing together students from the three cycles, that: I think integration is a good way. They learn with one (P2, Doc2.3); I think integration interesting, because they get to know the activities developed in the other groups, for other students, and end up making acquaintances. They are going to be integrated to the community of the school (P4, Doc2.3); I believe people must live close to each other. Friendship is a fundamental issue for people s life. Even the exchange of affection. This is needed for maturation, it is in these moments that people unit to a common objective. As for me, it is all (very) good (P5, Doc2.3). The parents declared, when asked to participate in the school activities and to take part on the decisions for future directions of the work at school, that: I usually attend to the meetings. At any change, a note is sent home and my daughter tells me all about" (P1, Doc2.3); Whenever I can, I come to meetings, events, reports reading. I talk to my daughter s teacher to know how things are (P4, Doc2.3); Whenever possible, I come to meetings. I have a van. I always try to convey to people traveling with me this kind of feeling of integration, this thing of participation etc. I cannot always come, but for those who can, it is very relevant and beneficial (P5, Doc2.3). When interviewed in the focus groups the students were asked how they perceived parental support to the system of integrated classes (Doc2.4). One 101

103 of the answers emphasizes these findings: "Some of the parents come to talk about their life, offer help, and to teach as well" (ST4, Doc2.4). In a conversation with former students, when asked about their process of adapting to the school through cycles, the following answers and opinions were obtained: At first, it was a great shock, because at that school the system works by cycles and here it is by usual groups, different steps for you to follow. There, we had the accompanying of the teachers; here, we do not have a specific accompanying of the teacher, so we have to devote ourselves to study (E-St1, Doc2.6); At this school, it works by grades as evaluation. At the other school, it was a general evaluation, without grades. The students advanced or not to the other cycle. It was a chock for us, there were a lot contents. There were more subjects to study (E-St2, Doc2.6); Because I had studied with some of the students previously, it facilitated things. Some of the people I did not know, so I felt excluded. There are people who had failed and they gather into groups (E-St2, Doc2.6); It was sort of complicated at the beginning of the semester. In the second and third semesters, I think we were able to learn a little more (E-St5, Doc2.6); (...) afterwards, the classes improved (E-St6, Doc2.6); We were not used to have grades and such things. The routine has changed a lot. The teachers are charging substantially (E-St5, Doc2.6). One of the topics taken into account with former students was the adaptation and integration into the system by years and the disciplinary organization at the high school they are currently attending. It was inquired if they had noticed any differences and, if so, what are the differences. The responses clarified that there were some initial difficulties that were circumvented later. Their knowledge based on the contents they had at that school was greater. They had learned more things, like formulas, especially on mathematics, chemistry and physics. These subjects we had in the last quarter of last year at Guido A. Lermen School. They used to have these subjects since 7th or 8 th grades. We could not follow like them could. But then we had to begin to try harder in the studies, in order to not stay behind (E-St1, Doc2.6); 102

104 I think we can have the same performance as them. We (have) the same performance. I think most of us can pass. It is the teaching at Guido A. Lermen School, but it is for what is being learned by now (E-St1, Doc2.6). In the beginning, I felt sort of lost. After a while, we made some friends, and, in the long run, I managed to adapt (E-St3, Doc2.6); I thought it was the same thing. Not much had changed from one school to another. There are always smarter students. I always had some difficulty on mathematics, but I ve already been having difficulties with math (E-St6, Doc2.6); For the reason that we had to study in groups, we were used to work with other people. So, this was a major evolution (E-St1, Doc2.6). In a conversation with former students, when asked about their evaluation of the school Guido A. Lermen s process after the Elementary School period, they highlighted that: We have difficulty at some topics. While they have more difficulties in other topics that we don t. In the matter of interacting with the group, it is easier for us than for them (E-St1, Doc2.6); I think that Guido should not give up the system through cycles. It should be not like the other schools. Even if students from other school are speaking out that our school is weak, they are studying through usual teaching. Different schools have different methods for teaching students. Over there is one method, and here is another one. This happens throughout the whole process of period of learning at schools (E-St1, Doc2.6); It is not because we came a school with cycles that we are going to be weaker than them (E-St2, Doc2.6); It brought some difficulty, because here we do not have this process of cycles. Then, we have to give up. It is another characteristic. We cannot be as we used to be before, the way we ve been accustomed. It is somewhat difficult to adapt to the system here, but over the months you become able to (E-St3, Doc2.6); I think I had not many difficulties. If the school was through grades, it would be easier to enroll in Castelinho School. At the beginning, it was very confusing (E-St5, Doc2.6); At the school Nova Viena it was very complicated. I had lots of difficulties and they did not help me, either here or at Guido (E-St7, Doc2.6). 103

105 iii. CM6 Research in Science Education: What is the role of research in science education in the process of change? In this category, the case study at the Guido A. Lermen School analyzes the role of the research on sciences, through the innovative perspective adopted by the school, that organizes and develops the school subjects by a integrated and systemic manner. In order to identify the space of the research on sciences on Thematic Complexes and on Conceptual Fields, it was necessary to assume, in some moments, the disciplinary logic. The analysis of the collected data in this category taken into account the argument proposed by Pozo and Crespo (2009) that affirms what follows: In order to build an image of science, it is required not only knowing the facts, the concepts and the principle that characterize science, or the way scientific discourse analyzes, studies and questions the reality, but also to adopt a certain position on this approach and to adopt certain values in its analysis (p.28). Initially, it was sought to know the supervisor s perception on the role and on the space of research in the proposal that the school has been developed: We are learning to do this. We are observing the evolution of the group and we have realized that several steps are being taken and we did not realize that we were doing this naturally. The point on the reflection of our own practice does not cease to be itself a research: look at what you are doing, see what you are doing and reflect on that and see what you can change. We do this a lot in pedagogical meetings. At present, this very year, we are giving a very important observation for skills that we are trying to develop in students. We started with the area of reading interpretation. How are our students interpreting? How are they interpreting the world, the texts, the images, and their own life? We started to bring to the pedagogical meeting practices that they have been applying to the classroom that promote students interpretation. In this sense, I don t know if it is actually a research. They are bringing things and we are discussing them, in order to improve things (Sup1, Doc2.1). For the purpose of knowing the opinion of the teachers about the field actions of research undertaken by TRACES team, individual interviews were conducted. These interviews revealed favorable and positive attitudes 104

106 towards the research. In these opinions, the perceptions that it was a reunion between the school work and TRACES team objectives were detached. This activity is in agreement with our proposal of work. The student is the ruler of his own process of learning. The student has learned to search for himself; it is not dependent of a teacher. The student has the autonomy to search. Until this part of the learning process, he has mixed all these in a quite good way (T1, Doc2.2); The inquiry for research is an issue we value considerably. The inquiry for research and for search is something consistent to what we propose to students on a daily basis. All that was done is in agreement to what we have been standing upon and trying to develop on our students (T2, Doc2.2). One of the activities in the field actions that sought to approximate the research in science education to the work develop at school was the visit to the Museum of Science and Technology PUCRS. This visit had the participation of all students enrolled in the third cycle and ten teachers who work with this level. The researchers of Traces in order to guide accurately and scientifically the observations of the different places of the Museum, showing the phenomena of physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology, prepared the program of the visit in advance. In individual interviews, which were realized after the visit, the teachers opinions were collected. It was nice to able to interact with the experiments, to see how they happen, to monitor the whole process. In the classroom, regrettably, we cannot do it. This is rarely done, this visual thing, this experimentation. Students love to experiment, it is what they claim in science classes. When we start talking about a subject, they ask: 'Let's do an experiment to see how it is?'. We do a few experiments, but it is not frequent. However, we cannot make with everyone participating because this is time consuming, it demands workforce, and, sometimes, we do not have material either. It can be done with alternative material. We often do it. This year it did not work very much, also because my license to teach (T1, Doc2.2); The work in groups with people from different stages. One point that supports it is the inquiry for search. It was not an extensive research, but it was different, because the initiative came from them. They were interested. I think it was pretty cool (T2, Doc2.2). 105

107 As some of the study participants, the parents who accompanied the visit were also about it. The manifestations were of enthusiasm and approval to the initiative, highlighting the benefit that their children had from this experience. Among the opinions were included: "My daughter participated. She loved it. I thought it was cool" (P1, Doc2.3); My daughter participated and loved it" (P3, Doc2.3); He participated and enjoyed it very much. He considered it was very nice and beneficial as well" (P25, Doc2.3). Teachers opinions, when faced with questions about changing something of what was done in the classroom and school activities or in the visit at the Museum, some teachers' they said that: I would not change a thing in the program that was done. I thought it was very good. They had a moment of practice, this tour of learning, and, then, here at school they could use the theory and the practice at the same time, assembling the two things and learning with this (T1, Doc2.2); If it happened again, I would not do a research so small, succinct. I would do a research somewhat longer and maybe work on smaller groups of research. I believe that this would have helped them (T2, Doc2.2). The interviewed teachers, when asked about the teaching of sciences, highlighted that: Science is present everywhere. We are science. We live this on our daily life, all the time. The technology we know nowadays is related to science. We should be thankful to science. We, teachers, try to broach topics from other subjects. In the subjects we work, let s assume it is an issue that has to do with history, science is always present. You can combine them. You could join science with geography, with mathematics, with the Portuguese language. It is always possible to make this kind of work. We are not separated by compartments; we are working with the wholeness, the same way it is life. Everything is connected. The museum is also inside of this perspective. It contributed a lot for the students to build new knowledge and also, suddenly, to consolidate what they had already knew (T1, Doc2.2); Science brings a lot of contributions. I also have a little bit of knowledge of science, despite being a long time far from school. I think science has cool things to stimulate good projects that involve a very large area. I think that science, basically, could be the passage, a guide to build projects (T2, Doc2.2). 106

108 The evaluation of the visit by the students, held subsequently, gave rise to two major issues: the possibility of learning in different methods and the possibility of conducting research in the sciences. Some opinions support this statement. First of all, learning process (St1, Doc2.4); Each subject that we studied, there was an application in practice. This different class was very cool (St1, Doc2.4). It was a different way of researching, of becoming more involved. I liked this very much. We really get involved. We did the research very quickly to make it ready and we learned a lot (St2, Doc2.4). The visit to the Museum was the creator of space for science research, coordinated by the researchers of TRACES. At first, it was done an investigation to measure the real learning achieved during the activity and the research on the actual learning achieved throughout the activity and to know what they wanted to learn in regard the objects and phenomena observed in the scientific and technologic environment of the Museum. The most often issues cited by students, in a report they did for the visit to the Museum, were chosen by teachers and researchers of TRACES at a specific meeting of teachers of the third cycle, for the purpose of being used in moments of integration of the third cycle. In these opportunities, students were organized into support groups, composed by three or four members, previously chosen by the teachers, where students with some extra knowledge are mixed to help those of lesser ability. To begin with, it was explained to the students the cause of this stage of the research and the importance of learning how to research from an early age. It was also explained that not everyone would research exactly what was written in the report. However, after the research, the data collected should be presented to the other students. Therefore, all of them received information from the different topics that were analyzed. After this initial part, each group began to research their own topics. The subjects searched were based on issues as such: Museum of Science and Technology PUCRS, Plants, Rays and Shocks, Weight, Television, Mobile 107

109 Phone, Computer, Removable Storage Unit, Microwaves, Nuclear, Solar, Electrical, and Wind Power, Diseases, Animals and Petroleum. The dialogue between researchers and students, after the conclusion of the researches, presented favorable evidence to the success of the activity carried out. In some extracts of these conversations, it is possible to recognize this. For example, when asked what the difference between doing the activities of research and doing the activities that teachers propose, students answered that: If we are the responsible person for doing a research, we have to understand the subject so you are able to expose it, in order to explain. Usually, when we do a research, we have to present it. So if we have to present, we need to know the subject in order to perform adequately (St1, Doc2.4); What the teacher brings she already knows. Through the research, she can learn with us too (St4, Doc2.4). When the students were asked about the opportunity of doing research in all the subjects they study, the answers were what follow: I think that it happens more in integration. Because we have to present things. Many, who are usually ashamed, lose their shame. Inside the classroom we work more on a specific subject. The research occurs on the specific subject, but it is common in the integration (St2, Doc2.4). For the most part of the respondents, to do a research requires looking at a lot of things and requires, too, an understanding in order to talk about it to others. The research also sought to identify the way students evaluate their own learning in moments of integration and in the moments it occurs when they are in classes of separate subject. In separated classes, we learn our goals for sure. We, who are in class 33, have enough content this year. Occasionally, we are in the integration. So we cannot learn so much difficult things as we needed. There are people in this stage that will not even know this. But we try to help them. Thus, during integration is good to gather in groups, dealing with more people, instead of staying alone. There are some people that are very lonely, so we bring them to stay with us. We play and study at the same time (St2, Doc2.4). 108

110 The integrated work makes you think and remember many things as well. There are things that we have already studied and learned because it is in that stage we are studying; this is also studied on the integration, so we work it again, is quite interesting (St2, Doc2.4); There is research in usual subjects and in integration: in the integration, we do it together; when the subject is separated, they give a time for us in each class and the rest of the research we do it in the morning or at home. In the integration, since you are together with everybody, you can help, you can learn, you can share ideas, you can discuss in a group, learn to collaborate. In usual class, you are most of the time alone, you can learn by your own (St7, Doc2.5); In the integration, there are many teachers that help us; in a usual class it is just one, sometimes two teachers for group (St3, Doc2.4). The respondents, both the students from the morning shift and the students from the afternoon shift, refer to the moments of integration as positive. When they were faced question above, it is possible to observe that they believe the classes with separated subjects and the moments of integration are complementary. Finally, during the times of data collection, the students spared no details on the studied subjects and materials used to research their topics; among these, the most mentioned were books, magazines, Internet, and encyclopedia. In conclusion, it can be highlighted how they assessed the value of doing research in the classroom: "I think the best part is discovering new things" (ST5, Doc2.5) and "to complement what we already knew, in order to better understand" (ST6, Doc2.5). 109

111 2.3 Case Study PIBID CS3 a. Central Problem of the Case Study i. The Case Study 3 problem How the interaction among in-service-teachers, pre-service teacher and researchers affect the gap between research and practice? ii. Theoretical Framework Over the recent years the researches on teacher s education have considered a reliable investigation field in the educational area in different countries. The format is here understood as process whereby teachers learn and develop their professional skills. Considering its complexity the format cannot be the result of unexpected. It is vital to keep its systemic and organized feature (CAETANO, 2002). We consider in this approach the teachers education both for the initial studies to become a teacher and the in service teachers permanent learning. The leading question of this brief theoretical review can be summed up through the following question: How to educate teachers in order raise the awareness of their practices and the building of educating actions based on their constant learning? To do so we are firstly going to show the considerations related to the teachers initial training process and after we are going to discuss about the in-service teacher education. Following some studies related to science teachers education are presented and are the main part of our analysis in the case study PIBID (CS3). According to García (2005), the activities developed during the teaching practice period at school have been the subject matter that catches more attention in the investigation about teachers initial format. This is coherent with the fact that in the contexts analyzed by the author this is also the most valued element in both pre service teachers and in service teachers education. However, before reviewing the teaching practices, according to the actor it is 110

112 important the need of reviewing the teachers initial education cycle. This review has to examine the previous important knowledge about the content, the teaching knowledge of the content and, about the future teaching context. The teacher s permanent pursue for the connection between the theoretical and practical knowledge promoted and followed by the educating institutions, is essential for the educating process. The teaching knowledge of the content to be taught is built when the teacher understands the same and can try its relevance (KAGAN, 1992). Another aspect that requires the same attention in the initial education for more than further debate about the curriculum and teaching practice is related to the relations between the university and the school. The distance and the disconnection between the academic (discourse, speech, philosophy or statements) and the school context have been broadly studied over the years (RATCLIFFE & BARTOLOMEW, 2005; TARDIF & LESSARD, 1992). An interesting approach about the relationship between the university and the school is the perspective called Collaborative resonance. It is the result of innovating practices analysis about this problem. This approach proposes a collaborative culture and environment among subjects of both institutions. This collaboration must be reached through consolidated projects whereby under graduation teachers can participate together with school teachers and professors (COCHRAN-SMITH, 1991). So, the collaborative resonance proposal comprehends the teaching practice in the initial education as a rich opportunity for preparing teachers about how to learn through the practice and with the collaborative research. At the same time it helps to create a teaching culture that collaborates for the professional development. Works through projects, collaborative research in meeting at schools, seminars at the universities and collaborative planning are highlighted as strategies among others. Following this approach it is possible to observe the crossing among the initial education, in service teachers education and the communication with the professors. In this approach, being the scenery of constant collaborative 111

113 research, the school will be able to keep the investigation as a regular practice thus, to rise in the different subjects who work there the Inquiry principle. In order to make in-service teacher education happens teachers must be opened for changes. This change means leaving old knowledge to build new ones that are not known now. People believed that being a good teacher was just being able to explain well and clearly the contests that were previously defined in the curriculum. The neutrality of the educating act was defended, valuing the stability, the culture transmission and the student s submissiveness. According to nowadays perspective the educating action may be developed by reflexive and critical teachers overcoming the peer knowledge interchanged (CORTESÃO, 2000). The literature presents several discussions on the reflexive teachers meaning. These discussions, in general, come up to the same direction: The building of a professional who assumes a central role of the educating process therefore, being able to interfere, create, mediate and essentially believe in inquiry practices. It is about a teacher who is interested in the working context and gives special attention to diversity situations and everyday problems (CORTESÃO, 2000; GARCÍA, 1999). However, it is not about a simple process. In order to achieve a reflexive teacher s education, teachers should develop their metacognitive skills that will allow them knowing, analyzing, evaluating and question themselves on teaching practice as well as its ethical principles. According to the actor, the strategies to launch this reflexive process have to be as mirrors that allow teachers see themselves therefore being more aware personal and professionally. To do so two strategy groups are shown: the ones that demand observation and teaching analysis and the ones who intent to make teachers reflection deeper through language analyses of its personal experiences and knowledge (GARCÍA, 2005, p.154). The reflection on the in-service teachers education is in this approach, understood as a contribution to the emancipation process once the previous way is reviewed and comprehended. For its conceptual review, this is a change 112

114 factor of the own referential. Thus, the reflection processes can be considered as thought processes through which the change happens. The reflection is understood as the subject s consistent retreat related to himself, where it is analyzed, questioned and reviewed the own subject s dimensions as well as the action related or not, to the context where it belongs to [ ] the reflection is understood in the relationship with the subject and the action itself being this, object and/or a result of the reflection (CAETANO, 2004, p.175). So, it is impossible to comprehend the pre and in-service teacher education apart from a reflexive process provoked through the immersion in the educating space. Likewise, we can conclude that the dialogue between university and school is the base to make this process real. Regarding the close relationship between university and school many investigations already done have shown that there is a gap between academic researches on Science Teaching and educating practices in the Elementary School. Researchers who have studied the quality of researches in this area have concluded that they have considerable importance on educating practices debates. However, it is not recognized that these studies and their outcomes reach elementary schools, their teachers and really contribute with possible educating practice s changes (TARDIF & LESSARD, 1992; RACLIFFE & BARTHOLOMEW; 2005). Harres et al (2010), investigating science teachers education have accomplished review about researches that implemented innovating curricular strategies in order to provide the improvement of the professional knowledge. The purpose was to analyze how teachers initial education can lead to a learning conception building centered on students ideas. The review included researches that had investigated new teaching intervention proposals with educating objective at school during practices or at the university, in the teaching methodology subject (HARRES et al, 2010). The results indicate that in a general way, the improvement of practice conceptions and future teachers practice, aiming to consider students ideas, seems to be a process that is more complex than implementing and innovating 113

115 educational curriculum (POZO et al, 2006). It was possible to conclude that most of the future teachers who were investigated have difficulties in working with students ideas. Other studies also have found evidences about the difficulties of the future teachers as well as the more experienced ones when using strategies that considerer students ideas (HAND & TREAGUST, 1994; MARRISON & LEDERMANN, 2003; HOLLON, ROTH & ANDERSON, 1991). The main problem pointed out in this study refers to epistemological issues. According to Porlán et al (2010) of the reasons of teachers education failure is to believe that the under training subjects will be able to accomplish different epistemological integration between the theoretical world and the action in a spontaneous way. In these authors view this is one of the forms that contribute to the traditional teaching model dominance. Consequently, the studies about teachers education for science teaching, recommend that the initial education should respect the gradual change process of the teachers knowledge. So, it is also essential to consider the future teachers previous knowledge in order to provide that they take in account their students ideas (HARRES et al, 2005). The Study from North America on Teachers education for Science teaching complete the debates proposed here. Goodnough (2010) has accomplished an action-research with under graduate teachers proposing the adoption of differentiated instruction having as reference the learning based on problems (Problem-based Learning). The objective of this study was to examine the development of future Science teachers conceptions about differentiated instruction as a way for attend to the diversity. The proposal was developed through a systemic work with a small collaborative group of future teachers. The studies showed that this experience has encouraged the future teachers to think critically on their perceptions and conceptions about teaching and learning. The authors highlight that the future teachers won t accept differentiated instruction proposals but looked carefully the concepts, the principles and the practices in through different perspectives. It was possible to 114

116 conclude that teacher education courses should provide moments to think about these concepts in order to develop necessary knowledge teaching practice experiences that will prepare them to work with diverse ways of learning (GOODNOUGH, 2010). So as a synthesis of the different theoretical framework for this case study, three main aspects: - the teaching practice at schools during the pre-service teacher education; - the in-service teacher education as a necessary space once the professional learning is unending; - the create of teachers groups, either in service or under graduate ones and researchers as a way to favor the development of the professional upgrade. 115

117 b. Subsidiary questions Meta analysis TRACES research question i. Analysis Category CM1 Teachers education: What role does the teacher education play in the change process? In this category the case study PIBID (CS3) is interested in analyzing how the interaction among future teachers, schools supervisor-teachers and university s researchers, promoted by a teaching support National program, can contribute for the teachers education. The analysis of the data chosen through the observation of the program s actions and applied instruments for TRACES researchers team has suggested the building of two subcategories: preservice teacher education and in-service teacher education. ii. Analysis category CM4 School structure: What role does school structure play in the change process? In this category is interested in investigating the impact of the innovating proposals prepared together with future teachers, supervisor teachers, and university s researchers. This investigation is focused on the receptiveness of these proposals at school, how this receptiveness becomes real at school and in the tension between the dominant teaching cultures based on the knowledge transmitted and the suggestion of a new culture at schools chosen by the program. Thus, based on this analysis, the following subcategories were formulated: school s receptiveness, school s performance and school s culture. iii. Analysis Category CM6 Research on Science Education: What role does research in Science Education play in the change process? In this category, the case study PIBID (CS3) studies how holders of fellows and supervisor teachers get and use some suggestions related to the Research on Science Education from the coordination of the program. The analysis is centered in understanding how each of the parts involved (fellowships, supervisors and researchers) perceive the close relationship 116

118 between school and university; How are these suggestions applied in the school s reality and how are the subjects practices and conceptions affected by these experiences. So, based on the analysis, the following categories were formulated: Close Relationship between school and university, Innovation at school and the evolution of teachers practices and conceptions. c. Methodology i. Subjects The subjects analyzed in the study of the case have already had their profile generically presented in section 1.3.a. (Table of descriptive information of the unit of intervention). Among the twenty fellowship students of physics involved in the PIBID program, eight were selected to represent the whole group. Four were in service teachers and eight were future teachers. The fellowship students group was chosen so as to meet the diversity of undergraduate stage (beginning, middle and end of graduation), age, gender and other academic experiences, such as participation in research, extension program and other activities. The following Chart 2.3.1, presents gender, age and the semester of each fellowship student. The supervisors profile was shown in the section 1.3.a. 117

119 Subjects Gender Age Semester F1 F 21 5 F2 M 24 3 F3 M 19 3 F4 F 25 9 F5 F 23 4 F6 F 22 5 F7 M 19 1 F8 F 19 1 Chart Profile of pre-service teachers N Document 3.1 Initial questionnaire for future teachers and teachers/supervisors 3.2 Pre-service focus group interview 3.3 Supervisors data sheet and questions about participation in research for supervisors 3.4 Pre-service teachers drawing on what a scientist does 3.5 Card/questionnaire filled by pre-service teachers 3.6 Written synthesis school team evaluations 3.7 Initial and final version of physics experiment and powerpoint of results 3.8 Pre-service self-assessment about the experimental class 3.9 Banners and abstracts of school teams 3.10 Self-assessment of fellowship students about their participation in PIBID 3.11 Final questionnaires for supervisors Chart List of documents analyzed in CS3 ii. Data collected instruments A series of instruments were used to carry out the analyses. Some of them were elaborated by PIBID s program coordination on developing and evaluating the foreseen activities. Other instruments were built especially for TRACES research. Therefore, the instruments of data collection used were: 118

120 questionnaires, focus groups interviews, productions of individual and collective drawings and texts, such as those ones sent to be presented on events. d. Interpretation Analysis in each meta-analysis categories selected for this case study will be presented: CM1 - Teacher s Education, CM4 - School Structure and CM6 - Research on Science Education. The analysis has been produced through meaningful units that would come out from the reading of the materials produced in different ways. Individually, by the four supervising teachers (in-service teachers), from now on denominated supervisors and codified as SUP1, SUP2, SUP3 and SUP4. Collectively, by the four school groups, each one made of five fellowship student and a supervisor, from now on denominated school group, codified as SC1, SC2, SC3 and SC4. Considering TRACES research proposals, PIBID s program in physics area can be considered a potential case study to analyze the distance between the school and the university. The program promotes the interaction between the university and the school, bringing contributions not only for the pre-service teacher education but also for the school teachers. Besides, provides universities and researchers to get to know the fellow reality better. The study case was developed based on the interaction between teachers and fellowship students of physics school, school teachers and teachers/researchers of the university that are involved in an innovating/ program. The research problem that has guided the study was: How can the interaction between researches, in service and future teachers, reduce the gap between research and teaching? 119

121 i. CM1 TEACHER S EDUCATION: What role does teacher education play in the change process? In this category, PIBID Study Case is interested in analyzing how the interaction among under fellowships, school teachers/supervisors and university promoted by an Incentive National program for teaching can contribute to teachers education. The data analysis based on the observation of the actions of the Program itself and of the instruments applied by TRACES researchers team led to the production of two sub-categories: pre and in-service teacher education. For this category significant data for the analysis in documents 1, 2, 2, 10 and 11 were found. CM1.1 Pre-service teacher education For the fellowship students, PIBID program is an important opportunity to know school reality. They see the proposal as a possibility to be better prepared to practice teaching profession in the future. According to a fellowship student PIBID contributes to propose innovative activities. It provides fellowship students direct contact with school reality by having them interacting with the school students (F1, Doc3.1). It s possible to notice in this statement, the positive perception related to the Program to contribute with their education. The understanding that the program brings benefits not only for the fellowship students themselves, but also for schools became clear for most of the questionnaires respondents (Doc3.1). Many fellowship students highlighted that they have been taking to schools new teaching ideas, making learning less theoretical and more meaningful to students. They have mentioned as example the possibility of experiments performance in the classroom. They have also considered this kind of activity little-used by teachers at school, as it is shown below: (The Program) helped to understand the big teaching problems in the schools. It helps future teachers to evolve and to be better prepared. The future students will also be favored with this development (F7, Doc3.10). Through this perception the fellows seem to be aware of the importance that epistemological reflection on the practice is an essential aspect to teacher s 120

122 education. In these terms it is possible to consider the teaching practice and the participation in different activities at the schools as an essential component to teachers education. According to García (2005), learning is a process in which theoretical and practical knowledge should be together incorporating the curriculum. The view of the teacher s practice as an appendix to be developed in the end of the process should not be considered. The fellows added that the school students enjoy the differentiated activities to learn. That makes the fellows proud and satisfied when called teachers. A fellow expresses this feeling: in every reinforcement class given we are praised and the students like to participate in the workshops organized by us (F8, Doc3.10). That s when we realize the richness in the exchange between students and fellow teachers mainly supported by the commitment and respect with education. To Freire (1997) a good teacher is the one that is able to involve a student recognizing in both of them a dialogical, open and curious attitude. Another aspect observed in the fellows report that deserves to be highlighted is the recognition of the distance that exists between the university and the school. To a fellow, the universe at a school is different from the universe at a university, where there are different difficulties (of each student) we have to know how to deal with (F6, Doc3.1). And according to another fellow: at a school we learn how to have a better idea of what is like to be a teacher, because at the university the vision of a school is very different (F8, Doc3.1). Hence, it is possible to infer that the opportunity to have the activities at schools done and the contact with the students bring the fellows closer to the school reality, contributing substantially with their initial education. Still on the theme of pre-service teacher education, it seems that in the moments the fellows develop activities with the students, they see themselves as teachers. They reflect on their own practice and think about changes. The interview in focus group allowed the gathering of material about it: (students) say they are not enjoying the class the way it is and then you question yourself what you could do to improve, to make them enjoy the class (F3, Doc3.2). 121

123 Another fellow claims to be learning a lot. I m free to create/elaborate assorted activities for the school for the students together with the teachers. I also learn with the students because each one learns in a different way (F6, Doc 3.10). Nóvoa (2009) says that teacher education should have a strong practical component, allowing teacher to deeply know the school reality. To the author there won t be a significant change in education if teachers educators do not become more permeable and overlap. It s important to make sure that the richness and the complexity of teaching become visible, from a professional and scientific point of view, having an identical statute to the other academic and creative fields of work. At the same time it s important to reinforce devices and practice of teachers education based on an investigation that has as a problem teaching action and the school work (NÓVOA, 2009, p.7). Another aspect to be taken into considerations is about fellows having a critical position towards colleague participants in PIBID. Some fellows identified colleagues that are not committed. They would only be interested in the fellowship PIBID offers. For that reason they highlight the importance of a careful selection for fellows by the university, including in the program only those ones who really want to become teachers. I think that the most important is the fellows selection. Only students that are really engaged in the process of teaching should be selected. If one doesn t like it, he won t be engaged in the project and won t help (F2, Doc3.2). Fellow s considerations about possible errors in PIBIBID program pointed out some elements to analyze the role of the university and the role of the school and the relationship between them. The fellows reported that according to the original PIBID proposal, their activities would be, at first, to observe and to assist the titular teacher and also to develop some complementary actions. However, due to the shortage of teachers at schools, sometimes fellows had substitute the titular teacher without being ready for it. Facing the questioning of how they would feel about it, fellows say they would be scared. For being in a education process, some of them taking the first year, 122

124 working in an improvised way create discomfort and anxiety. We consider this aspect as negative and against PIBID purpose. The future teacher tends to be frustrated for not being able to conduct the teaching process with the quality he wants. Still in the regard of the Program errors, fellows realize that if PIBID is not permanently at schools, there won t be meaningful influences in the titular teacher s practice because the initiative of innovating in the classroom comes exclusively from the fellows. This aspect can be clearly identified below: We can notice a difference. Our supervisor had a different teaching method. We were able to change a lot of things. Many things still need to change, of course. But we won t be able to do miracles alone. Everybody has to help (F2, Doc3.2). In this respect, it seems that the relationship between school teachers and fellows is superficial and has sporadic exchange moments. There isn t a cycle reflections nor of activities planned together. About the university role, fellows recognize the need of the exchange moments, however classify the meetings at the university non-productive and repetitive. A fellow says: Our group produces much more in the meetings we have at school than the ones held at the university. The meetings at PUC ended up being repetitive and then I see myself unmotivated (F4, Doc3.2). About future professional perspective, fellows think the program will contribute in a meaningful way for the reflection about their own practices. However, they believe that titular teachers, including the ones that participate in the program as supervisors, will keep on developing their teaching system. They also analyzed that there are only remote chances for further use of the experiments produced by them, in the PIBID actions, but they believe that in a general term the school won t change much. By taking a critical view of this, a fellow says: Honestly, I think PIBID won t make any difference once we have left the school, it will all be the same again. Perhaps new teachers will join and use what we ve left at the lab (F5, Doc3.2). Regarding suggestions to qualify the program, besides the need of 123

125 selecting fellows that really want to be teachers, as it was previously mentioned, fellows emphasizes the importance of choosing teachers supervisors that are motivated with the occupation and willing to reflect and transform their practice. This aspect can be seen in the quotation below. not only the choice of fellowship students must be careful, but also the choice of teachers supervisors. It has to be a motivated teacher and not one that will put students off (F5, Doc3.2). The fellows also suggest PIBID to review its goals, promoting more autonomy to the interaction with students and the teaching practices. CM1.2 In-service teacher education The other subcategory that emerged from the data analysis was the inservice education. In this aspect, the instruments of research applied to the four supervisors and the instruments already mentioned by the fellows, were consulted. The supervisors recognize PIBID Program, mainly the interaction with the fellows and the university, as a great opportunity to improve their practice. In Document 3.11, concerning the questionnaire applied with the objective of knowing teachers supervisors evaluation on PIBID, it was possible to observe that all the respondents positioned themselves favorable to the program and refer its potential for possible changes in the schools. This can be observed in the following reports: I noticed a change in the way I teach and I was also more careful with my attitude (SUP1, Doc3.11); (PIBID fellows) changed the methodology I d use to teach by the different things that have been working out. I ve been rethinking a lot of things (SUP2, Doc3.11); The exchange of ideas between teachers and fellows has been very productive. The discussions always enrich us. We learn new ways of tackling certain issues, of doing, of evaluating, etc. (SUP4, Doc3.11). It s possible to identify the same perception in the fellows points of view. They see the Program as an important opportunity of in-service education for the supervisors. When questioned if their activities at schools could contribute to the in-service education of supervisors that already work in the discipline, 124

126 most of them believe so. For them, supervisors are impelled to change by their presence at the schools, as shown in the following quotes: The teachers (supervisors) feel encouraged to start studying again (F1, Doc3.1); The teacher supervisor learns from me on a day-to-day basis about different ways to look at the subjects ; The teachers, watching our commitment, are tempted to improve their teaching methods, and they may look for a in-service teacher education in the future (F3, Doc3.1). However, some fellows positioned themselves in a more critical way, believing that these changes are difficult to happen. They reinforce that the program may be considered as momentary or not acting on the inspiration to change. it only works when the fellow is present at the school and when he proposes differentiated activities. Otherwise, the titular teacher classes are traditional (F5, Doc3.2); I think it s unlike to contribute. The inspiration to improve can come from the outside but the desire cannot (F2, Doc3.1). As F2 fellow states (Doc3.1), there should be motivation for changes to occur. From his point of view, motivation comes from the inside, emerges from the teacher and it can t come from outside. Hence, he came to the conclusion that PIBID fellows have motivation and therefore seek innovation in the educational practice. However, it doesn t mean that school teachers will be touched. Generally, fellows and supervisors statements indicate that the program contributes for in-service teacher education. It s important to highlight that learning involves changing and changing involves effort and action. For Pozo (1996) motivation, in its etymological sense, means moving forwards and this movement needs enough reasons to overcome the inertia of not learning. In fact, any changing process, always presents a certain level of challenge and to face it, it s always necessary a certain level of motivation. The fellows that develop differentiated activities compared to the traditional teaching method, attracts students interest. This will make them involved in the learning situations proposed, and, consequently help to close 125

127 emotional ties. Fellows believe that this process can make changes in the school teachers. Thus, it is concluded that PIBID program can give opportunity to the first steps of changes in the educational practices. Concerning the supervisors, it s appropriate to first consider change concept broadly. From the program actions analyzed, it s possible to see the existence of an intention to change from teachers supervisors. However, the transference of this intention to teachers everyday practice isn t easy. In fact, according García (2005), the implementation of modified actions implies in a process that affects the implicit theory, subjective in each of us, bringing about a process of higher complexity. ii. CM4 SCHOOL STRUCTURE: What role does the school structure play in the change process? In this category, PIBID Study Case (CS3) is interested in investigating the innovation proposals together with future teachers, supervisors and the university researchers. This analysis pay attention to the receptivity of these proposals at schools, in the way this receptivity is realized in the school, and also in the interaction between the teaching dominant culture, strongly marked by the transmission of knowledge, and a new school culture. Hence, from the analysis, the following subcategories were created: School receptivity, School functioning and School culture. CM4.1 School receptivity In general, following the activities done, it s possible to say that the school provides opportunities for PIBID activities, as one of the teacher supervisor confirms: The school contributes to provide opportunities for fellows to work (SUP2, Doc3.11). Another teacher supervisor summarizes his general evaluation of the program until now: Until now, the proposal has had a great involvement of all participants in making a better and more interesting education to students (SUP1, Doc3.11). According the fellowship students, schools have received very well the future PIBID s teachers. They say that their activities and projects have the 126

128 necessary logistic support. When it is possible the school receives our projects and collaborates in their elaboration (F1, Doc3.1); The teachers always received us very well, encouraging the development of our work (F3, Doc3.1); My school received very well the PIBID because it wants to change and to improve (F4, Doc3.1). School principals have specially supported the accomplishment of the activities. I was well supported by the managing team in the proposed projects (SUP4, Doc3.11), says one of the supervisor teachers. According two fellows this brought acknowledgement: In this school we created a board advertising the activities (F6, Doc3.10); the activities developed had a positive evaluation of the school (SUP4, Doc3.8) according the same supervisor some experimental activities tried were incorporated to an acquisition for a future use (SC4, Doc3.9b). However, differences and difficulties are also present. A fellow states that it took a long time for the school identify him properly. Sometimes some people thought he was one of the students or one of the internship teachers (F2, Doc3.1). Another kind of indifference comes from other teachers at school. For example, when the fellows invited teachers to participate in a science show, there was absolute silence (F1, Doc3.2). As says another fellow, the problem is that the school is open but the teachers are not (F4, Doc3.2). Along with indifference to an extracurricular activity, as it was the Science Fair case, difficulties with other teachers when the activities somehow affect classes regular pace (SUP4, Doc3.11), come up. This seems to make some fellows to think that the receptivity pointed here may be relative (F4, Doc3.2), once PIBID is a special program in which the school receives material and human support for its regular activities. CM4.2 School functioning 127

129 The previous subcategory leads naturally to the following: the school functioning. Here, the way the good receptivity identified above, is concretely manifested at school, is analyzed. In this respect, some difficulties are identified. Fellows work schedule and the schedule of activities outside the classroom need to be negotiated with the schools, for example. Some activities, as the lab ones for instance, were actually forbidden in a school for making too much noise (F4, Doc3.2). There are also difficulties to the inflexibility of classes schedules. According to a supervisor, the activities, even being innovating, should be completed within regular school hours (SUP3, Doc3.8). At other times, the fellows role is misunderstood by the school, putting them in situations, such as substituting teacher in the classroom, which they are not prepared to or it s not part of the program. In fact, sometimes when a teacher misses the class, PIBID fellow teaches the class (F2, Doc3.2). A fellow had a worst experience. When she was not prepared and not having a clue of what to do, was asked by the school board to teach the class. The fellow says: The board told me to do anything (F5, Doc3.2). This seems a clear example of the well-intentioned goal of a program to place student teachers in touch with reality can bump into school structural deficiencies of the school, such as the lack of teachers. CM4.3 School culture The sub category school culture presents two different perspectives: On one hand is the dominant culture at school, basically characterized by knowledge transmission and on the other hand a new school culture that believes students had an active role in the learning process. The moves that PIBID group does towards this new culture and the obstacles related to the traditional culture and related to the structure of the school found in this process are analyzed. Regarding the dominant culture called traditional, several findings reinforce its persistence. A fellow describes his meeting with school like this: 128

130 I have studied in five schools and when I entered the one I am a fellow I saw there wasn t any difference. The low motivation is the same ( ) When we leave things, will remain the same (F2, Doc3.2). The well-know sequence in the classroom: contents- exercises- exam was easily identified. Our supervisor always ( ) brought new contents and after exercises (F1, Doc3.2); The evaluation is made of only tests and traditional written works (F5, Doc3.2). The fellows reacted to this situation and started trying to innovate. For instance, the same fellow who says the supervisor teacher always gave contents, states that after we started taking them to the computing lab (F1, Doc2). Even though the problems appeared again, according to the fellows they try to innovate, but still face much resistance (F2, Doc1). Related to it a fellow thinks about the education received at university and the school reality. It is not worth knowing that we should respect students path and prepare different activities if at school the coordination forbids (F4, Doc3.2). This culture may have been present previously in the fellows conception. Before doing an experiment, one of them suggests that Math classes (F3, Doc3.8) should be given, making explicit a vision that teaching physics dispenses Math. On the other hand, indication pointing to a new school culture was found. A fellow realizes the need of not giving all chewed to students (F6, Doc3.8), for instance, appearing to have overcame the passive conception of student role in education. In general, PIBID activities are pointed out as differentiated (F7, Doc3.1). From fellow s reports, the students seemed to have presented a different attitude in these activities, than the one usually seem at school (F3 and F8, Doc3.8). These points of view, at first contradictory, may be showing what the other researchers have found, which is a mix or an intermediate stage, between desirable professional knowledge and the initial professional knowledge of future teachers. In Haefner and Zembal-Saul s (2004) study, for example, levels 129

131 of transitional professional knowledge were identified. Teacher evolution potential along the academic course may reflect what the other authors have identified as a process of incomplete metamorphosis. The supervisor teachers also pointed out a good receptivity from students to the activities proposed: They were very participative. They ve asked many questions and raised hypothesis. Students from other classes asked when they were going to do the activity (SUP4, Doc3.8). Finally, it s necessary to highlight that the program seems to be helping teachers supervisors to rethink their practice, as it says this teacher supervisor: I joined this program willing to change my teaching method (SUP4, Doc3.11). 130

132 iii.cm6 Research in Science Education The study of PIBID case is interested in this category to point out how fellows and graduated teachers (supervisor teachers) use in school some research indication on science education, derived from program coordination. The analysis is centred on how each of those segments perceives the approach between school and university; how it applies or try to apply those indications in school reality, and yet, how those experiences affect the conceptions and practices of those subjects. This category analyses, mainly, the activities developed in PIBID program related to development (elaboration, application, evaluation and rebuilding) of an experiment of investigative intent that means, coherent with what the approach of Educate for Research (ETR) proposes. Therefore, from the analysis of analysed materials, the following emerging subcategories were formulated: School and university approach, Innovation in school and Evolution of conceptions and practices. CM6.1 School and University approach The PIBID program enables the approach between school and university. According to some fellows involved: There is a connection between what is fresher in academic world and the old school (F1, Doc1); My school has received PIBID very well, since it looks for changes and tries to be better (F4, Doc1); The school contributes to university in the sense of showing its needs and gaps, giving clues in order the university can be able to develop a better work (F3, Doc1). These views have some important implicit ideas. On one hand, the two first quotations seem to put school in an inferior situation towards university. According to these affirmatives, university would be the nearest place to the frontier of knowledge. But the idea that what comes from university is useful by itself is questionable. The third quotation seems to point out this questioning searching/aiming to diminish the gap of science teaching, and education in 131

133 general, we cannot ignore the hypothesis that university can be producing knowledge in a disconnected form from reality or to base on assumptions that are not confirmed in practice. This leaded TRACES group to analyse how the participants conceived a research. In one of the programmed activities by researchers, it was asked, individually or in couples, to do one of weekly PIBID meetings at university. The titles of the drawings (Doc3.4) present words such discovery, knowledge, search or even investigation. While explaining the drawings, it is evident a view of what is considered in Brazil as research in school, that is, to search in bibliography the necessary information asked by teachers as school homework. So, there is less evidence to knowledge production and more to how to find it, after being produced. To do research is to study on books, computer, and search with the magnifying glass (F6, Doc3.4); Researching is to spread materials over the table to consult. That s the way I do at home when I want to research on something (F8, Doc3,4); Google is the page of research sources (F2, Doc3.4). Among the subjects chosen for a closer analysis, only one presented a drawing revealing a sequence of actions that relates a view about the production of knowledge. It can indicate that this fellow has an idea of what it is commonly denominated as scientific method. An explanation for the difference between this drawing and the others may be the stage of formation (education). The author of the drawing, showed later (picture2.3.1), was at that point, in the last semester of the course, while most of the others were beginners. 132

134 Figure 2 Fellow s drawing about research (F4, Doc3.4) Other characteristics (features) of the drawings call attention. Almost the total amount of fellows consider that the research is something done out of school, more specifically at academic environment. From the point of view of gender issue, it was observed that even the female fellows, while representing human figures, drew people of male gender. Those were presented as no young and working by themselves. All those characteristics can be considered as barriers the intention that in the future teachers can implement the education through research (ETR) at school. Likewise, much advanced opinions are not found among supervisors teachers. They were asked about what is a research when the field actions of 133

135 the research started. Two answers were focused basically on the expression analysis of a situation (SUP3 and SUP2, Doc3.3). One answer referred only to the research in the classroom and the other has sent an academic definition some days later. It was asked in the same time what would a research in the classroom be. According to the teachers action the detection of students difficulties or the search for better methods to teach the contents was mentioned. According to the research done by the students two demonstrations are similar to what has been considered Education through research (ETR) in the Brazilian context. (MORAES, GALIAZZI & RAMOS, 2004). It is to make students face problem situations so that they analyze, compare and then get to their own conclusions (SUP3, Doc3); First we should have a clear objective. I think the teachers should be the mediator in the teaching process and the student the main character. The student has to ask and debate in order to build new knowledge (SUP4, Doc3). All these views indicate that the close relationship with the university is a positive something. Besides they seem to show that there is not a clear view on how this innovation is produced and how it could be spread and so up date (feedback) university s researches. This is an issue which the PIBID program has to pay more attention to. It is possible that part of this problem is contextual once according to the physics coordination s opinion some factors may have contributed for this. A contextual factor could have been that the program had never been developed before at the university and the little time the coordinator of the area works for the institution. It can also be pointed out the dominant academic culture in the college. It is possible to highlight that three out of four supervisor teachers are ex students of the Physics school at PUCRS. CM6.2 Innovation at School The interest in this sub category is to show how students who have fellowships understand and apply (or try to apply) in the school s reality the 134

136 outcomes of the Science Education research. Such results came from the PIBID Physics coordination Program and as context the planning and development of an Inquiry experimental activity. According to Lunetta et al (2007), laboratory activities have a central role in the science curriculum and many researchers in science education have suggested that benefits to engaging students in science laboratory activities. The sequence of the program s activity that was supported, followed and registered by TRACES team are shown with their instruments of the data assemble, on Chart Nº Activities Document 1 Education in ETR Doc3.4 Drawings about what a scientist does 2 Evaluation of the Inquiry instruments Doc3.5 - Cards/questionnaire filled in by the students 3 Our evaluation of the experiments Doc3.6 - Written synthesis of TRACES presentation team s evaluation 4 Experiments reformulation Doc3.7 Final guidelines and powerpoint results 5 Evaluation and development of the experiments at schools. Doc3.8 Fellows self-assessment 6 Works for the Public meeting of physics teaching Doc3.9 Banners Chart Activities and documents of CS3 - PIBID As part of the activities planned in the program, fellows should choose three physics experiments for a possible application in the classroom. Such choice should be based on the search for teaching materials that are new in books, magazines, sites, etc. the fellows were organized in four groups corresponding to each one of the schools involved. After choosing and assembling there were three experiments presentations rounds during the PIBID weekly meetings at the university. Teachers who coordinate the program at the physics school presented critics and suggestions related to the experiments adequacy to the school s contents, to the forwarding of the experiments stages and to the material used. None of the experiments was applied at schools in this stage. The examination of this kind of materials seemed to be almost close to zero despite the evaluations of the experiments having mentioned some 135

137 research work of the physics teaching. As main consulting source, several websites that suggest different uses for experimental activities at school were highlighted. Most of these sites were made by authors of teaching books or independent teachers (www.fisica.net or Although there are site with suggestions from the research groups at universities or public agencies (see for example, these were not consulted. Afterwards, each group had to choose one of the studied experiments in order to improve them and then applied at schools. Such improvement should be done in order to join the experiment to the inquiry perspective (ETR). As many fellows and also supervisor teachers had little knowledge about this approach, researchers of the TRACES project have presented a workshop about ETR during a meeting. In the same day, after this intervention, fellows were asked to represent based on drawings, their conceptions about what is a research. After the workshop these drawings were shown and all group of fellows (future teachers), supervisors (undergraduate teachers), PIBID s coordinators and TRACES researchers have debated about them. Once redone, the experiments have been tested again in a weekly meeting. The fellows worked as if they were students. In order to evaluate the improvement TRACES team have elaborated a questionnaire (Doc3.5) to have the fellows examining the new proposal of their coworkers physics experiments to be evaluated at school. In addition, through this evaluation, after the workshop on ETR, TRACES team could evaluate the use of these new ideas. The criteria for this evaluation were: creativity, relevance, innovating characteristics and the connection with students context. The evaluation results were given to the supervisors so that they could help fellows redoing the experiments in a critical and productive way. A debate about the experiments reformulation was organized in the following PIBID s meeting. After, the experiments were applied at schools. Then, another questionnaire was elaborated by TRACES team to collect a self- 136

138 evaluation of the groups about their feelings towards the application at school (Doc3.8). It was built in each school a synthesis in scientific summary format that analyses the use of this experiment. These summaries were submitted to the selection of the scientific committee of the physics teaching state meeting, promoted by Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Porto Alegre (Doc3.9a). Four works, all in the poster format, were submitted, and two of them were accepted. The banners built according to the approved works, were also examined by TRACES team (Doc3.9a). It is important to emphasize that the two approved works were not the best ones according to the TRACES team s evaluation. After, the analysis of the activity is presented. Generally, the proposed experimental outlines are still considered as far from the reference inquiry perspective (ETR) even after the improvement opportunities. To identify the limitations of the led process, the activities related to the experiment (subcategories CM6.2 Innovation at school) are analyzed according to the Educating through research perspective adopting the teaching dimensions: environment, contents formulation, methodology proposed by Del Pozo, Porlán and Rivero (2011). Thus, the analysis of the perceptions and involved subjects reports were organized according to other subcategories that helped identifying the difficulties and improvements of the process. The fellowship students evaluation about the work environment, being at this moment the environment of the activity, was analyzed due to the participation, the interest, the active or passive played role and the subjects independence. This evaluation is directly related to the way that the activity is structured as the following reports show. The activity itself was a mess. There was not enough material for everybody. Everything was too improvised (B2, Doc3.8); First the activity of the experiment was confusing. Students wanted to use the equipment before reading the outline (B3, Doc3.8); 137

139 At the beginning it was confusing, they were a little lost. After, they were losing the interest throughout the activity (B6, Doc3.8). However in a general way the environment was close to the expected (ETR). The quotations bellow confirm this conclusion. It was active and direct, once they were the main characters of the experimental activity (F2, Doc3.8); The issues that the experiment use rose were related the issues of the following moving little car even without being submitted to a force (F7, Doc3.8); They have accomplished the proposed activities eager to know the result they would find (F8, Doc3.8). The supervisor teachers opinion was also positive as this quotation shows: students have interacted among each other (SUP2, Doc3.8). The sub-category contents formulation takes not only the chosen physics theme, but also related to the form in an epistemological perspective of proposing the conduction experiment. In this perspective the main point of the analysis is related to the opening of the proposed issue to be investigated during the experiment. So, this research matter could be more open or closed. The following quotations indicate that the fellowship students may have a broader perspective towards the issues proposed by the experiments. Students investigated the influence of three different liquids (F8, Doc3.8); We proposed an inquiry question in order to determine the scope with the launching angle variation (B6, Doc3.8); Students were asked to investigate the relation between the launching angle of a projectile and its trajectory reaching (F3, Doc3.8). But this opening should be seen in a relative way. The perception of the problem opening to be investigated can just rely on the fact that despite being existent, the answer of the question may be not known by the students. Is seems that the supervisors realized it as shown in the following quotations. The students asked about the gravidity acceleration, contents they hadn t seen in class (SUP4, Doc3.8); As there were situations which students did not know the answers and they were not found in the book, there were 138

140 questions about the experiment assemble (SUP3, Doc3.8). One of the supervisors is more critical regarding this question. Most of students did not realize that it was an inquiry task. They have just accomplished the task. The experiment was based on a checking experience. (The experiment) did not provide new questions and reflections (SU2, Doc3.8). Although some fellowship students do not mention directly the issue of the study problem, they also analyze in a more specific way the experiment that seems to confirm the supervisor evaluation. The activity was an inquiry one regarding the experiment assembling as well as the physics and experimental activity (F2, Doc3.8); Students could have a more practical analysis of the contents. However the experiment assembling was little difficult for the students but they could solve their doubts with no problems. They could see what was expected in it turned their comprehension easier (F7, Doc3.8). According some authors the belief that the science is an objective corpus of knowledge created through a straight method can be one of the biggest difficulties to implement innovating perspectives, as the ETR (WALLACE & KANG, 2004). It was evaluated how much the development of the activity provided students an active role regarding the ways of structuring the activity. The fellowship students evaluations were positive in general as the following quotation shows: (Their participation was very active). They assembled the experiment, collected the data and got to their conclusions answering to the outline s problem (F7, Doc3.8). A supervisor has the same opinion: They were very participative. They made many questions and raised several hypothesis (SUP4, Doc3.8). After an overall activity s evaluation, the fellowship students believe there is on one hand superficiality, for instance (the experiment) was easy to be accomplished, students enjoyed the experiments and did not have problems doing it (F8, Doc3.8). On the other hand there was a surprise, the experiment was completely different of what students had already done (F3, Doc3.8). 139

141 It is possible to state after finishing this sub-category that according the dimensions of the analyses adopted, there was a bigger evolution in the one related to the work environment. Although the outlines favor students leading role (pedagogical dimension), the autonomy was small. It can be due to a small opening of the chosen problems. In this way, Del Pozo, Porlán and Rivero (2011) states that the formulation in a closed perspective of the contents to be studied, something the students realized in the beginning of the activity, favor a more mechanic, linear and little inquiry leading in critical aspects. It is like that because a fellowship students suggests that the following experiments should not have ready outlines or in other words, should be less facilitated (F6, Doc3.8), considering that actions and stages would be predefined. Summing up, it seems that the most positive evaluation of the experimental activity related to other dimensions is mainly due to the fact that this kind of activity had never being done before at school. 140

142 CM6.3 - Practical conception s evolution The last sub-category in the category research on Science Education (CM6) analyses the evolution of conceptions and practice of the fellowships students involved due to PIBID program s activities. All in all, it is evaluated how much the use of the experiment brought reflections to improve the teaching conceptions of the future teachers. In this sense evidences that showed a significant change were not found. The epistemological and teaching perspective showed is still far from the proposal of the opened problems and of an active methodological organization. A better planning of the material to be used (F2, Doc3.8); To change the density of the liquid to see the difference and add some experiment that shows where the counter attraction acts everyday (F8, Doc3.8). Indication of the same ideas is found in the supervisors evaluations who have evaluated as significant the experience for the fellows. They were critical related to the development (SUP4, Doc3.8); The fellows could accomplish the activity improving the outline presented before (SUP3, Doc3.8); They discussed in group about the theory to relate it with the experiment (SUP2, Doc3.8). As it was possible to realize, these evaluations are coherent with the first stage of these teachers professional development according identified on other categories. So, it is possible to state that it seems difficult to achieve a great improvement of the teachers conceptions during their initial education at university. According to Roehrig, Kruse and Kern (2007) the fact that inquiry based teaching had become prevalent in secondary science classes was strongly influenced by changing teachers' change beliefs about teaching and learning. That is why the most appropriate may be to believe in a gradual evolution of these conceptions based on the guided experiences for intermediate levels of 141

143 improvement that go towards the same direction. For Akerson and Hanuscin (2007), a key factor to change substantially the science teaching is to give time to teachers in terms of duration of education programs and also to explore their ideas. 142

144 3. GENERAL CONCLUSIONS: RECOMMENDATIONS AND GUIDELINES In the last chapter of this report, initially, the conclusions of each of the case studies are presented. These conclusions come out mainly from the analysis undertaken by the categories of meta-analysis defined for each case study from a common list of all the consortium and TRACES. Some conclusions that arise less from the collected data than from field actions are also presented. Indeed, the negotiations with educational authorities, the approach to the reality of schools, the monitoring of the teachers in exercise at classroom and at formation, the observation of students, and, also, the listening of the parents allowed the construction of a wide perspective of the TRACES research s major question: the gap. In addition, recommendations are also presented for each one of the categories of meta-analysis. These recommendations derive from the intersection of the results of field actions in each category according to the specific nature of each case study. At the end, it is included an assessment of the persons involved and also an assessment of the Brazilian traces research team of TRACES on the impact of the intervention as a whole in the concerned schools. 143

145 3.1 Guaíba Case Study Conclusions CS1 In this case study, some important conclusions about the gap between school and university were found. These conclusions are centered in the studied categories of meta-analysis: teacher education, social community, and research in science education. In the case of the category "teacher education", the most important result is that on the conceptions of learning. The experience provided by the involvement with the research project TRACES allowed the teachers to understand that there are other opportunities for the student to participate in class in their own learning process. Furthermore, it was pointed out the perception that students respond satisfactorily when they are challenged to perform different roles in the process of teaching and learning. As an evidence of that, teachers say, for example, that the experience in the TRACES project, provided numerous and valuable learning moments, contact with research, with questions and problems, and the acquaintanceship with teachers and classmates" (T8, Doc1.6) or "a great experience, a moment of innovation, the final product made by the students" (T9, Doc1.6). The teachers mentioned just only one negative aspect. It is in agreement with what they had observed in other vocational education opportunities. For them, it is necessary to have more time in their working hours to carry out the proposed activities. Despite the positive evaluation of the partnership developed between teachers and researchers, the occurrence of trans in the future actions in the classroom it is not guaranteed; it was patent the importance of vocational education programs. These actions provided a new meaning to the educational process, in which it becomes possible to think and to discuss the teaching process in the classroom. In relation to the social community, the data analysis allows the research to conclude that family members may also contribute to the improvement of 144

146 science education. Meeting the families can guide the teachers on how to target content in a context related to children s reality and how to improve the pedagogical proposal of the school. From this perspective, thus, parents, teachers, students, researchers, and authorities are able to find a greater coherence and integration between the educational processes that occur at home, at school, and at university. Finally, regarding the category "Research in Science Education," the field actions of the CS1 oriented towards research in the classroom revealed very positive results. The results displayed the possibility of conducting this kind of pedagogical action in public schools, and, thus, achieve significant results in relation to teacher performance and development of relevant skills of students. Summarizing, the approach of education through research applied in the classroom invited students to be responsible for their own learning, choosing the theme, seeking answers and reporting results. While it was presented as an interesting activity, the approach was also a challenging activity, because teacher and student were, in most cases, used to a simple view of learning. The research proposal was far from being a mere reproduction of the contents and copied information. 145

147 3.2 Lajeado Case Study Conclusions - CS2 The conclusions in this case study add important recommendations on the distance between school and university. These conclusions are focused on the same categories of meta-analysis studied in the previous case study (EC1): teacher education, social community, and research in science education. The category CM1 Teachers Education searches an understanding of the role of pre-service teacher education and of vocational education of teachers and also the process of change and pedagogical innovation in development at the school. The understanding of these issues was built from the ineducation, conceptions, and opinions of the supervisors and teachers that integrate the faculty staff at the school Guido A. Lermen School in the beginning of the study. Thus, it is possible that the intervention made by TRACES team (Field Actions) has changed this picture. The collected data and information revealed that the respondents expressed an incipient valorization of the pre-service teacher education. The references to formation in high school were surprising, taken in the course called "Magistério" (Teachership), since most of them have higher education degrees. There seems to be a distance from the university, expressed by an indifference regarding undergraduate courses. Perhaps, the "disciplinary academic logic in the teacher education programs", supported by Tardif (2004, p. 275), explains this. The search for graduate courses in order to improve practice reduces this distance between university and school. This is an issue that requires further investigation. Would be the specificity of the courses, organized around areas of knowledge, the attractive factor? Would it be a desire to be bound to the academic circles? Tardif (2004), on discussing the issue of professionalization of teaching, argues that "in their practice, professionals must rely on specialized and formalized knowledge" (p. 246) and that "these knowledge must be acquired 146

148 through a long run high-level education, most often, at the university or something equivalent" (p. 249). The analyzed data revealed that teachers value the vocation education carried out at the school. Less consideration is given to the programs offered by official agencies and by the municipal government. The latter does not include, according to teachers opinion, the needs of everyday life experienced by teachers at schools. The teachers believe that the contents worked in the vocational education programs promoted within the space of the school were responsible for making them to reflect deeply. They seem to be supporting the sustenance of broader spaces of knowledge necessary to carry out the nowadays and future function of the teacher, as pointed out by Morin (2002). The analysis of the information in this category plainly points out that the core creator of change and innovation is the internal movements. Such movements were always headed by one of the supervisors and they received initial support from a small group of colleagues who are called "team"( equipa ). The team received considerably support from the university, when a training course for schools cycling was developed in After the course, the team kept ties with the university through the advisement of a researcher, current member of the TRACES research team. Afterward, the team sought the direct guidance of Professor Jose Pacheco, head of the Escola da Ponte/Portugal, and the great defender of schools cycling, Professor Miguel Arroyo, the author of several books on the subject (ARROYO, 2000 and 2004). Nowadays, the school group believes that the innovation process is underway. According to the supervisor, leader of the movement for innovation, there are already "ten years of study and there is still much to learn" (SUP1, CS2, oral information, in a meeting). Thus, it can be concluded, yet partially, that the process of change and of innovation at the school Guido A. Lermen consists in the teacher education, in the study, in the debate, and, majorly, on the rupture of the culture of work still 147

149 in force on many educational spaces, which priorizes the bureaucracy over the essence of the process. Regarding the social community, the contact with people linked to the school, but not actually active in the daily administrative and pedagogical functions, highlighted that the parents participation in the process of change in the school was quite modest. This participation has been characterized as an attendance to the individual development and as an acceptance by their children. The school staff had not yet done any sort of research with parents and former students in order to understand their opinions on the pedagogical proposal developed. Annual visits to students houses are made with the purpose of bring to parents notice the details about their children s performance. During these visits, it is possible to identify the social and cultural reality of each family; nevertheless, there is no record or analysis of these observations. Therefore, it seems that the actions at the school arise, primordially, from internal decisions. These actions are planned and developed by the team of teachers and advisors. The collected data and information through the interviews with parents revealed diverging opinions regarding the system adopted by the school, though the majority of the respondents is in behalf of the innovation. Regarding the data collected about the moments of integration, both parents, students, and former students understand the integration as a moment of mutual help, of sharing ideas, and of growth in group. Concerning the classes specifically, the obtained information revealed that the classes are considered as moments of greater learning. After the conclusion of the focusl groups with students, some questions remained open. Thus, it seemed adequate to widen the understanding from the perspective of the contact with people s opinion that are currently out of the object of study, the school. After a survey, it was made clear that students from the Guido A. Lemen School seek a high school program at, preferably, two state public schools. 148

150 The former students, sought in their present environment, reported that, when they started classes in the new schools, they had an impact at first caused by the system through grades and the organization of the curriculum through subjects. However, this initial impact was gradually surpassed, through relationships with new colleagues and adapting to this other system. Other evidence to be made salient is that both schools, that had allowed former students to participate in the study, permitted just the students of 1st year of high school to participate. The question that arises is: would already be the students of the 2nd or 3rd year entirely adapted to the system through grades, in view of the school? Some difficulties were detailed, such as: "lack of a basis of subjects like biology, chemistry, and physics", whose concepts should have been worked out in the third cycle. The information regarding these difficulties gave rise to a new question: are these difficulties due to personal performance, gaps in the learning of the system of cycles, or the difficulties to return to a linear system and fragmented teaching? The conclusion of the findings of this category can be described into two distinct aspects. The first one is that the beginning of the process of change at the school was provided by the opportunity created with the implementation of a new educational policy from the Municipal Secretary of Education and enhanced by the support of the university. The second is that the permanence of the process was planned and developed by the teachers and the management board of the school, featuring an internal movement, which managed the bureaucratic guidelines that defined, for example, number of classroom hours for each subject. Therefore, the case of the school Guido A. Lermen can be linked with the assumption made by Tardif and Lessard (2007): The school, similarly to other social organizations, is heavily bureaucratized, but its core, i.e., where the basic activity of organization happens, remains a considerable refractory proportion to direct bureaucratic controls. (p. 61) 149

151 Concerning the participation and approval by the social community of the school, represented in this research by parents, students and former students, it is possible to affirm that most of them expressed satisfaction and the desire for the permanence of the program. However, there are some people who question the consistency of teaching at this level concerning the requirement of high school subjects. It came out, considerably, the reference to group work, that provided an enhancement in the relationships, a respect for the differences of all kinds and the practice of monitoring as a help process and solidarity. According to Gimeno Sacristan and Pérez Gómez (1998), it is the group work, perhaps, the great turning point of the conservative educational culture that often "conveys and reinforces an ideology explicitly, and sometimes implicitly, whose values are individualism, competitiveness and lack of solidarity "(p 16). In relation to the category CM6 Research in Science Education, it can be affirmed that were held intense and varied activities; relating research and teaching. These activities allowed collecting consistent data that enabled the elaboration of the following perceptions and understandings. As regards the space of science research in the process of pedagogical innovation at the Guido A. Lermen School, some information was analyzed from different instruments. It was used interviews (individual and focal group), observations, document analysis, analysis of the Thematic Complex of the year 2011, and evaluation of the results of the Field Actions in the second stage of TRACES research (Doc2.2, Doc2.3, Doc2. 4 and Doc2.5). The analysis of the Thematic Complex and of the semantic fields (Annex 5.2.3), represented below, demonstrates that there is the possibility of science research being carried out, but not only in science, in other areas of knowledge too, especially in the unfolding theme involving time, space and nature. The supervisor was asked about the activities related to this theme and reported the completion of preliminary research on culture, that would 150

152 work as a basis for planning future activities. The following activities centered on the studies of music, art and social, cultural and economic features of the community, the city, and region. It was discovered that there was little space for science and science research. In the context of Field Actions, proposed by TRACES study, it was sent a research proposal, intertwined with proposals of the Thematic Complex, with distinction for science education. This proposal was started by a visit to the Museum of Science and Technology PUCRS, appropriately planned and monitored by researchers and teachers of the school. The results of the visit worked as indicators for following researches to be conducted in group work by students of the third cycle. Taking into account the philosophy of the school, the proposed themes were accepted by the students. The conclusions indicate to the idea that there is, by students, a willingness to research, to meet new realities. However, the thematic area of students research remains centered in the sciences. There is an enlargement of the area of attention to other areas of the curriculum. To a perspective, this can be positive, to the extent that students are able to make exchanges that surpass the barriers of content fragmentation. Otherwise, this can revealed also an absence of clarity of the boundaries between the different areas of knowledge. It may be understood that this situation can be created through the system of integrated classes. Moreover, supporting an inadequate view that exists in other schools, the students tend to conceive experiments as demonstrations and not as researches (POZO & CRESPO, 2009, p.18). This can be a displacement factor from learning to watching. The majority of the students accounted what they have done during the visit and the research than what they have learned. Thus, in accordance with the same authors, (The) factor interest showed its relevance and can lead to the construction of learning strategies measured on scientificity and in the concern with learning, keeping the 151

153 idea that science is a process and not just a product mounted up on theories or models (IDEM, p. 21). Another factor that was highlighted was that the parents were aware of the activities being developed by TRACES team at the school. This, perhaps, is due to the fact of the necessity of parents authorization to the visit at Museum of Science and Technology PUCRS. As a result, they wanted to know how the visit was accomplished and what they did differently from school. In any case, it is necessary to emphasize that the school has an adequate physical structure. The teachers are well organized. When some special material is required for an activity, they are requested in advance, revealing that they have a plan. Lastly, concerning teachers' conceptions about research, the collected in interviews with supervisors and teachers were not quite revealing. In the following statements, it is possible to emphasize the value of interpersonal exchanges, besides the use of multiple sources in the work developed. To work with someone, to work together; not being alone in this function is also good, because we are able to Exchange more ideas (Sup1, Doc2.1); In my classes, generally, I try to use magazines, newspapers, or some interesting article I found on the Internet, sometimes a news from the newspaper, some things from TV shows, such as Fantástico or Globo Repórter; a documentary the students watched, or heard of, something they already have some background. I try to work bringing news and, using them, develop the activity in a way that they learn to live in this society of nowadays, dealing with daily life. (T1, Doc2.2); I use lots of material I get from Mathematics. I also search on the Internet, on Math web sites, books, magazines, some material I get with a colleague (T2, Doc2.2). The analysis of the information that reflects the perspectives of the teachers on the research reveals that there is a thought concerning the use of resources in the pedagogical practice. Perhaps, this thought is the result of a culture of scientific learning that has developed with society itself. In this sense, it is suitable to reflect on the epistemology of the educational practice and on the epistemology that conducts the research. The 152

154 epistemology of the educational practice is, in accordance with Tardif (2004, p. 255), "the study of the set of all the knowledge indeed used by professionals in their work space in order to perform all their tasks". Yet, the epistemology of the research requires not only knowing the facts, concepts and principles that characterize science or the way the scientific speech analyses, studies, and questions reality, but also to adopt a specific attitude in this approach and to adopt specific values in the analysis (POZO e CRESPO, 2009, p. 28). Consequently, it is possible to conclude that the staff of the municipal school Guido A. Lermen has an epistemology of well-configured and active practice. On the other hand, the group of teachers from the school is short of studies on scientific epistemology and also on the theoretical background upon which this practice is supported. This may prevent an evaluation more structured of these practices that would allow for the construction of a wider view of the results in the process. 153

155 3.3 PIBID Case Study Conclusions - CS3 In Case Study 3 PIBID, the main category is the teachers education. This is due to characteristics of the investigated program. The PIBID program has a quest for more and better education for prospective teachers. The actions in this program are structured in a way that brings implications for various segments of the educational phenomenon. The teaching practices of teachers at work can enhance by the fact that they supervise prospective teachers who bring the academic innovation and the enthusiasm for the beginning of professional development. The education of prospective teachers qualifies for the experience of life and the deeper knowledge of the reality of schools. Besides, the university it is able to better evaluate the result of the formation process implemented. And, to finish, the school is also altered given that, in addition to other benefits, it becomes a scenario of applications of innovation and of research. In the analyzes carried out from Field Actions, at first it was identified that any attempt to transform the teaching, whether from a program such as PIBID, or from any other formation proposal coming from the university to the school, should consider the reality of the school context. This way, some of the structural insufficiencies of the school received significant emphasis among fellowship. The absence of equipment and the lack of teachers raised difficulties for the development of activities in schools. Thus, in the planning programs like this, educational authorities may consider these lacks. The planning is very important. The data indicate that the improvised performance of the prospective teachers brings lots of anxiety and frustration for the expected lack of experience. The frustration reinforces an adaptation to the dominant culture, since any change of culture involves a certain amount of risk. Thus, in order to improve the education of prospective teachers and the teaching practices of teachers in exercise, there is the necessity for the creation and the maintenance of well-planned opportunities for individual and collective reflection. In these spaces, the group should be able to discuss, analyze, share 154

156 frustrations and successes, trying to redesign and rebuild their actions from the past. This process enhances its objective if it is performed by exhibitioner together with the school teachers and the university researchers, who are better able to guide the discussions, proposing the dialogue with the theory. With the aim of making this process meaningful to exhibitioners, their perceptions of the school context, in which they are immersed, and their preconceptions about what is to teach and what is to learn should be the basis for the discussions. The exhibitioners point out the existing limitations in schools, but they expect that the university can point solutions. Therefore, the university should be a place for discussions that promote reflection and evolution of these primary ideas. These should be tested and revised by the perspective of transformation of teaching practices oriented to the learning process of students. This way, by analyzing the dialogue provided by the TRACES research between the university and the school, it was concluded that this must be a twoway street, i.e., a dialectical relationship of systematic exchanges. On the one hand, the exhibitioners bring to the university the educational problems and, on the other hand, the university offers opportunities for reflections guided for the purpose that all of them develop creative solutions. The implementation of these actions and the constant evaluation of these same actions will lead the teacher in education to develop and to test formation and curriculum hypotheses, thus creating a synthesis between theory and practice. This process would enable a more consistent formation guided by moments in which the teacher is the main performer assuming the important role of an intermediary figure between the necessities of school and university. Through their teachers, the university would carry out the mediation, thus completing the dialectic cycle of formation. Though such formative processes may help a more qualified vocational education of school teachers, in practice, this implicates a great challenge. Opposite to the mainstream culture of traditional teaching in schools, the system of content transmission by the use of repetitive methods, it is required a well 155

157 articulated action among all segments. Such articulation, by the analyzed data in the case study CS3 PIBID, is still incipient. At last, among the different dimensions of the educational process at school, content, methodology, assessment, and work environment, the latter is highlighted. For prospective teachers, students motivation and their own motivation are emphasized as an important factor in the acceptance of change and adoption of new ways of teaching. The analyzed data in this study and in others demonstrate that it is more difficult for prospective teachers to propose at the beginning of their practice open problems (content) to being investigated or complex assessment strategies not judgmental of students' knowledge. At the start, in consistence with their initial stage of professional development, it is more likely that prospective teachers want to adopt active strategies that encourage a greater interest and motivation in the students. In their perspective, learning is closely linked to attention (in many cases only to it). However, this idea can only go forward, integrate other factors, be less absolute, finally, become more complex, only when it is confirmed in practice and then questioned. The teachers education programs should be consistent with an evolutionary perspective of professional knowledge. To this end, they should provide opportunities for the application of the teachers ideas (prospective or not) that, shortly thereafter, lead to the reflection and the building of a broader observation to understand the phenomenon. This must be done, seeking into favorable situations and contexts of application of these early ideas. In effect, the data from this study indicate the necessity to promote opportunities with autonomy in order to interact with students and with different ways of teaching. This should help to promote the first steps in the evolution of conceptions and practices toward an educational change. The analysis of the case study CS3 - PIBID reveals that the frustration with the inability to verify these ideas can raise difficulties for other future developments. Among the most important developments, it is the one concerning the capacity to know how to propose open problems for investigation, as have 156

158 been proposed by the research in Science Education. It was discovered that this difficulty might be associated to an absolutist perspective of knowledge (Toulmin, 1972). Through another perspective of analysis, it seems clear that the objective of reducing the distance between research and school should consider the dominant school culture. In accordance with Porlán et al (2010), there are certain dominant social stereotypes about the school that originate in and are reinforced by certain patterns of action. The idea that to teach means to explain contents and that to learn is to retain what has been studied are some examples. But, according to the authors, the influence of these stereotypes goes beyond, since everything in the school seems to be impregnated by them. The schools are designed for the transmission of knowledge, so that their spaces model the conducts, making them, sometimes, easy and obvious and difficult and strange other times. ( ) The curricular standards prescribe the organization of time in terms of number of hours per subject, assuming that the unity of teaching is the hour-class (Porlán et al, 2010, p.33). Therefore, when the teachers want to innovate, they have to take risks. In general, these innovations are related with students new behaviors, new ways to use the school spaces, and, also, to surpass the inflexible structure of the curricular time. Finally, it is hard to transgress what is considered usual and acceptable" (p.33). Anderson (2007) presents a landscape of the research on the science learning. For him, there is a big distance between what is known, as a result of investigation, about teaching and learning and what is implemented in regular practice. Thus, an important implication of this case study that arises from the evaluation of the program PIBID on pre-service teacher education of teachers, is that the university should encourage the prospective teachers to analyze and to consider, in their practice, these and other results of investigations in science education (PETISH & DAVIS, 2005). 157

159 As a final point, it is important to notice that, as identified in this research, the own formation context of the university, traditional per excellence, also creates or strengthens in the prospective teachers a transmissive conception of teaching deeply rooted. Other studies have also revealed that these ideas are beginning to develop in prospective teachers when they are still students due to the long exposure in contexts mostly traditional (KAGAN, 1992, PRO, VALCÁRCEL & SÁNCHEZ, 2005). Concerning the approximation between the school practices and the results from researches on Science Education, the set of information analyzed allow to trace a general overview on the possibilities and barriers of this process. The application of innovative approaches largely defended by researchers, such as the case of ETR, by the prospective teachers face intrinsic and extrinsic difficulties. These difficulties are manifested in the moment of planning, testing, and evaluation of the development of these approaches in school. Particularly, the traditional culture of school and university, the questioning of the ideas, and the necessity of affirmation before peers are some of the obstacles identified by TRACES research. According to Yerrick and Hoving (2003), even the teachers who had experienced innovative pre-service teacher education programs and consistent with the future model of class to be practiced at schools face difficulties. Dealing with success and failure, directivity and uncertainty, pleasure and frustration when leaving the comfort of the university rooms and having to face the "real school" classrooms is no easy task. Other studies have also accounted difficulties in this journey; they record, in general, a succinct change in the concepts and practices of prospective teachers in the use of results from researches in science education (GUSTAFSON & ROWELL, 1995). So, perhaps, the small general development of subjects across this category is perfectly understandable, considering two factors that were distinguished in the analysis. From the intrinsic point of view, that is, something inherent to the exhibitioners, there is the stage of progress of each course. From the extrinsic point of view, the dominant culture are 158

160 highlighted, both in the context of education (university) and in the application of activities of the PIBID program (schools). However, such difficulties should not be seen, especially by the educational performers involved in the PIBID program, as the incapability to advance. On the contrary, educational authorities, teachers trainers, school principals, etc. should consider that these obstacles are natural, and somewhat expected. To improve the program from the review of shortrange strategies, but of great immersion in the context, can bring more benefits than the installment of top-bottom reform. Throughout the history of education, these great educational reforms stand out mostly by the accumulation of failures and justified retrogression. Finally, from the university s point of view on the processes of change proposed, it is necessary to highlight two aspects. The first aspect refers to the care that the researchers should have at hand in a situation in which the school is considered inferior. That is, the assumption, albeit implicit, that the educational knowledge from school, teachers, students has an inferior status to academic knowledge must be abandoned. Through another epistemological perspective, the opposition between scientific knowledge and everyday knowledge must be overcome, promoting integration between both. According to García (1998), the relevant opposition should be between complex and simplistic knowledge, the latter present both in the academic context as in the school. The second aspect, related to the first one, points out to the necessity of understanding by teachers of the research process in education. There seems to be little understanding about the problems that guide the research, about how it is carried out and how it can be disseminated. Without the active participation of teachers, including the production of knowledge, it is hardly possible to build powerful alternative to the challenges of science education. 159

161 3.4 Recommendations and guidelines a. The following way to build the recommendations This part of the conclusions summarizes the recommendations developed by TRACES-Brazilian Team of field actions analysis carried out in For preparing these recommendations, the team proceeded the following way: i. Development of field actions of the recommendations raised from the opinion survey (WP2); ii. Three case studies were chosen with different characteristics in three similar social-cultural-educational contexts: nine schools from Guaíba enrolled in an Education Through Research (ETR) approach; one school in Lajeado which has implemented in whole innovating school project; four schools enrolled in a national program that supports interaction with pre-service, inservice and researcher university teachers; iii. Field Actions definition based on design, development and implementation of specific activities in each case; iv. Delimitation of situations to be deeply studied in their particularity based on the development of field actions; v. Interpretative study of the field actions to find results that provide guidelines to bridge the gap between research and teaching practices; vi. Relating the case studies findings with the dimensions of the metaanalysis; vii. Formulation of recommendations for each meta-analysis dimension based on findings. b. Recommendations related to of meta-analysis dimensions These recommendations come from two sources. On the one hand the recommendations come from the analysis of findings in each case study. On the other hand, reflections were built by getting closer to the school, contacting 160

162 teachers, educational authorities and the whole school community. Regarding it, there is also what was not seen, which was hidden or did not occur as expected. Despite TRACES Brazilian team s preconceptions in the process, it is believed that these reflections can enrich and complement the empirical findings. i. CM1 - What role does teacher education play? a) Integrate the pre-service and in-service science teacher education through designing, developing and evaluating strategies that articulate the methods and subjects courses and teaching reflection with practices of science teaching in specific socio-cultural contexts; b) Science teachers education programs should articulate in their curriculum epistemological, disciplinary and pedagogical approaches in equal terms to create changing processes in teaching practices; c) The methods courses for pre-service and in-service teachers should be an innovative educational environment that relates the situations, needs and community s problems relate to the science teaching in the classroom; d) Promote the create of teachers teams composed by pre-service and in-service science teachers and researchers to build educational proposals based on school needs and ensure the production of new pedagogical knowledge; e) Teacher education programs should include the environmental dimension, from epistemological, sociological and political perspectives to review existing relationships of human beings and nature, with themselves and the social environment; f) Assess to value critically pedagogical approaches that aim to transfer to school the processes, products and production dynamics of knowledge of the scientific communities in school communities. ii. CM2 - What role do educational authorities play in the change process? 161

163 a) The structuring of relevant curricula for science education should include experiences, traditions and consensus of researchers in science education, teachers in-service and policy makers on the goals and purposes of science education; b) Strengthen institutional spaces to assess educational policy in community-school s relationship and its implications for science education; c) To encourage Schools and teachers with academic, economic and structural resources in order to produce collaboratively pedagogical discourse and practice based on their research in science education; d) Build quality criteria for evaluating educational institutions and the performances of the students based on their social needs and problems of school contexts and not only from external and universal parameters; e) Encourage the construction of local curricula based on the needs and significant problems for school communities; f) Strengthen the construction of inter-institutional teams of teachers to discuss problems common to school communities, exchanges and disseminate four educational experiences, in order to influence in the formulation of plans and programs of science teaching at the regional and local level. iii. CM3 - What role does the school structure play in the change process? a) Promote in the school academic spaces the building of regional curricula for inclusion of the community school needs and enrich them with science elements; b) Promote in the school academic spaces to build a new teaching and learning culture according to theoretical framework and science education research findings; c) Encourage school spaces to renew the discussion about the meaning of the innovative approaches, like Education Through Research (ETR) or 162

164 interdisciplinary, in school and how the current school structure allows or not a wider view of knowledge; d) It is desirable that science and environmental education curricula transcend the interest in content development, including contextual issues and the natural phenomena studies; e) It is necessary to enrich school curriculum with the inclusion of the environmental dimension with the local contexts cultural meanings. iv. CM4 - What role do educational resources play? a) Strengthen financial support for proposals that provide solutions to educational contextual problems and improve the school-community links; b) Develop policies for science education improvement involving consciously and actively all education segments: parents, students, principals and school staff, in-service teachers, pre-service teachers, researchers; c) Give preference to proposals that are bottom-up, in other words, that are based on experimental projects implemented in favorable contexts to, step by step, continuously expanding to a larger number of schools, thus encouraging reflection and learning from experience; b) Support with economic, academic and technical resources for teachers and students to improve the school environment and provide practical knowledge that solves the problems of the classroom everyday practice and the application of innovating approaches; v. CM5 - What role does the social community play in the change process? a) Promote medium and long term strategies that strengthen links between school and community to address collaboratively the needs of school and social context; 163

165 b) The organizations of scientific and technological production and the spread of educational information should build opportunities based on school needs and interests in the contexts of each region and country; c) In the implementation of new strategies, such as ETR or interdisciplinary, that involves families in the process of construction, implementation and evaluation of proposals making these strategies more effective. vi. CM6 - What role does research in science education play in the change process? a) Promote research that includes approaches circulating in school communities about science education to build educational proposals that allow thinking locally and acting globally respecting the problems of natural and social environment; b) Recognize the research in science education as an autonomous field of research that contributes to understand the cognitive conditions and necessary experiences for learning science and disseminating the research findings to guide practice of science teaching more meaningful and effective; c) Promote educational teacher education research about experimental activity role in understanding natural phenomena including in-service teachers to guide and enrich their teaching practices of the science; d) Recognize the tentative nature of the research findings when these results are going into the school and promote opportunities to enrich them by action-reflection; e) Generate pedagogical scenarios that articulate the production of scientific collaborative pedagogical knowledge through the exchange between the community of researchers in science education and school communities. 164

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172 5. ANNEXES 5.1 Annexes of Case Study Guaíba - CS1 ANNEX 1.1 Document 1.1: Initial questionnaire for future teachers and teachers Dados de identificação Nome: Endereço: Bairro: Cidade: Estado: CEP: Tel.Residencial: Tel.Celular: RG: CPF: Dta Nasc. Nome do Pai: Nome da Mãe: Atuação Profissional Tempo de Magistério: Nome(s) da (s) escola(s): Área: Ciências Matématica Outros: Qual? Série(s): Nº de Turma(s) Nº de Alunos por Turma Formação Acadêmica Cursos Ensino Médio: Graduação: Pós Graduação: Informações complementares Usa computador na residência SIM NÃO Qual a freqüência aproximada do uso do computador? Diária a cada três dias semanal quinzenal mensal Usa internet? SIM NÃO Modalidade de acesso: Linha discada ADSL Alta velocidade Cabo-NET A escola dispõe de computadores? SIM NÃO Usa computador na escola para trabalhos com alunos? SIM NÃO Quanto tempo faz que usou a última vez o computador com os alunos? Ano de Conclusão 171

173 1. O que você entende por pesquisa? 2. O que é para você pesquisar em sala de aula? 3. Você já participou de algum programa de inovação ou de alguma atividade que teve contato com pesquisa na universidade ou fora dela? Se sim, como foi esta experiência? O que foi positivo e o que foi negativo? E para quem foi positivo ou negativo (por exemplo, professores, alunos, etc.)? 172

174 QUESTÃO C QUESTÃO B QUESTÃO A Transformative Research Activities Cultural DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.1 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 T9 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 T9 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 T9 CM1: TEACHER EDUCATION Procurar respostas para seus questionamentos, fazendo experimentos, levantando hipóteses. Buscar informações sobre determinados assuntos para compreensão dos mesmos. Buscar respostas para algo desconhecido ou novos dados sobre algo conhecido. Pesquisa são dados coletados para algum estudo. É o ato de aprofundar o conhecimento em fatos já descobertos ou estudados. Procurar a explicação sobre algo que não sei ou não conheço e que desejo conhecer. Traçar objetivos a fim de resolver problemas ou encontrar respostas. Desenvolver estratégias para solucionar questões. Perguntar (uma boa pergunta é fundamental), lançar hipóteses, experimentar e concluir ou, ao menos, discutir os resultados. Ir atrás de respostas para problematizações, traçar objetivos e procurar os melhores meios através da experimentação. Levar o aluno a buscar suas respostas, ao invés de despejar o conteúdo pronto. Levá-lo a questionar as situações do seu cotidiano ou além dele. Estimulá-lo a fazer novas perguntas e correr atrás das respostas. É incentivar os educandos a ampliar conhecimentos, lendo, comparando, observado, procurando novos dados em diversas fontes de pesquisa. Levar o aluno a procurar respostas para dúvidas, fazendo-o pensar sobre suas vivências e tentar responder com dados e informações que ele mesmo pesquisar em livros, jornais, internet, comunidade ou sala de aula. Procurar investigar,comparar, realizar o que o professor solicitar. A pesquisa em sala de aula deve seguir um cronograma, a idéia do tema a ser pesquisado deve ser lançada, deve-se coletar dados, conhecimentos prévios dos alunos, debater estes conhecimentos e promover a idéia de pesquisar novos dados. Levar os alunos a se interessarem por algo e fazê-los ir atrás dos meios pelos quais eles encontrariam a solução. Experimentar métodos inovadores de ensino e analisar os resultados obtidos: o quanto o novo método motivou os alunos, o quanto os alunos aprenderam e se desenvolveram. Observar as respostas dos alunos aos novos métodos. Pesquisar também é aplicar o método cientifico em aula e orientar os alunos em métodos de pesquisa real em ciências. Reinventar a ciência, pesquisar a literatura a respeito, levantar hipóteses, experimentar. Partir de um questionamento, curiosidade e procurar resolvê-lo, seja com pesquisa bibliográfica ou experimentos, instigando novas questões, novas pesquisas. Sim, curso de extensão pela UFRGS sobre Ed. Ambiental e Projeto Museu-Escola da PUCRS. Experiências positivas tanto para a formação do professor quanto para o aluno, pois o professor desenvolve novas práticas educativas Sim, Projeto Museu-Escola da PUCRS. Aspectos positivos: para o professor devido ao desenvolvimento de novas atividades e novos conhecimentos, para os alunos envolvidos, pois foi estimulante. Aspectos negativos: falta de tempo para se dedicar mais às atividades. Sim. Acompanhei o Projeto Museu-Escola da PUCRS, mas não participei diretamente com alunos. Foi um bom trabalho. Não. Sim. Projeto Gestar em Matemática e Projeto Museu-Escola da PUCRS em Ciências. Aspectos positivos: refletem-se em toda a escola, o interesse do aluno é melhor, quando ocorre. Aspectos negativos: falta de tempo em aula para inserir novas atividades, longo tempo exigido para a boa execução de um projeto. Não. Sim. Grupos de pesquisa em diversas áreas das Ciências Biológicas. Aspectos positivos: inúmeros e valiosos aprendizados, contato com a pesquisa e com perguntas e problemas, convivência com professores e colegas. Aspectos negativos: poucas oportunidades disponíveis para pesquisa e campo de pesquisa pequeno (quantidade de laboratórios e assuntos pesquisados). Sim. Projeto Museu-Escola da PUCRS. Aspectos positivos: ótima experiência, momento de inovação, produto final realizado pelo aluno. Aspectos negativos: tempo. 173

175 ANNEX 1.2 Document 1.2: Researcher s observations about the research actions in the classroom accomplished by teachers and students. Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a): ; Curso: Escola: Endereço da escola: Fone: A escola é: ( ) Central ( ) de periferia ( ) rural Disciplina: Turno: Série: Turma: Nº de alunos: Fem.: Masc.: Faixa etária: Data: Observador(es): 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBSERVAÇÕES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 174

176 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBSERVAÇÕES 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no assessoramento aos alunos? 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os alunos? 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados? 4.6 Utiliza livro didático? 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o bom andamento das atividades? 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado(a) com a aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? NUNCA OBSERVAÇÕES 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? 175

177 NOTES RESEARCHER S OBSERVATIONS ABOUT THE RESEARCH ACTIONS IN THE CLASSROOM ACCOMPLISHED BY TEACHERS AND STUDENTS. TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: CULTURAL DIVERSITIES AND EDUCATION IN SCIENCE 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a):T3 Curso: Biologia Escola: Escola Municipal 1º Grau Incompleto São Francisco de Assis Endereço da escola: Av. 5, Morada da Colina, 1C8 Fone: A escola é: ( ) Central ( X) de periferia ( ) rural Disciplina: Ciências Turno: Tarde Série: 6ª Turma: - Nº de alunos: 29 Fem.: 10 Masc.: 09 Faixa etária: anos Data: Observador(es): Gabriela Delord 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, X segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? X 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de X alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? X 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? X 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos X (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? X 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? X Em fileiras. Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo X perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto X (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? X 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? X 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo X (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. X 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante X as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o X desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? X Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): NUNCA OBS. 176

178 Os alunos ainda estavam estruturando seus trabalhos, estavam tímidos pela presença dos pesquisadores do TRACES e a maioria dos grupos não possuía material. 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em X aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao X assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no X assessoramento aos alunos? 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os X alunos? 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados? X 4.6 Utiliza livro didático? X? 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o X bom andamento das atividades? 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado/a com a aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? X Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): A professora é atenciosa. 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de X forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de X forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos X (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? X Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): NUNCA OBS. 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? O professor enuncia as etapas da atividade (pesquisa) e os alunos desenvolvem o solicitado. 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? Regular 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? A escola não possui recursos didáticos variados. 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Os alunos se destacaram em geral pela preocupação com a ÁGUA, muitas pesquisa tinham o enfoque ecológico. 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Acredito que os temas poderiam ter uma contextualização com o ambiente deles, já que é em Guaíba e o tema da turma é ÁGUA. 177

179 TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: CULTURAL DIVERSITIES AND EDUCATION IN SCIENCE 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a): T3 Curso: Biologia Escola: Escola Municipal 1º Grau Incompleto São Francisco de Assis Endereço da escola: Av. 5, Morada da Colina, 1C8 Fone: A escola é: ( ) Central ( X) de periferia ( ) rural Disciplina: Ciências Turno: Tarde Série: 6ª Turma: - Nº de alunos: 29 Fem.: 10 Masc.: 09 Faixa etária: anos Data: Observador(es): João Harres 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, X segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? X 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de X alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? X 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? X 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos X (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? X 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? Pequenos grupos Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS POUCAS NUNCA OBS. VEZES VEZES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo X perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto X (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? X 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? X 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo X (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. X 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante X as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o X desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? Irrelevan te Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. 178

180 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em X aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao X assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no X assessoramento aos alunos? 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os X alunos? 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados?? 4.6 Utiliza livro didático?? 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o X bom andamento das atividades? 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado/a com a X aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de X forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de X forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos X (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? X Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): NUNCA OBS. 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? Aparentemente de forma um pouco tímida. 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? Razoável 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? Parece haver apoio da direção. 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Temas ligados a coisas do dia-a-dia deles. 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Temas ligados a perguntas simplórias. 179

181 TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: CULTURAL DIVERSITIES AND EDUCATION IN SCIENCE 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a): T4 ; Curso: Biologia Escola:E. M. E. F Zila Paiva Endereço da escola: Rua Honório Lemos, 181 Jardim dos Lagos Fone: A escola é: ( ) Central ( ) de periferia (X) rural Disciplina: Ciências Turno: Tarde Série: 6 ano Turma: Nº de alunos: 21 Fem.: 7 Masc.: 13 Faixa etária: 12, 13, 14 Data:16/06/11 Observador(es): João Batista Siqueira Harres. 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, x segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? x 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de x alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? x 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? x 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos x (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? x 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? Modificada para o trabalho Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS POUCAS NUNCA OBS. VEZES VEZES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo x perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto x (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? x 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? x 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo x (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. x 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante x as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o x desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? Precisam sair para realizar atividades Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 180

182 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no assessoramento aos alunos? x x x 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os alunos? x 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados? x 4.6 Utiliza livro didático? Desnecessário 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o bom andamento das atividades? Não observado 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado/a com a aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): x Há um foco forte no ensino (conteúdo) 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de x forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de x forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos x (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? x Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES NUNCA OBS. 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? Ambiente muito agitado no bom e no natural sentido. Professora com muito domínio do andamento das atividades no meio da bagunça e ainda atendendo cada um nos seus desejos e necessidades. 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? Muito. 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? Não identificado a nível escolar, mas na sala de aula sim. 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? A aprendizagem autônoma 181

183 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Alguns apenas reproduzem o que encontram nos livros. TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: CULTURAL DIVERSITIES AND EDUCATION IN SCIENCE 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a): T8 Curso: Biologia Escola: Escola Municipal Inácio de Quadros Endereço da escola: Rua Dona Frutosa, S/N Fone: (51) A escola é: ( ) Central ( X) de periferia ( ) rural Disciplina: Ciências Turno: noite Série: 8ª Turma: - Nº de alunos: 18 Fem.: 6 Masc.: 12 Faixa etária: anos Data: Observador(es): Gabriela Delord 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, X segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? X 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de X alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? X 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? X 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos X (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? X 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? X Em fileiras. Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo X perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto X (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? X 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? X 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo X (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. X 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante X as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o X desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? X POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): Os alunos demonstraram interesse pela atividade da pesquisa, solicitam materiais necessários para o professor, compartilham com a turma o que eles pesquisam, os primeiros resultados, combinam encontros no outro turno para dar continuidade à atividade proposta. 182

184 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em X aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao X assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no X assessoramento aos alunos? 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os X alunos? 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados? X 4.6 Utiliza livro didático? X 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o X bom andamento das atividades? 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado/a com a X aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): O professor levou vídeos com dicas para complementar as pesquisa de cada grupo, proporcionou diálogos com a turma e estimulou a curiosidade dos alunos. 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de X forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de X forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos X (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? X NUNCA OBS. Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): Professor e alunos são respeitosos, entre os colegas também. As alunas comentaram que o professor é muito legal, ele sempre faz experimentos e mostra vídeos. 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? O professor não possui postura autoritária, ele é calmo e estimula a curiosidade dos alunos, a aula é interessante e os alunos estavam dispostos a desenvolverem as tarefas. 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? Os alunos são participativos e recorrem ao professor muitas vezes para mostrar o que eles estavam desenvolvendo. 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? O ambiente escolar é simples e os recursos do professor (mídia, computador) pertencem à ele. O professor também possui microscópio próprio e este é emprestado à escola. O professor está comprando todos os materiais necessários para os alunos desenvolverem suas pesquisas. 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Todos se destacaram positivamente pelo empenho, mas as pesquisa são simples e corriqueiras. 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Nenhuma pesquisa se destacou negativamente, no entanto os trabalhos ainda estavam no início. Não foi possível ver a escrita nem os projetos de apresentação. 183

185 TRANSFORMATIVE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: CULTURAL DIVERSITIES AND EDUCATION IN SCIENCE 1 - DADOS DE IDENTIFICAÇÃO Professor(a): T8 Curso: Biologia Escola: Escola Municipal Inácio de Quadros Endereço da escola: Rua Dona Frutosa, S/N Fone: (51) A escola é: ( ) Central ( X) de periferia ( ) rural Disciplina: Ciências Turno: noite Série: 8ª Turma: - Nº de alunos: 18 Fem.: 6 Masc.: 12 Faixa etária: anos Data: Observador(es): João Harres 2 - SALA DE AULA/RECURSOS (Marque com um X) ITENS OBSERVADOS NA SALA DE AULA BOM REGULAR RUIM OBSERVAÇÕES 2.1 Como são as condições gerais da escola (construção, X apertada segurança, espaço adequado, etc.)? 2.2 Como é a iluminação da sala de aula? X 2.3 Como é o tamanho da sala para o número de X alunos? 2.4 Como é a ventilação da sala de aula? X 2.5 Como é a limpeza da sala de aula? X 2.6 Como é o espaço para divulgação de trabalhos X (murais, etc.)? 2.7 Como é o estado das classes e cadeiras? X 2.8 Como é a disposição de classes na sala? tradicional Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 3 ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS POUCAS NUNCA OBS. VEZES VEZES 3.1 Participam da aula respondendo e/ou fazendo X perguntas? 3.2 Estão motivados para aprender o assunto X (demonstram interesse pelo assunto)? 3.3 Percebe-se integração entre os alunos? X 3.4 A integração ocorre em pequenos grupos? X 3.5 Têm facilidade em se expor no grande grupo X (dar sugestões, fazer críticas, descrever o que estão fazendo etc.)? 3.6 Realizam as atividades propostas. X 3.7 Conseguem manter-se concentrados durante X as orientações do professor e durante a intervenção dos colegas? 3.8 Trazem material necessário para o X desenvolvimento das atividades? 3.9 Mantém-se em sala de aula? irrelevan te Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 4 - PROFESSOR/A (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES NUNCA OBS. 184

186 4.1 É atento(a) aos problemas que surgem em X aula? Escuta os alunos? 4.2 Propõe estratégia adequada ao X assessoramento aos alunos em relação às pesquisas? 4.3 Demonstra ter segurança no X assessoramento aos alunos? 4.4 Mostra-se disponível a aprender com os X alunos? 4.5 Dispõe de materiais didáticos variados? X 4.6 Utiliza livro didático? Faz os próprios 4.7 Tem domínio de tempos e espaços para o X bom andamento das atividades? 4.8 Demonstra estar preocupado/a com a X aprendizagem dos alunos e com a solução de suas dificuldades? Descrição/outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): 5 - PROFESSOR/A X ALUNOS (Marque com um X) Itens observados SEMPRE MUITAS VEZES POUCAS VEZES 5.1 O professor/a dirige-se aos alunos de X forma respeitosa? 5.2 Os alunos dirigem-se ao/à professor/a de X forma respeitosa? 5.3 Existe respeito aos limites dos alunos X (tempos diferentes, criatividade, etc.)? 5.4 Existe ambiente de diálogo? X Descrição/ outros registros (identificar o número do item observado): NUNCA OBS. 6. OUTRAS QUESTÕES RELEVANTES 6.1 Como o professor coordena a orientação aos alunos? Com muita tranqüilidade e segurança. 6.2 Como é a participação dos alunos? Na aula observada pouca, mas subtende-se muito envolvimento. 6.3 Como o ambiente escolar contribui para o desenvolvimento das pesquisas? O ambiente escolar contribui pouco, mas a abordagem do professor muito. 6.4 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam positivamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Não observado. 6.5 Que pesquisas e grupos se destacam negativamente durante as atividades de assessoramento? Por quê? Não observado. 185

187 ANNEX 1.3 Document 1.3: Interview in focal group with the students during the school science works show Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science Questões para alunos Sala da Matemática Data: 23/09/11 Local: MCT da PUCRS (Sala da Matemática) Nome: Escola: A. Se um extraterrestre chegasse hoje na Terra e perguntasse para você o que é ciência? O que você responderia a ele? B. Se uma escola resolvesse tirar do currículo a ciência, o que aconteceria com os alunos que estudaram nesta escola quando eles saíssem de lá? C. Teve alguma aula de ciência que vocês lembram que gostaram? Como foi esta aula? D. Você lembra de alguma coisa que você aprendeu em ciência e tu acha que tu nunca vai utilizar na tua vida? E tem algum assunto que tu aprendeu e tu acreditas que tu vai utilizar algum dia? Onde? E. Se você quisesse ser um cientista o que a escola deveria ensinar? F. Se um dia, uma outra universidade convidasse você para participar de uma outra pesquisa o que deveria ser igual e o que deveria ser diferente desta pesquisa? 186

188 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5 AND 6: SOCIAL COMMUNITY AND SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.3 St7 St6 St11 St12 St1 St4 St11 St St12 St14 St14 St15 St16 St19 St22 St1 St3 St4 St7 St6 St5 St8 St19 St22 CM5 Meu pais ficou orgulhoso que eu vim apresentar meu trabalho no Museu. Meu pai chegou ontem do serviço, ele chega só a noite, aí ele viu o meu trabalho. CM6 Como você prefere as aulas de Ciências? Eu também, quando a gente está agitado a professora acalma a gente, ela ajuda ela explica, ela mostra, ela dá a resposta, mas não é muito direta, ela dá os caminhos, é bem boa a aula dela. Eu também prefiro a professora explicando, ela explica bem certinho, mas claro, no filme tu pode não entender tanto, já é mais complicado. Eu gosto da minha como é. Eu acho que não daria aulas com filmes, eu prefiro a professora explicando. Como vocês avaliam o trabalho com a pesquisa em sala de aula? Sim a gente se interessa muito mais. A gente aprende mais. Eu achei bem legal esta pesquisa porque eu pude achar as respostas. Eu achei que no projeto a gente aprendeu mais porque a gente correu atrás das coisas a gente perguntou pouco para a professora, a gente fez cartaz, deu errado, a gente fez de novo, a gente leu em livros, na internet tinha muitas coisas, às vezes nem dava para entender. Eu aprendi não só com a minha pesquisa, mas também com a pesquisa dos outros colegas. Na pesquisa a gente aprende mais que no livro porque tem que ler em várias coisas. Eu também gostara que tivessem tecnologias, eu me identifico muito com computador e videogames, meu irmão está estudando em são Paulo, ele fez um computador de robô. Eu gostaria que nas aulas de ciências tivessem mais tecnologias, com computador, usar o computador, lá na escola só tem dois computadores com internet e a internet ainda é um pouco lenta, aí fica muito demorado. A gente aprende bastante fazendo pesquisa. Quando a professora está ensinando fica todo mundo conversando, mas quando a gente está pesquisando fica todo mundo focado só no trabalho. Quando agente trabalha com pesquisa, agente se foca para mostrar para a professora que a gente tem potencial para poder fazer isso. Se você fosse o professor de Ciências como você elaboraria uma aula interessante? É na maioria das vezes os professores não perguntam a nossa opinião sobre as matérias, e aí a aula fica chata porque eles passam só o que está no livro e o que eles gostam e é sempre a mesma coisa, copiar no quadro e responder. Eu perguntaria a opinião dos alunos, sobre o que eles querem aprender, eu faria atividades interessantes que estimulasse a criatividade deles, acho que eu faria isso Eu também perguntaria a opinião dos alunos e faria de acordo com o que eles gostam de fazer Eu deixaria os alunos à vontade para os alunos aprenderem bem, tem um professor que pergunta o que os alunos querem aprender, e a aula dele é bem legal, bem animada. Eu deixaria eles à vontade e eu iria ajudar. Eu chegaria um dia e pediria para os alunos escolherem como que eles querem que a aula seja. Eu perguntaria o que os alunos querem pesquisar. Eu iria procurar saber o que eles gostam. Eu teria uma conversa para saber o que os meus alunos gostariam de fazer ou não fazer. 187

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205 ANNEX 1.5 Document 1.5: Self-evaluation questionnaires applied to teacher in the end of the development of the filed actions Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science PESQUISA DE AVALIAÇÃO DAS ATIVIDADES REALIZADAS NO PROJETO TRACES 1. Qual(is) a(s) aprendizagens sobre pesquisa que você considerou significativa(s) ao longo dos encontros? O que desta(s) aprendizagens você irá continuar utilizando em sua prática docente? 2. De que maneira você mudou seu ponto de vista sobre o que é ensinar e aprender com a pesquisa em sala de aula? 3. Como você avalia a atuação dos alunos quanto à pesquisa em sala de aula? 4. Em sua opinião, que influencia este trabalho terá na aprendizagem e na vida dos alunos? 5. O que você mais gostou e o que você menos gostou durante as atividades realizadas ao longo do projeto TRACES? 204

206 ANNEX 1.6 Document 1.6: Interview with teachers in a focal group in the end of the field actions Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science GRUPO FOCAL COM PROFESSORES DE GUAÍBA - OBJETIVO: AVALIAR AS ATIVIDADES REALIZADAS NO PROJETO TRACES 1. O que vocês acharam da interação entre a Universidade e a Escola? O que foi bom e o que foi ruim? 2. O que vocês mais aprenderam nesta interação? 3. É possível trabalhar com a pesquisa em sala de aula? Aponte os pontos positivos e os negativos. 4. Como vocês avaliam a exposição realizada pelos alunos? 5. Que mudanças essa atividade pode trazer na vida do aluno? 6. Se vocês fossem elaboradores de projetos de pesquisa de uma Universidade, como vocês organizariam um próximo projeto? Com o que vocês trabalhariam e como fariam isso? 205

207 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHERS EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.6 CM1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T3 T3 T4 T6 T6 T6 Já fiz com os pequenos, eu fiz com o sexto ano, que era uma turma que eu já havia trabalhado. Eles não estão acostumados com esse tipo de atividade, eles estão acostumados a receber o conteúdo pronto. Assim, houve uma resistência, uma estranheza, eles não sabiam direito o que fazer, até por serem pequenos, e quando eu disse que eles é que iriam procurar as respostas para aquelas perguntas que eles tinham feito, eles ficaram desesperados mas como a gente vai fazer isso? E aí aos poucos eu fui tranqüilizando, fui mostrando como a gente ia fazendo, e eles foram se tranquilizando. Agora então a fundo, eu não preciso dizer para eles o que tem que pesquisar, eles fazem assim: a gente tem que fazer isso, exatamente aquilo, né professora? eu digo não, vocês é que sabem, aí eles vão e trazem as respostas. A menina que falava, falava com toda segurança porque ela estava dominando aquilo, uma coisa que eles foram atrás e viram que eram capazes de fazer. Então aí entra o trabalho de mostrar que eles são capazes, que eles podem ser um agente e ter responsabilidade, que não é só o professor. O professor não é dono da verdade. Ao correr eles foram se envolvendo e aí o trabalho foi evoluindo, e toda semana eles iam e me traziam alguma coisa. O trabalho não foi todo feito em sala de aula, eles se reuniam fora da sala de aula, daí produziam alguma coisa, um texto e aí traziam pra mim ver o andamento, e algumas aulas a gente ainda ficava só pra isso. O que eu achei interessante foi poder levar pra eles fazerem textos sem ter aquilo copiado, eles mesmos elaboraram o que eles estavam vendo, o que estava acontecendo, o que eles queriam. O projeto todo foi um divisor de águas, assim para a metodologia, para a gente ver de outra maneira, com outros olhos, enxergar todo o potencial do aluno, o que ele pode. A gente enxerga Porque (antes) eu dava meio pronto, e eles tinham que ir. E agora não, é exatamente isso. Mas tem que ter uma preparação. Estou tentando começar isso com os pequeninhos, lá do sexto ano, já estou tentando. Vamos pesquisar, vamos correr atrás e aí eles vêm Eu fiz um trabalho com pedras preciosas brasileiras no sexto ano, que é o meu início com os pequenos. Nossa, foi ótimo, e aí alguns perguntaram assim tem que ser pedras preciosas brasileiras, não pode ser outras, professora?, ah, pode ser, pode ser. Então, como é bom! 206

208 ANNEX 1. 7 Document: 1.7: Interview done in the focal group with parents during the final event in Guaiba Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science Questões orientadoras: ATIVIDADE: GRUPO FOCAL COM OS PAIS 1. O que mais chamou a atenção dos pais, no projeto no qual envolveu alunos, escolas e a universidade? 2. O que os pais perceberam a partir da atividade proposta (ETR) em relação ao desempenho, motivação e rotina escolar do filho? 3. Em relação à ETR, como os pais avaliaram a aprendizagem dos filhos? 4. Como os pais percebem a importância do Ensino de Ciências na escola? 5. Como os pais elaborariam aulas de ciências? (objetivos, temas) 6. Qual o posicionamento dos pais em relação as proposta de aulas interativas como: passeios, pesquisa em sala de aula, etc.. em relação ao método tradicional de ensino: provas, a caderno cheio, livro didático, etc..? 207

209 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5: SOCIAL COMMUNITY UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.7 P8 P9 P10 CM5 Meu filho fala muito pouco sobre as coisas da escola, a gente tem que estar sempre perguntando e desta vez não, ele chegou em casa contando, eu vi que incentivou ele a falar principalmente comigo. Quando tinha que comprar material para fazer trabalho da escola, meu filho me dizia: mãe compra isso, desta vez ele foi comigo até a livraria porque ele queria procurar o material. Eu via ele preocupado procurando material para reproduzir um olho. Nossa filha pediu para irmos ver o trabalho dela no Museu, mas não tínhamos como ir. 208

210 ANNEX 1.8 Document 1.8: Questionnaire answered by parents Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande Do Sul Prezados pais e mães: Em continuidade ao projeto que envolveu os alunos das escolas municipais de Guaíba, oportunizando a mostra de trabalhos de ciências no Museu da PUCRS e entrega dos certificados aos alunos na prefeitura, gostaríamos da sua participação respondendo o questionário abaixo. 1) Relembrando o projeto de pesquisa com a PUCRS do qual o seu filho (a) participou, o que você percebeu que ele/ela mais gostou nessa atividade? 2) Em sua opinião, a atividade foi interessante? Por quê? 3) Você lembra como eram as suas aulas de ciências? ( ) Sim ( ) Não. Se você lembra, acha que as aulas de seu filho (a) continuam sendo iguais as suas: ( ) Sim ( ) Não. Se você respondeu NÃO, o que mudou em sua opinião? 4) Para você, como deveriam ser hoje as aulas de ciências? 5) Quais os assuntos que você considera importantes para serem trabalhados nas aulas de ciências? Por quê? 6) O que você acha da proposta de participar e decidir junto com a escola sobre os conteúdos que seu filho irá estudar? Idade: Escolaridade: ( ) 1º Grau Completo Ensino Fundamental ( ) 1º Grau Incompleto ( ) 2 º Grau Completo Ensino Médio ( ) 2º Grau Incompleto ( ) Nível Superior. Profissão: Eu sou Pai ( ) Mãe ( ) ou Responsável ( ). Qual? 209

211 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 6: SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.8 P16 Aprender mais sobre o assunto pesquisado. CM6 P21 P25 P26 P32 P34 P25 P37 P38 P39 P40 P41 P42 P43 P44 P8 P9 P21 P30 P48 P13 Minha filha se empolgou em reproduzir a pesquisa, de pesquisar bastante. A palestra dos pesquisadores da PUCRS e da pesquisa. A pesquisa e a palestra dos pesquisadores da PUCRS. A pesquisa de campo, apresentação em outra cidade e convívio com outras pessoas. De participar da pesquisa e conhecer outros trabalhos, de outras escolas. O desenvolvimento e a exposição do trabalho. Percebi que ele gostou das atividades e que ele elaborou uma maquete. Também, ele ficou feliz em poder ir ao Museu da PUCRS apresentar o seu trabalho. Ele gostou de aprender mais sobre vulcão e de pesquisar. Aprender sobre os planetas. De pesquisar, se apropriar desse conhecimento, transformando em sua própria produção. Ela gostou de pesquisar sobre os planetas. Caso fosse somente apresentado o conteúdo ela não despertaria o mesmo interesse. O que ela mais gostou foi devido às atividades extraordinárias conforme as pesquisas feitas nos estudos científicos. Acredito que ela gostou de apresentar seu trabalho e falar um pouco mais e aprender sobre este assunto que ela tanto pesquisa. Meu filho se sentiu valorizado podendo escolher de forma autônomo quanto ao desenvolvimento e viu que existe algo mais que livros, mais que teorias. O conhecimento que ela adquiriu. Foi importante, pois ela aprendeu muitas coisas sobre assuntos que nunca tinha trabalhado antes. Abriu seus horizontes para o conhecimento. A atividade fez com que minha filha tivesse responsabilidade em realizar bons trabalhos. E aprendeu o suficiente para saber mais sobre o assunto. Foi interessante porque ela tirou várias dúvidas sobre o assunto. Ela descobriu a importância das matas ciliares. Porque deu mais motivação para os estudos da matéria. 210

212 P14 P15 P16 P17 P20 P23 P9 P13 P19 P23 P25 P42 P45 P48 Estimular os jovens para a iniciação científica. Ele se interessou mais em saber como eram feitas as Hidrelétricas. Ele desenvolveu o trabalho em grupo, e se interessou bastante pelo assunto. Estimulou a vontade de estudar, aprender e passar o conhecimento a diante. A atividade ajudou bastante a criança no aprendizado na escola. Foi uma coisa que chamou a atenção deles, aí eles se interessaram mais pelos estudos. O trabalho não é superficial, é mais aprofundado ao tema. Agora eles tem que pesquisar, fazer trabalhos para apresentar e não é mais um questão de decorar a matéria. As aulas eram escritas, só imaginávamos como eram as coisas. As aulas são mais interessantes. Antes as aulas de ciências eram chatas, com as professoras de hoje elas incentivam as crianças. As aulas tornaram-se mais interessantes com a participação dos alunos. Deixou de ser decoreba, passou a ter mais pesquisas, a visão é bem mais ampla. Eu tinha feiras de Ciências, na escola do meu filho tem trabalhos mais interessantes. 211

213 5.2 Annexes of Case Study Lajeado CS2 ANNEX 2.1 Document 2.1: Interview with Educational Supervisor Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science QUESTIONÁRIO AOS PROFESSORES SUPERVISORES 1. Formação e experiência 1.1- Tipo de formação/ano: 1.2- Formação continuada: 1.3- Área de atuação: 1.4- Tempo de experiência no magistério/na disciplina/na série: 1.5- Exercício de outra profissão ou função: 1.6- Carga horária semanal: 2. Caracterização da turma geral da equipe 3. Concepções e práticas pedagógicas 3.1- Bases e espaços (tempo) do planejamento: 3.2- Descrição da prática e recursos utilizados: 3.3- Referencial teórico: 3.4- Concepção sobre aprendizagem: 4. Como a equipe de professores se constituiu? Como avança rompendo padrões culturais predominantes no contexto educacional da região? 4.1- Qual é o espaço da pesquisa nestas práticas inovadoras? 4.2- Como é estruturada e como funciona a escola? 4.3- Que fatores constituíram o movimento de inovação implementado pela equipe docente? 4.4- Que obstáculos encontraram (encontram) ao desenvolver o seu trabalho? 4.5- Que estratégias de ensino adotam nas diferentes etapas do ciclos? 4.6- Como ocorre o processo de acompanhamento das aprendizagens? 4.7- Como os professores entendem as diferenças entre aprendizagens construídas nos padrões convencionais de ensino e na modalidade adotada pela escola? 4.8- Qual o espaço da pesquisa e das ciências nas práticas pedagógicas dos diferentes ciclos? Espaço aberto (detalhamentos ou acréscimo de aspectos não abordados na entrevista). 212

214 - Marcas profissionais DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.1 SUP1 SUP1 SUP1 Fiz magistério no Ensino Médio, contra vontade, obrigada pela minha mãe, mas depois que eu fiz magistério, eu por vontade própria continuei na área, fui fazer pedagogia; A gente está aprendendo a fazer isso, a gente vai olhando a evolução do grupo, e percebe que está dando vários passos e nem se dá conta que está fazendo. A questão de refletir sobre a própria prática não deixa de ser uma pesquisa, olhar o que tu está fazendo, ver o que tu está fazendo e refletir sobre isso e ver o que tu pode mudar. A gente faz isso muito nas reuniões pedagógicas, no momento este ano a gente está dando um olhar bem importante pra competências que a gente está desenvolvendo nos alunos, a gente começou com a área da interpretação. Como nossos alunos estão interpretando? Como eles estão entendendo o mundo? Os textos, as imagens? A vida deles? Começamos a trazer para reunião pedagógica que elas trouxessem prática que elas vêm fazendo dentro da sala de aula que promovam a interpretação dos alunos, neste sentido, eu não sei se é exatamente uma pesquisa, mais a gente está olhando aquela prática, como a Adriana faz, como a Solange faz, como a Luciane, e elas estão trazendo e a gente está discutindo isso, pra tentar melhorar; Trabalhar com alguém, trabalhar em parceria, não ser sozinha nessa função, também é muito bom, porque a gente consegue trocar bastante idéias; 213

215 ANNEX 2.2 Document 2.2: Interview with Teacher Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science QUESTIONÁRIO AOS PROFESSORES 1) Quais são as fontes que usam como proposta de inovação? 2) Como viram a visita ao museu? Estava dentro da expectativa? 3) E quanto a atividade de pesquisa realizada nas aulas de integração, em que aspecto está coerente com da proposta da escola? E em que difere? 4) Que contribuição para os alunos esta proposta trouxe que de outra forma não seria atingido? Em caso de que devesse ser repetida, o que deveria mudar para melhorar? 5) Como você vê a integração da ciência com as demais áreas na perspectiva interdisciplinar do 3º ciclo? Em que a atividade no museu ajudou nisso? 214

216 215

217 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 6: SCIENCE DUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 1.2 T1 T1 T1 Essa atividade, ela vem de encontro a nossa proposta de trabalho, o aluno como autor da sua aprendizagem, sabendo buscar por si próprio, não sendo dependente só do professor, ele mesmo tendo autonomia para buscar, até esta parte de construção da aprendizagem dele. Combinou direitinho; Bom, a possibilidade de interagir com os experimentos, de ver como eles acontecem, de acompanhar todo o processo, que muitos trazem isso lá dentro, e em sala de aula infelizmente a gente não consegue fazer isso, a gente faz isso muito pouco, esse visual, essa experimentação. Eles adoram experimentos, é que eles mais pedem nas aulas de ciências, quando a gente começa a conversar sobre um assunto ai vamos fazer um experimentos pra ver como é que é?, a gente faz alguns, mas não é freqüente, não é possível fazer com todos porque demanda muito tempo, demanda mão de obra, que as vezes as gente não tem material também, até dá pra fazer com material alternativo, muitas vezes a gente faz isso, este ano não trabalhei tanto em cima disso, até em função da minha licença; Não mudaria nada na proposta realizada, achei que ela foi bem boa, eles tiveram uma parte prática, esse passeio de aprendizagem e depois aqui na escola eles puderam pegar a teoria para encontrar as duas e encaixar, fazer o encontro dos dois e aprender com isso; A ciência está presente em todos os lugares, nos somos ciência, a gente vive isso no nosso dia-a-dia, todo a tecnologia que a gente conhece hoje tem a ver com a ciência, graças a ela isso existe, nos profes aqui procuramos trabalhar assuntos, que mesmo sendo de outra disciplina, os temas que a gente a trabalha, vamos supor trabalhar um assunto de história, que tem a ver com história, mas a ciências sempre está presente neste assunto, é possível unir os dois, daria para unir com a geografia, com a matemática, com português, sempre dá pra fazer esse tipo de trabalho, a gente não está separado em caixinhas, a gente está num todo assim como é nossa vida, tudo está interligado. O museu também está dentro desta perspectiva, o museu contribuiu um monte para construir novos conhecimentos, e também de repente para solidificar os que eles já tinham; 216

218 T1 T2 T2 T2 T2 T2 T3 T3 Nas minhas aulas, eu geralmente procuro usar revistas, jornais, algum artigo que saiu interessante que tem na internet, notícia de jornal às vezes, um globo repórter, um fantástico, algum documentário que saiu na TV que os alunos assistem, que ouvem falar, que eles já tenham alguma noção, em cima disso eu procuro trabalhar, buscar atualidades para trazer para sala de aula e em cima delas desenvolver o trabalho de modo que eles aprendem a viver nesta sociedade de hoje em dia, priorizando o dia-a-dia, o cotidiano; Eu acho assim, a própria questão da pesquisa é uma coisa que a gente prima muito, que a gente busca, a questão da pesquisa e da busca está dentro do que a gente propõe para os alunos diariamente. Tudo que foi feito está ao encontro daquilo que a gente vem batendo na tecla e querendo desenvolver nos nossos alunos; O próprio trabalho em grupo com pessoas de várias etapas, e um ponto que ajuda, a questão da busca, não foi uma pesquisa extensa, mais foi diferente, porque partiu deles, eles estavam interessados, eu acho que foi bem legal; Se fosse repetido, fazer uma pesquisa não tão pequena, sucinta, de repente fazer uma pesquisa um pouco mais longa, e talvez trabalhar em grupos menores de pesquisa, acredito que isso iria ajudar eles também; Eu vejo que a ciência trás uma contribuição muito grande, eu também tenho um pouquinho da ciência, apesar de estar a bastante tempo longe, afastada da ciências. Acho que a ciência tem muita coisa legal pra puxar projetos que envolvem uma área bem grande, acho que a ciência basicamente poderia ser a porta, um guia para basear os projetos; Eu uso bastante material que eu recebo da área de matemática, revista do professor de matemática, eu também procuro na internet, sites da área de matemática, livros, revistas, materiais que eu pego com colegas; Eu acho que foi bem importante a gente trabalha de forma bem semelhante, talvez não tão científico, mais é bem parecido com o que a gente faz aqui. Fiquei sabendo da proposta, não cheguei a participar, mas pelo que fiquei sabendo nas discussões, foi bem bom. Eu acho que é legal eles trabalharem assim contigo, tu vir de fora e fazer teu trabalho aqui com a gente, imagino que eles tenham crescido com isso, mesmo fazendo a pesquisa, mesmo que eles trabalhem de forma um pouco semelhante, eu acho que pra eles é bacana. Quanto ao museu os alunos poderem ter físico, as coisas para mexer e usar é muito diferente, do que ver um vídeo, uma imagem no livro ou só ficar sabendo e estudar, acho que foi bem bacana. Estar lá e poder usar os experimentos fez toda a diferença 217

219 T3 T3 Não sei se é o caso, mas talvez pudesse ser desenvolvido um trabalho maior; Na verdade quando a gente planeja as atividades de integração do 3º ciclo a gente não pensa em disciplina, a gente não pensa numa matéria fechada, numa gavetinha, as vezes a gente está planejando matemática, daqui a pouco algo de inglês, mas a gente não pensa em disciplina, então a gente não dá muita importância para qual gavetinha que estávamos falando, e sim para aquilo que a gente acha que é importante, talvez a gente fale muito de uma coisa e pouco de outra; ANNEX 2.3 Document 2.3: Interview with Parents Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science ENTREVISTA COM OS PAIS 1) Como você e a comunidade local percebem a escola? O que ela tem de diferente e o que ela tem de igual às outras? Como avalia (melhor ou pior) essas diferenças? 2) Como você vem acompanha o processo de mudança da escola: (a) de implantação de avaliação por ciclos em todos eles; (b) de integração disciplinar no 3º ciclo? 3) Você participa da atividades? Em que medida a escola escuta os pais na construção da proposta? 4) Como você viu a ida de seu filho ao Museu da PUCRS? O que achou da atividade? 218

220 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5: SOCIAL COMMUNITY UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.3 P1 P1 P1 P1 P1 P2 P2 P2 P2 P3 P3 P3 P3 P3 P4 P4 Quando cheguei aqui no bairro já estava implantado o sistemas de ciclos, foi estranho pra mim; Tem os dois lados, as professoras são bem família, dá pra perceber, elas interagem bastante com as crianças, isso é bom. A única coisa de ruim que tem, isso é em todos as colégios, que os professores hoje em dia já não podem mais erguer a voz para os alunos, isso eu acho muito errado, porque ta virando uma bagunça, as leis protegem demais de mais as crianças, claro que sou contra a agressão, mais castigo deveria ter, não existe mais respeito; As integrações acho que são bons, acho que favorece; Costumo sempre comparecer. Qualquer alteração é mandado bilhete, a filha comenta em casa; A minha filha foi, ela adorou, eu achei legal; Nos tinha ido morar para Arroio do Meio, quando voltamos já tinham os ciclos; O que eu vou dizer, aqui o negócio é o ciclo, eu achava melhor se tivesse provas. Pra eles estudar mais, se interessar mais em estudar; Eu acho que a integração é bom, um aprende com o outro; Sempre que eu posso eu vou nas reuniões, mais não tem como eu ir muito porque eu trabalho todo o dia; Já estava implantado os ciclos, eles vieram da escola Vida Nova, já tinha ciclos lá, continua aqui; Eu acho que está bom, eles vieram de outra escola pra cá, e continuam no mesmo ritmo, estão bem, graças a Deus estão tudo bem, hoje pela manhã falei com as profes e tudo de bom mesmo, os três, o que ouvi falar. Guri sempre é mais difícil, eu estou muito feliz com meus filhos, principalmente com o da 31, que eles está muito bem, ele desde pequeninho é assim; A integração é bom, eles aprendem, um se comunica com o outro e ajudam o outro; Sempre participo das reuniões e atividades; Minha filha foi e adorou; Não acompanhei, ela veio de uma escola estadual que era do 1º ao 9º ano; Tem bastante coisa diferente, minha filha gosta desta escola, depois que veio pra cá, ela gosta das professoras, dos passeios, das atividades de lazer tudo enfim. É boa aluna, as profes gostam dela. É sinal que a escola é boa também porque ela se identifica bastante com as colegas e professores; 219

221 P4 P4 P5 P5 P5 P5 P5 Integração eu acho interessante porque eles vão conhecendo os trabalhos das outras salas, dos outros alunos, vão fazendo amizades, já vão se interando com o resto da turma da escola; Sempre que posso venho a reuniões, eventos relatórios, converso com a professora dela pra saber como ela esta; Eu acompanhei de longe, eu vejo que meu filho esta bem satisfeito com essas mudanças e apóia, então pra mim está tudo certo, ta bom assim; Eu vou falar por mim mesmo, eu tenho três filhos, os dois primeiros começaram e terminaram estudo aqui, o mais novo esta na sexta série, vai terminar os estudos aqui, até falei agora com a profe lá dentro também, e assim né, eu particularmente, na escola aqui vejo tudo de bom, sinceramente, senão fosse assim, meus filhos não teriam estudado todos aqui; As integrações, as trocas de experiências, eu acredito que as pessoas tem que viver próximas umas das outras, e que a amizade é fundamental para a vida das pessoas, até mesmo troca de carinho, e aí que a gente cresce, quanto mais pessoas unidas em função de algumas coisas pra mim está show de bola; Sempre que possível sim, assim fazendo um comercial, eu tenho van, eu tento sempre transmitir para pessoas que viajam comigo, esse tipo de sentimento, essa coisa de participação etc e coisa e tal, que nem sempre eu posso, mais quem pode, é importante e é bem benéfico; Ele foi e gostou bastante, achou bem legal e bem proveitoso. ANNEX 2.4 Document 2.4: Focus Group with Students Morning Shift Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science GRUPO FOCAL COM OS ALUNOS 1.O que foi positivo na visita ao Museu da Pucrs? 2. O que foi possível aprender? 3. Vocês conseguiram completar as pesquisas de vocês a partir da visita ao museu? 4. O que vocês acharam de pesquisar? 5.O que vocês utilizaram para pesquisar? 6.O que vocês encontram pesquisando? 7.Qual a diferença entre pesquisar um assunto e trabalhar com temas elaborados pela professora? 8. É comum vocês realizarem pesquisa em sala de aula? Como ocorre este processo? 9. O que vocês mais gostam no momento em que ocorre a integração das turmas e o que vocês mais gostam quando as aulas são separadas? 10. Como ocorre a integração entre os colegas? 11. A escola desenvolve o complexo temático? 12. Quem não era da escola como percebeu a metodologia da Guido Lermen? 220

222 13. Como os pais percebem a metodologia da escola? 221

223 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5: SOCIAL COMMUNITY UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.4 St1 St2 St4 St1 St1 St2 St1 St1 St4 St2 St1 St2 St2 St1 St1 St2 St1 St3 St1 St3 St4 St1 St1 Sim; Até tem um projeto pais presentes; Tem pais de alunos que vem falar de sua vida, ajudar, ensinar também; Não sei se chegaram a comentar, mais a escola tinha um projeto de se tornar escola integral, pelos menos para os menorzinhos, primeiro e segundo ciclos, mais eu não sei o que aconteceu, porque eles estão pedindo, pedindo e nunca fazem nada. Governo foi mandado mais de não sei quantos ofícios, eles queriam turno integral para os menores, porque os pais não tem como ficar com eles em casa. E porque eles têm que ir até o bairro vizinho num projeto se eles têm a escola? O problema é que a escola não tem muito espaço. Em primeiro lugar a aprendizagem; Foi um jeito diferente de pesquisar de se envolver mais, isso eu gostei bastante, a gente se envolveu bastante [...] a gente fez a pesquisa rápida pra estar logo pronto e deu para aprender bastante; Conforme a gente estudou sobre um assunto e teve lá a pratica, foi muito bacana, esse jeito de ter uma aula diferente; Se a gente mesmo pesquisa, a gente tem que entender o assunto, para poder colocar no papel, poder explicar. Normalmente quando a gente faz uma pesquisa a gente vai apresentar, então se a gente vai apresentar a gente precisa saber o assunto para poder apresentar bem; O que a professora trás ela já sabe, com a pesquisa ela pode aprender mais com a gente também; Mais na integração, eu acho, porque daí a gente tem que apresentar, muitos tem vergonha, já perde a vergonha. Dentro da sala a gente trabalha mais sobre um assunto, ocorre pesquisa só na matéria também, mais é mais na integração; Sim; Nas aulas separadas, a gente aprende nossos objetivos certos, nos que estamos na 33, nos temos bastante conteúdos este ano, e de vez em quando a gente está na integração a gente não pode aprender tanta coisa difícil, que a gente precisaria, porque tem pessoas que não nesta etapa ainda, que não vão saber, mais daí a gente tenta ajudar, assim na integração é bom para se reunir em grupo, saber lidar com mais pessoas, não só ficar sozinho, daí a gente tem o momento em grupo que é muito bom, que tem gente que é muito sozinho, daí a gente puxa ele com nós, a gente brinca e estuda ao mesmo tempo; É, as professoras tentam fazer um grupo, que tenham uma pessoa mais esperta que não tenha tanta dificuldade, com uma que tem para a gente conseguir ajudar; Isso é bom, porque se aluno que esta quieto a gente tenta incentivá-lo, estamos em grupo para todos se ajudar, isso é muito bacana, porque os alunos que acabaram de entrar no 3º ciclo agora, a gente percebe que eles tem capacidade, muitas vezes mais do que a gente que esta saindo já, eles são muito inteligentes, a gente fica assim nosso... como eles podem ter essa capacidade,, sendo que a gente que está saindo e não tinha pensado nisso. Faz pensar sim; E relembrar bastante coisas também, tem coisas que a gente já estudou e pega porque aquela etapa está estudando e é colocado na integração também, daí a gente trabalha de novo, é bem interessante; Eu não quero alegrar as professoras, mais elas tem um jeito muito especial de dar aulas, porque eu nunca vi uma forma diferente que elas dão, tipo quando a gente aprendeu fração, que forma mais gostosa de aprender fração do que com chocolate, não é, elas deram chocolate pra cada um e a gente aprendeu a fazer frações, quem iria esquecer também né?; Na integração tem vários professores que ajudam e por turma só um às vezes dois; É um pouco de cada; Sim; Até é legal quando a gente não sabe uma coisa, a gente aprende e gente ensina também; Até as professoras também mais eu não sou professora de Geografia, mais agora eu aprendi isso daqui. A professora de Matemática eu aprendi A professora de religião também aprende coisa de geografia; Não. 222

224 ANNEX 2.5 Document 2.5: Focus Group with Students Afternoon Shift Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science GRUPO FOCAL COM OS ALUNOS 1.O que foi positivo na visita ao museu da pucrs? 2. O que foi possível aprender? 3. Vocês conseguiram completar as pesquisas de vocês a partir da visita ao museu? 4. O que vocês acharam de pesquisar? 5. O que vocês utilizaram para pesquisar? 6. O que vocês encontram pesquisando? 7. Qual a diferença entre pesquisar um assunto e trabalhar com temas elaborados pela professora? 8. É comum vocês realizarem pesquisa em sala de aula? Como ocorre este processo? 9. O que vocês mais gostam no momento em que ocorre a integração das turmas e o que vocês mais gostam quando as aulas são separadas? 10. Como ocorre a integração entre os colegas? 223

225 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5: SOCIAL COMMUNITY UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.4 St5 St6 St5 St5 St7 St8 St5 St5 St6 St5 St7 St8 St9 St1 0 St5 St6 St7 St6 St7 St7 St8 St9 St8 St5 St6 o que me chamou atenção, é que não foi aquela coisa complicada que a escola normalmente mandava a gente fazer, uma parte dele dela a gente já tinha visto lá; tinha coisas da pesquisa que a gente já sabia também. Eu pesquisei das plantas tinha coisas como ar, as plantas produzem oxigênio, já sabia isso de lá, e já tinha aprendido; Eu pesquisei sobre tecnologia do computador; eu dei uma lida nas coisas, já tinha escutado alguma coisa, como foi criado, a Universidade que ele foi criado, a cidade, o nome do primeiro computador; meu grupo pesquisou sobre energia, eu não sabia o que é energia eólica, e a gente aprendeu as várias formas de energia; Meu grupo pesquisou sobre o telefone celular e eu aprendi que os telefones antigamente eram muito complicados e hoje são bem modernos; Sim; eu acho que a melhor parte é descobrir coisas novos; complementar o que a gente já sabia, entender melhor; Sim; tem que ir atrás, não adianta ficar parada, sendo fácil ou não, tem que ir atrás; Barsa, livros na internet; só na internet; Internet, livro; Museu, Barsa e Internet; nos livros, algumas deu pra encontrar em livros e outras na internet. tem pesquisa nas matérias normais e na integração, na integração a gente faz em conjunto, quando é matéria separada elas dão um tempo pra nós cada aula vir e o resto a gente faz de manhã ou faz em casa; na integração as profes misturam as três turmas, 31, 32 e 33 e nas aulas normais tipo de matemática, português a gente tem que pesquisar ou sozinho ou em grupo da turma; Na integração porque tu esta com todo mundo tu pode ajudar, tu pode aprender, pode compartilhar ideias, discutir em grupo, saber colaborar. Na aula tu tá mais sozinho, pode fazer o teu sozinho, ta sozinho, sem aquele... Sim; Mesma coisa que ela; Mesma coisa; Isso; Melhor parte da integração seria o trabalho mais em grupo, a parte que tem muitas pessoas aqui no colégio que eu não conhecia, como começou a ter mais integração eu comecei a conhecer mais profundamente as pessoas; Sempre tinha integração, mais antes não era organizado, as profes, era uma vez por semana, e a gente perdia as matérias que agente tinha sempre, aí as profes organizaram, eu acho bom porque dá pra trabalhar em grupo, conhecer as pessoas, aprender mais. 224

226 ANNEX 2.6 Document 2.6: Focus Group with Former Students Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science GRUPO FOCAL COM EX - ALUNOS 1) Como foi o processo de adaptação de sair de uma escola como a Guido e ingressar na escola Érico? 2) Que diferenças você percebeu em você em comparação com os colegas vindos de outras escolas? Sua evolução ao longo do Ensino Médio foi ou tem sido diferente dos outros colegas? 3) Vendo hoje à distância, como tu avalia o processo de mudança da Escola Guido? Isso lhe trouxe facilidades hoje? Quais? 225

227 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 5: SOCIAL COMMUNITY UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.5 St1 St2 St2 St3 St1 St2 St1 Primeiro foi um choque grande, porque lá é pelo funcionamento de ciclos, aqui são turmas, etapas diferentes pra ti seguir. Lá a gente tinha acompanhamento das professoras, aqui a gente não tem acompanhamento específico da professora, então a gente tem que se puxar realmente mais; Aqui é por notas, lá era por avaliação, os alunos progrediam ou não, e foi um choque pra nós, porque tinham mais conteúdos, são mais matérias, enfim; Por ter alguns colegas da escola já foi um grande avanço, porque tinha pessoas que eu não conhecia então tu te sente excluída, tem pessoas que rodam e se juntam em grupos; No início eu me senti meio perdida, depois de um tempo a gente foi fazendo amizades e com o tempo consegui me adaptar; O ensino deles era maior, eles tinham aprendido mais coisas que a gente, tipo fórmulas, principalmente matemática, química e física essas matérias a gente teve no último trimestre do ano passado na Guido eles já tinham desde a 7ª ou 8ª e a gente não conseguiu acompanhar que nem eles, mas aí que a gente teve que começar a se puxar mais nos estudos para depois não ficar pra traz; Pela questão de trabalhar em grupo, a gente era mais adaptado por ter que trabalhar com outras pessoas, então isso foi... uma grande evolução; mais na questão de nós, eu acho que a gente consegue ter o mesmo acompanhamento que eles e tal, a gente ta no mesmo desempenho, e a maioria eu acho que consegue passar, não é pelo ensino da Guido, mais é pelo que tu ta aprendendo agora; St1 St3 St1 St2 St4 St1 St2 St5 St6 Eu acho muito bom lá, primeiro porque tu tem um grupo ali do teu lado, o terceiro ciclo são três turmas, que estão sempre juntas, aí não é só o que a 6ª série está aprendendo e a 8ª não pode, a 33 e a 31 aprendem todos juntos, a 6ª série no caso tinham os mesmos conteúdos que a 8ª série, e no desenvolvimento isso ajudava, tu tinha auxilio dos teus colegas e ainda dos professores, aí parece que tu aprendia mais fácil, só que os conteúdos é claro, não eram os mesmos que eram dados aqui no Érico né; Trouxe dificuldade, porque aqui a gente não tem isso, daí a gente que abrir mão, é outro recurso, daí a gente não pode ser que nem antes, como a gente já estava acostumado, fica um pouco difícil tu ingressar aqui, mas com o passar dos meses tu consegue; Eu acho que a Guido não pode deixar de fazer o processo dela de ciclos, ela não precisa ser como as outras escolas, mesmo que outros alunos de fora ficam falando que nossa escola é fraca, lá é método de ensino, como todas as escolas não adaptam a mesma técnica de ensinamento, lá é uma e aqui é outra. E é variação, isso acontece no decorrer de todo processo letivo das escolas; Eu acho bom o ensino lá, concordo com minha colega; Eu acho que os professores lá deveriam ser um pouco menos rude, e deveriam ter mais calma, algumas vezes sim, as professoras as vezes não procuravam ensinar, eram assim, sei lá, brutas nas palavras; A gente sente dificuldade, em alguns pontos, em outros pontos eles tem mais dificuldades do que a gente, na questão de interagir com o grupo a gente tem mais facilidades que eles; Não é porque a nos viemos de escola de ciclos que a gente vai ser mais fracos que eles; Foi meio complicado no início do primeiro trimestre no segundo e no terceiro acho que conseguimos pegar mais; Depois melhorou; 226

228 St5 St6 St5 St5 St5 St6 St5 St7 St5 St7 St5 St6 St5 St6 St5 St5 St5 St6 St5 St7 St5 St7 St5 St6 A gente não estava acostumado com notas, essas coisas assim, mudou bastante a rotina. Os professores cobram mais. Eu achei igual, não mudou muito. Sempre têm alguns mais inteligentes. Eu sempre tive dificuldade em matemática, mais isso eu já vinha tendo; No primeiro trimestre tirei 4 notas vermelhas, no segundo 1 então já fui melhorando, estou pegando mais as coisas aqui; Eu evolui bastante, não achei que eu iria evoluir tanto depois que eu sai da Guido, que eu não iria conseguir; Porque a gente fazia integração, acho que a gente não aprendia tanto, aqui consegui evoluir bastante, mais do que lá talvez; Não tive dificuldades. Porém comecei a trabalhar este ano daí atrapalhou também; Acho que não muito, se fosse escola seriada seria mais fácil entrar no Castelhinho sem ter aquela...ffoi muito confuso no início; Não, um pouco, eu já tinha estudado antes em outro colégio no Nova Viena e eu já sabia mais ou menos; É, e eu sempre estudei em escola de ciclo; No Nova Viena, era bem complicado assim, eu tinha dificuldade e eles não me ajudavam tanto que nem na Guido e nem aqui; Foi meio complicado no início do primeiro trimestre no segundo e no terceiro acho que conseguimos pegar mais; depois melhorou; a gente não estava acostumado com notas, essas coisas assim, mudou bastante a rotina. Os professores cobram mais. Eu achei igual, não mudou muito. Sempre têm alguns mais inteligentes. Eu sempre tive dificuldade em matemática, mais isso eu já vinha tendo; No primeiro trimestre tirei 4 notas vermelhas, no segundo 1 então já fui melhorando, estou pegando mais as coisas aquí; Eu evolui bastante, não achei que eu iria evoluir tanto depois que eu sai da Guido, que eu não iria conseguir; Porque a gente fazia integração, acho que a gente não aprendia tanto, aqui consegui evoluir bastante, mais do que lá talvez; Não tive dificuldades. Porém comecei a trabalhar este ano daí atrapalhou também; acho que não muito, se fosse escola seriada seria mais fácil entrar no Castelhinho sem ter aquela.. foi muito confuso no início Não, um pouco, eu já tinha estudado antes em outro colégio no Nova Viena e eu já sabia mais ou menos; é e eu sempre estudei em escola de ciclo; No Nova Viena, era bem complicado assim, eu tinha dificuldade e eles não me ajudavam tanto que nem na Guido e nem aqui; foi meio complicado no início do primeiro trimestre no segundo e no terceiro acho que conseguimos pegar mais; depois melhorou; 227

229 St5 St6 St5 St5 St5 St6 St5 St7 St5 St7 a gente não estava acostumado com notas, essas coisas assim, mudou bastante a rotina. Os professores cobram mais. Eu achei igual, não mudou muito. Sempre têm alguns mais inteligentes. Eu sempre tive dificuldade em matemática, mais isso eu já vinha tendo; no primeiro trimestre tirei 4 notas vermelhas, no segundo 1 então já fui melhorando, estou pegando mais as coisas aquí; Eu evolui bastante, não achei que eu iria evoluir tanto depois que eu sai da Guido, que eu não iria conseguir; porque a gente fazia integração, acho que a gente não aprendia tanto, aqui consegui evoluir bastante, mais do que lá talvez; Não tive dificuldades. Porém comecei a trabalhar este ano daí atrapalhou também; Acho que não muito, se fosse escola seriada seria mais fácil entrar no Castelhinho sem ter aquela.. foi muito confuso no início; Não, um pouco, eu já tinha estudado antes em outro colégio no Nova Viena e eu já sabia mais ou menos; é e eu sempre estudei em escola de ciclo; No Nova Viena, era bem complicado assim, eu tinha dificuldade e eles não me ajudavam tanto que nem na Guido e nem aqui; 228

230 ANNEX 2.7 Document 2.7: Applied Questionnaire to Teachers Dados de Identificação Nome: Idade: Transformative Research Activities: Cultural Diversities and Education in Science QUESTIONÁRIO APLICADO AOS PROFESSORES Há quantos anos atuas como professor? Há quantos anos atuas como professor nesta escola? Qual ciclo: ( ) 1 ciclo ( ) 2º ciclo ( ) 3º ciclo_ área: Qual a tua formação acadêmica: I - Curso normal/magistério nível Médio: sim ( ) não ( ) II Ensino Superior (área/ano/instituição): III Especialização (área/ano/instituição): 1. Qual foi o motivo da tua vinda para essa escola? 2. O que tu sabia da proposta pedagógica da escola antes de ingressar? 3. O que pensas hoje sobre essa proposta? 4. Qual foi tua participação na construção e evolução da proposta? 5. Que fatores, no teu entender, favorecem e quais dificultam o desenvolvimento desse trabalho? 6. Considerando tua caminhada neste processo, como avalias a contribuição: 6.1. da tua formação inicial (magistério/graduação)? 6.2. dos programas de formação continuada que tens participado: a) Curso de especialização (caso tenha) b) Cursos de curta duração (eventos, seminários, extensão, programas de capacitação da rede municipal, etc.) c) Formação na escola (grupos de estudos; momentos de formação interna; assessorias pedagógicas com pesquisadores, especialistas, etc.) 229

231 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER DUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 2.7 T5 T8 T9 T7 T12 T12 T6 T6 T9 T11 T4 T8 T7 T6 T9 T10 T11 T4 T5 importantíssima para construção do conhecimento teórico e prático auxiliou no sentido de ser professor e em como lidar com alunos Penso que contribuiu no sentido da minha forma de ser professora e nas crenças que tenho, como que todo o aluno pode aprender que é possível fazer diferente, porém, em relação a ciclos e inovação penso que pouco vi, li ou ouvi nesta época O magistério me deu a base didática que necessitava para trabalhar com meus alunos e sala de aula. Penso que todos os professores deveriam ter feito o Magistério. Já a minha formação na graduação foi decepcionante, pois foi de modo tradicional, com decoreba, sem instigar a capacidade daquele que futuramente estará numa sala de aula com 30 alunos muito diferentes me fez entender o sentido e a evolução da educação, o sentido de se estar e trabalhar dentro de uma escola (principalmente o magistério) foi mínima Formação continuada muito importante, pois na docência compartilhada cada uma contribui com a sua especialidade, no meu caso, são os conhecimentos biológicos quanto mais cursos, estudos, mais rico fica nosso trabalho procurei exatamente este curso para tentar melhorar meu trabalho no Laboratório de Aprendizagem e acho que ainda tenho muito a aprender estou sempre indo em busca de novos conhecimentos (jogos, livros, informática), para deixar as minhas aulas mais interessantes aqueles que buscamos de maneira coletiva e de acordo com nossos interesses e não aqueles impostos pela prefeitura que nem sempre vão de encontro busco cursos que venham ao encontro do que acredito sempre que posso participo, alguns contribuem para minha prática, já outros são muito lindos na teoria, mas muito longe na prática todos são importantes, pois sempre se aprende algo de novo que em determinado momento utilizamos no nosso fazer pedagógico. Às vezes serve para refletir sobre a prática, outras para inovar, ter novas idéias estes cursos são bons pois fazem a gente pensar e nesta escola temos como prática discutir depois o que ouvimos. Claro que nem todos foram o que esperamos maioria das capacitações oferecidas pela rede foram proveitosas participo de todos que são oferecidos pela rede. E também busco outros em particular. Cada situação destas abre janelas, possibilidades para inovar a nossa prática docente São eles que dão suporte e fazem acontecer as reflexões e propostas pensadas; De grande importância, pois nesses momentos ocorrem as reflexões pedagógicas do grupo, das necessidades da escola; naquele momento estava fazendo falta, ou precisando ser repensado, eu como parte do grupo tento aproveitar o máximo dando a minha contribuição nos momentos necessários; 230

232 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 T13 Sem dúvida, os momentos de formação interna, principalmente as reuniões pedagógicas é o que me dá mais suporte didático para minhas aulas em sala e é o momento que mais me faz refletir sobre o meu fazer aqui na Guido Lermen. Já as assessorias, na minha opinião, deixam a desejar. Falo nesse sentido assessoria que vem da prefeitura. Em compensação, quanto ao projeto TRACES, acredito que só acrescenta pedagogicamente nossas aulas; São eles que dão suporte para nosso trabalho; Acho que a formação centrada na escola foi a que mais me fez crescer, como profissional e como pessoa. Foi neste grupo que comecei a ver o aluno como centro e o trabalho coletivo como principio; Vital pois no grupo realizamos estudos que nos amparam em novo trabalho; Estes momentos também são muito ricos, pois também aprendemos muito com as trocas; Nos ajuda na busca de nossa caminhada e proposta pedagógica; Reuniões pedagógicas, planejamentos, estudos em casa, leituras, trocas de idéias 231

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235 5.3 ANNEX OF CASE STUDY PIBID CS3 ANNEX 3.1 Document 3.1a - Initial questionnaire for future teachers and supervisors teachers PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) QUESTIONÁRIO AOS LICENCIANDOS-BOLSISTAS DO PIBID (Abril/2011) Prezado bolsista, solicitamos que respondas as questões abaixo: 1- Como avalias o Programa PIBID até o momento atual, quanto aos os seguintes aspectos: a) proposta do Programa; b) participação da escola no PIBID (por exemplo, acolhimento da proposta e envolvimento dos profissionais); c) participação da universidade); 2- Em tua percepção, como o PIBID contribui para a escola e como a escola contribui para a Universidade? 3- Quais as contribuições que as práticas vivenciadas no PIBID estão trazendo para a tua vida acadêmica? 4- Acreditas que tua passagem pela escola como bolsista do Programa pode contribuir com a formação continuada dos professores que já atuam nas disciplinas, provocando algumas mudanças em relação às práticas destes docentes? Justifique. 234

236 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.1a Subj Pergunta 1 Pergunta 2 Pergunta 3 Pergunta 4 F1 O PIBID contribui (...) para propor atividades inovadoras. (...) Proporciona aos alunos bolsistas contato direto com a realidade escolar, interagindo com os alunos. Contribui para a vida profissional, pois estou em contato direto com o ambiente escolar, adquirindo experiência. Os professores (supervisores) ficam instigados a voltar a estudar. F2 F3 F4 F6 F7 F8 Aproxima os futuros professores da realidade na qual eles irão trabalhar Há um envolvimento direto dos bolsistas com a escola, podendo analisar e avaliar a realidade vivenciada pelos alunos, além do seu aprendizado. Nos faz compreender melhor as dificuldades de ensino. O PIBID contribui para a escola através dos bolsistas que tentam ao máximo inovar a forma de ensino O PIBID desperta o lado investigativo (da formação) dos bolsistas. Na escola há um universo diferente da universidade, no qual existem dificuldades diferentes (de cada aluno) com as quais devemos saber lidar. Na escola aprendemos a melhor visualizar o lado de ser professor, porque na faculdade a visão de escola é muito diferente. Aprendi a me portar em aula e aprendi mais Física dando aula do que nas disciplinas da universidade. Experiência em sala de aula Atuar como professor em vez de aluno nos mostra como realmente são as coisas na escola. Acho muito improvável que contribua, pois a inspiração para melhorar pode vir de fora, mas a vontade não. Eles (os docentes) vendo o nosso (dos bolsistas) empenho no trabalho são tentados a melhorar seus métodos de ensino, podendo a vir futuramente procurar formação continuada. No início do programa notava-se uma desmotivação da OS, e hoje observamos que sua motivação e vontade de dar aula voltou. Até os alunos (da escola) já estão vendo a física diferente. Na universidade passamos a ter várias idéias positivas e revolucionárias para a melhoria da educação, porém quando saímos a realidade é outra e a rotina acaba batendo às nossas portas. O professor supervisor aprende comigo no dia-a-dia com formas diferentes de ver a matéria. 235

237 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 4: SCHOOL SOURCES UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.1a Subj Pergunta 1 Pergunta 2 Pergunta 3 Pergunta 4 F4 A escola ajuda a Universidade a vivenciar qual é a exatamente a sua situação atual quanto a estrutura e recursos. F7 A escola tenta sempre nos dar estrutura para desenvolver as tarefas. F8 Muitas vezes a escola não disponibiliza materiais suficientes para a prática das atividades, como oficinas didáticas. 236

238 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 6: RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.1a Subj Pergunta 1 Pergunta 2 Pergunta 3 Pergunta 4 F1 Há uma conexão entre o que há de mais fresco no mundo acadêmico com a antiga escola. F3 F4 A escola contribui para a universidade no sentido de mostrar suas necessidades e defasagens, dando dicas para a universidade desenvolver um melhor trabalho. Todos os projetos estão contribuindo de forma que eu avaliei como os alunos pensam e através destas idéias fazer a física ficar interessante para eles. Os professores ficam instigados a voltar a estudar ou ao menos, pesquisar sobre novas técnicas/metodologias. 237

239 Document 3.1b - Initial questionnaire for in-service teachers (supervisors) PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) QUESTIONÁRIO PROFESSORES-SUPERVISORES DO PIBID (Abril/2011) Prezado Supervisor, solicitamos que respondas as questões abaixo: 1. O que é o programa PIBID? Para quem o programa está direcionado? 2. Como avalias o Programa PIBID até o momento atual quanto aos seguintes aspectos: a) proposta do Programa; b) participação da escola no PIBID (por exemplo, acolhimento da proposta e envolvimento dos profissionais); c) participação da universidade. 3. Em tua percepção, como o PIBID contribui para a escola e como a escola contribui para a Universidade? 4. Quais as contribuições que as práticas vivenciadas no PIBID estão trazendo para a tua vida profissional? 5. Acreditas que a passagem dos bolsistas do Programa PIBID pela escola pode contribuir com a formação continuada dos professores que já atuam nas disciplinas, provocando algumas mudanças em relação às práticas destes docentes? Justifique. 238

240 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.1b Sujeito Sup1 Sup2 Sup3 Sup4 Unidades de informação A nossa pesquisa como professor em relação aos alunos é tentar encontrar onde estão as dificuldades dos alunos em aprender e achar novas maneiras de ensinar esse conteúdo proposto avaliando se foi o mais indicado ou não, se não foi a melhor maneira buscar novas atividades planejadas para serem aplicadas. É analisar diversas situações em uma atividade, verificando o comportamento do indivíduo até as suas respostas, para analisar as diversas respostas para verificar quais as de um bom aprendizado. É colocar o aluno em contato com situações problemas de modo que analise, compare e a partir disso chegue as suas próprias conclusões. Primeiro devemos ter claro um objetivo e penso que o professor deve ser mediador no ensino e o aluno protagonista, devendo ter questionamentos e discussões para chegar à construção de novos conhecimentos. DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 6: RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.1b Sujeito Sup3 Unidade de informação A pesquisa dos alunos é fazer despertar o interesse deles por algum assunto e assim serem orientados a buscar o conhecimento sobre ele. 239

241 ANNEX 3.2 Document 3.2 Pre-service focus group interview PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) Questões orientadoras para grupo focal com alunos do PIBID 1. Sobre a compreensão do programa PIBID. O que vocês compreendem que é o programa? 2. Quem vocês consideram que aprendem com o programa? 3. E com a escola? O que vocês acham que vocês estão contribuindo na escola? 4. E vocês aprendem com os supervisores ou os supervisores que aprendem com vocês? 5. Em relação à motivação no PIDID, como está a motivação de vocês? 6. E os professores sempre acompanham vocês nas atividades? (Como é a relação supervisor bolsista no dia a dia?) 7. E como vocês se sentem quando estão à frente da turma? 8. O que vocês sentem dos demais professores? Qual a emoção que vocês sentem neles? 9. Em relação aos alunos, vocês percebem certa mudança após o PIBID? 10. E como vocês percebem daqui a 10 anos na escola a partir do envolvimento desses professores titulares e professores supervisores? 11. O que vai acontecer depois que vocês forem embora da escola? 12. Daqui a 5 anos vocês não estarão mais lá, se alguém foi pesquisar o que vocês fizeram vai ter alguma coisa? 240

242 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 4: SCHOOL RESOURCE UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.2 Sujeito F2 F3 Unidades de informação Por exemplo, quando a gente chegou lá na escola o laboratório tava totalmente sucateado, e um dos objetivos era levantar este laboratório, então a gente ta tentando levar material para arrumar o laboratório. Uma das primeiras coisas que a gente fez foi arrumar o laboratório para a gente poder fazer atividades de experimento, porque foi o que foi relatado, que eles queriam mais atividades experimentais. Indiferença, desde que não atrapalhe a aula dele. Se a gente quer fazer um trabalho interdisciplinar, surge uma negociação, porque tu vai ter que pegar uma parte do tempo da aula dele. DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 61: RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION Document 3.2 Sujeito F2 F3 F4 F5 Unidades de informação Eu percebi que quando o aluno fala dele e tu falas de ti pro aluno, quando tu vai falar sobre o conteúdo, o aluno te escuta, é engraçado mas eu percebi isso! Quando começou o programa lá na escola, a gente fez um questionário pros alunos responderem sobre o que eles achavam da física, porque eles têm tanta dificuldade em aprender, o que eles queriam mudar e o que eles queriam aprender... Eles foram falando coisas bem loucas... Muitos responderam que eles queriam aula de laboratório, mais interação entre eles e o conteúdo abordado. Tem que ver o que chama a atenção deles [...] eles fazem só o que gostam. Quando eles chegam com a dúvida, muitas vezes a dúvida não é nem na física, é na matemática mesmo. Eles entendem o que tem que fazer, mas eles não conseguem desenvolver o cálculo, o raciocínio matemático. Nesse dia que a gente foi pego totalmente de surpresa, a gente ficou pensando o que a gente poderia fazer... Dois períodos ainda, aí a gente pesou em fazer um teste, aí gente fez a atividade da música eles gostaram muito, eles produzem muito, fazem mais rápido que nós e fazem um trabalho muito bom. Eles gostaram tanto que a gente teve que abrir pra todas as turmas... E Eles focam nos cobrando que agora eles querem fazer mais... O 3º ano reclamava muito das Leis de Coulomb, então todas as músicas que eles fizeram foram sobre isso. E eles comentaram que agora ficou bem mais fácil de entender. O nosso último evento foi uma oficina de contos de física e se inscreveram 26 alunos pra oficina... Achamos que não iria vir nenhum aluno, mas eles vieram, é toda segunda-feira (contando como é a oficina)... Eu acho que o PIBID tem que trabalhar a idéia de que aula diferente não é só laboratório. No momento que tu trabalhar sempre no laboratório vai se tronar repetitivo, uma aula tradicional. Fazer roteiro com experimento mastigadinho tem que mudar também... A gente achou a atividade de roteiro foi meio chato, fazer roteiro e experimento não é uma aula diferente. Eu também acho que depende da atividade que se faz... Os alunos são bem desmotivados durante a aula, eu fiz só uma atividade experimental com eles e foi bem legal... Mas durante as aulas os alunos ficam escutando música, conversando. Fazer ciência por espetáculo também tem que mudar, será que uma aula bonitinha, ou só um experimento diferente, fará resultado pro aluno, pra Física que ele tem que aprender, ou ele só achou diferente a aula? 241

243 242

244 ANNEX 3.3 Document Supervisors data sheet and questions about participation in research for supervisors PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science 243

245 Nome: Endereço: Dados de identificação Bairro: Estado: Tel. Residencial: RG: Nome do Pai: Nome da Mãe: Tempo de Magistério: Nome(s) da (s) escola(s) em que atua: Cidade: CEP: Tel. Celular: Data de Nasc.: CPF: Atuação Profissional Área: ( ) Ciências ( ) Física ( ) Química ( ) Biologia ( ) Matemática Outra (s): Qual(ais)? Série(s): Nº de Turma(s) Nº de Alunos por Turma Formação Acadêmica Formação Ano de Conclusão Ensino Médio (magistério, técnico, etc.): Graduação (área): Pós Graduação (área e nível: especialização, mestrado ou doutorado): 244

246 4. O que você entende por pesquisa? 5. O que é para você pesquisar em sala de aula? 6. Você já participou de algum programa de inovação ou de alguma atividade que teve contato com pesquisa na universidade ou fora dela? SE sim, como foi esta experiência? O que foi positivo e o que foi negativo? E para quem foi positivo ou negativo (por exemplo, professores, alunos, etc.) 245

247 DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 1: TEACHER EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION - Document 3.3 Sujeito Sup1 Sup2 Sup3 Sup4 Unidades de informação É colocar o aluno em contato com situações problemas de modo que analise, compare e a partir disso chegue as suas próprias conclusões. É analisar diversas situações em uma atividade, verificando o comportamento do indivíduo até as suas respostas, para analisar as diversas respostas para verificar quais as de um bom aprendizado. A nossa pesquisa como professor em relação aos alunos é tentar encontrar onde estão as dificuldades dos alunos em aprender e achar novas maneiras de ensinar esse conteúdo proposto avaliando se foi o mais indicado ou não, se não foi a melhor maneira buscar novas atividades planejadas para serem aplicadas. Primeiro devemos ter claro um objetivo e penso que o professor deve ser mediador no ensino e o aluno protagonista, devendo ter questionamentos e discussões para chegar à construção de novos conhecimentos. 246

248 ANNEX 3.4 Document Pre-service teachers drawing about research 247

249 Sujeito F1 248

250 Sujeito F2 249

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252 251

253 Sujeito F3 Sujeito F4 252

254 Sujeito F5 253

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256 Sujeito F6 ANNEX 3.4 Document Card/questionnaire filled by pre-service teachers PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) 1. A partir da sua observação, avalie os experimentos considerando as questões abaixo: CRIATIVIDADE SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE Total Você acredita que o experimento que foi apresentado provoca o interesse dos alunos? Justificativas/ Observações RELEVÂNCIA DO EXPERIMENTO O conteúdo do experimento apresenta relevância para o aprender dos alunos em relação aos conhecimentos de Física? O experimento foi contextualizado com o cotidiano dos alunos? Justificativas/ Observações Ele mostra que se deve prestar bem atenção nos dados obtidos; o roteiro está bom, mas o aparato experimental é difícil de ser regulado; muito interessante promove a integração entre os alunos; inovador e didático; os alunos podem interagir bastante com o experimento; carro + água; roteiro muito bom. Aprimorar o contagotas; não o interesse que se quer abordar SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE Os conceitos de MRUV podem ser trabalhados com materiais que o aluno conhece do seu dia a dia; há casos no cotidiano dos alunos. Não há nenhum tipo de exemplo; é mais difícil e se gasta mais tempo na regulagem do experimento do que na experiência em si; difícil de ser realizado (velocidade constante). 255

257 POSTURA INVESTIGATIVA SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE A forma como o experimento foi trabalhado promove a interação entre os conhecimentos prévios dos alunos e o novo conhecimento, instigando a elaboração de questionamentos por parte de todos os envolvidos? Justificativas/ Observações Os questionamentos do roteiro possibilitam que o aluno use o seu conhecimento prévio; perguntas bem claras e coerentes, ótimos desafios; muitos conceitos podem ser abordados com esse experimento (velocidade, aceleração). COMUNICAÇÃO SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE Há clareza na comunicação, nos questionamentos e nas intervenções? Justificativas/ Observações 8 8 O roteiro demonstrou o objetivo que gostaria de obter com o experimento proposto; o roteiro está com uma linguagem bem simples e está claro que deve ser investigado, porém é meio contraditório; roteiro ótimo. AUTOCONFIANÇA SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE Os licenciandos demonstram segurança e domínio de conhecimento sobre o experimento? Justificativas/ Observações Sim, pois deram motivos para as suas escolhas para a organização do roteiro. APRENDIZAGEM SIM NÃO PARCIALMENTE O experimento propõe uma aprendizagem significativa e o licenciando demonstra organização e postura mediadora? Justificativas/ Observações Porém a calibração das gotas deve ser melhorado. 256

258 257

259 ANNEX 3.6 Document Written synthesis school team evaluations PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) Avaliação dos projetos experimentais investigativos Conforme atividade realizada no dia 25 de maio, a equipe TRACES Brasil irá repassar as avaliações dos experimentos, tendo como base as indicações dos próprios colegas do PIBID Física. (pesquisadores TRACES não teve participação na realização dos experimentos, bem como não teve acesso a nenhum dos roteiros. Sendo assim, os registros avaliativos descritos são de autoria dos alunos do PIBID). Experimento Carrinho Conta-gotas Empuxo Calorímetro Canhão Unidades de Informação Os alunos identificaram que a proposta do experimento é interessante e consideraram na grande maioria, o roteiro do projeto bom, com linguagem acessível, porém, ele se contradiz em algumas partes, indicando para o aluno o que irá ocorrer. No entanto, alguns alunos registraram que o experimento apresentou certa dificuldade para ser realizado, considerando que a proposta não facilita a observação da velocidade constante. Alguns colegas ainda registraram que o experimento leva tempo pra ser montado. Também foi sugerido ao roteiro, a inserção de uma contextualização do experimento com o dia a dia dos alunos. Por fim, aprimorar o conta-gotas. Os alunos consideraram o experimento relevante e ao mesmo tempo simples de ser trabalhado em uma sala de aula. Mesmo assim, alguns colegas apontaram que o roteiro não é instigante, que poderia ser utilizado o exemplo do mergulhador. Já outros colegas consideraram que se fossem trabalhados diferentes tipos de líquidos com questões mais abertas como vamos descobrir o que irá ocorrer, poderia despertar mais a curiosidade do aluno. Por fim, alguns colegas apontaram que o roteiro poderia ser alterado para uma proposta mais investigativa, caso contrário o experimento não traria nenhuma novidade ao aluno. Alguns ainda identificaram a falta de contextualização com o dia a dia, com exceção do experimento do balão. Os alunos, em especial do primeiro grupo, consideraram o experimento importante, porém evidenciaram a falta de um roteiro para ser avaliado. Indicaram ainda, que o experimento é tradicional e que poderia ser mais elaborado e investigativo, com novas idéias, logo, consideraram que o experimento é apenas uma confirmação da teoria e não possui caráter investigativo. Alguns colegas apontaram que apesar do experimento não guiar os alunos a uma resposta imediata, a atividade não privilegiou os conhecimentos prévios. Outros colegas registraram que o experimento não foi contextualizado com o cotidiano e que faltaram perguntas investigativas. Ficou registrado como uma sugestão, ter mais fundamentação teórica no roteiro e uma nova pesquisa sobre os diferentes tipos de isolantes térmicos. Alguns colegas apontaram ainda que o roteiro fica a critério de quem irá utilizar. Também foi registrado que o roteiro ficou confuso, que houve dúvidas em relação aos questionamentos para os alunos e ainda, falta clareza para identificar qual é o objetivo do roteiro. Alguns alunos consideraram o experimento relevante para ser trabalhado na aula de física, entretanto, eles também consideraram que a atividade para se tornar investigativa dependerá da postura do professor, caso contrário, o experimento pode ser uma mera reprodução. Foi registrado no instrumento de avaliação que o roteiro não deixa claro o seu objetivo maior e ainda que ele é extenso, cansativo e que teria que ser trabalhado em diversas aulas. Os colegas ainda registraram que o roteiro deve ser elaborado de forma mais clara e ao mesmo tempo, ser mais investigativo, pois a leitura guia todos os passos do aluno sem permitir a descoberta. Ficou como sugestão de alguns colegas a re-elaboração das questões do roteiro, considerando estas repetitivas, o que acabou tornando a atividade monótona. Tal como está, o experimento é de difícil aplicação aos alunos. Por fim, ficou registrado como sugestão, que o experimento é tradicional, reproduz o livro didático, é uma receita pronta, não há investigação e o conteúdo está todo mastigadinho, podendo este ser ainda 258

260 mais interessante e criativo! ANNEX 3.7 Document Final version of physics experiment and powerpoint with results of the activity Objetivos: Experiment of School Group 1 (Leopoldo Hoff) CONSERVAÇÃO DA ENERGIA Verificar se há ou não a conservação da energia. Materiais: Becker Garrafa térmica Ebulidor (rabo quente) Cronômetro Termômetro Montagem: Procedimento: Encher com a mesma quantidade de água um becker e uma garrafa térmica medindo a massa e a temperatura inicial da água. Com o rabo quente no Becker com água, ligue-o e meça o tempo necessário para aquecer a água até 80 C, com o auxílio de um cronômetro. Repita a operação com a garrafa térmica, não se esquecendo de resfria o rabo quente antes de iniciar a operação. Calcule a potência dissipada na água em cada um dos recipientes. Questões investigativas: Em qual recipiente foi maior a eficiência? Compare com a potência nominal informada pelo fabricante do ebulidor. 259

261 260

262 Experiment of School Group 2 (Piratini) EMPUXO Objetivo: Mostrar que a força de empuxo depende do peso do volume do fluido deslocado e pela densidade do fluido. Material: Barbante; Barbante; Dinamômetro (2N); Proveta (250 ml); Sal; Dois objetos de materiais diferentes, mas de mesma massa (é importante que os materiais tenham volumes diferentes); Um gancho; Água; Mesa (ou algo para suspender o dinamômetro). Montagem: Preencha com água a proveta até aproximadamente ¾ de seu volume. Amarre o barbante no dinamômetro e suspenda-o de maneira que ele fique perpendicular ao solo (sugestão de objeto para suporte: mesa ou cadeira). Prenda uma das extremidades do gancho no dinamômetro e na outra, suspenda um dos objetos. Procedimento: 1. Antes de afundar o objeto na proveta, leia o valor marcado no dinamômetro. Este valor é o peso real do objeto, anote-o, você precisará depois. 2. Leia o nível da água que aparece na proveta (volume inicial) antes de afundar o objeto. 3. Afunde o objeto na proveta e leia o novo valor que marca no dinamômetro (peso aparente do objeto) e o novo valor da água que marca na proveta (volume final). 4. Para saber a força de empuxo que o fluido, nesse caso a água, está exercendo sobre o objeto, basta subtrair o peso aparente do real da chumbada, ou seja: E= P real - P aparente Faça também a variação do volume da água e anote este valor. 5. Repita os procedimentos 1 a 4 para o outro objeto. 6. No objeto que deslocou o maior volume de água a força de empuxo é maior, menor ou igual do que no objeto que deslocou menor volume de água? 7. Coloque sal na água até saturá-la e repita os processos do 1 ao 4 para um dos objetos. 8. Quando a água foi saturada, o que ocorreu com a sua densidade? E o empuxo, aumenta ou diminui? Justifique sua resposta. 261

263 Experiment of School Group 3 (Rio Branco) Gotas Marcantes Objetivo Estudar o movimento de um carrinho. Considerações Sem discutir as causas do movimento, vamos analisar o carrinho sendo submetido a uma força resultante constante. Materiais Carrinho Clipes (pesinhos) Equipo (mangueira e torneirinha) Linha de nylon Papel pardo Fita adesiva Régua Dinamômetro Seringa 262

264 263 Ideia do Experimento Esse experimento consiste em analisar o movimento do carrinho através das gotas que ficam marcadas no papel. No carrinho é impressa uma força resultante constante. Montagem Observação: É importante que você regule o equipo de modo que várias gotas caiam na distância em que o carrinho irá percorrer. Análise Para analisar o movimento do carrinho, vamos usar dois pesos diferentes (quantidade de clipes diferentes suspensos no fio de nylon. Como sugestão, dobre a quantidade de clipes que você irá utilizar em cada análise). Utilize a tabela abaixo para anotar as distâncias das quatro primeiras gotas marcadas no papel. Isso facilitará as suas análises. Peso x 1 x 2 x 3 x Observação: utilize o dinamômetro para saber o peso dos clipes. Agora escreva o que você percebeu de diferente nas distâncias das gotas marcadas no papel quando foi utilizado o primeiro peso e o segundo peso. Desafio 1: Observando os dados da tabela, o que eles significam? A distância das gotas é igual ou aumenta para o mesmo intervalo de tempo? O que isso significa? Caracterize o movimento. Calcule a aceleração do carrinho e explique o que aconteceu com ela quando este foi submetido a forças diferentes. Levando em consideração as forças envolvidas e as causas do movimento, responda as questões abaixo: 263

265 A força que puxa o carrinho tem a mesma intensidade (módulo) da força peso dos clipes? 2. Que tipo de movimento o carrinho executa? 3. Quais as Leis de Newton que você associaria com este experimento? Desafio 2: O que aconteceu com o movimento do carrinho depois que os clipes chegam no chão? Tente explicar esse movimento. 1. Você gostou da proposta desta atividade? Você mudaria alguma coisa no procedimento experimental? 264

266 265 Experiment of School Group 4 (Tubino) EXPERIMENTO DE LANÇAMENTO DE PROJÉTEIS 265

267 Objetivos: Diferenciar e compreender as composições do movimento bidimensional. Materiais utilizados: Cano de PVC 25 mm (15 cm de comprimento) Tampão PVC 25 mm Mola Corda Parafuso Cola Esfera Madeira Fio de prumo Arruela 2 cantoneiras encontradas em ferragens Tampinha Montagem: A mola deve ser colocada no interior do cano, e através dela deve passar uma corda que em uma de suas extremidades é presa a uma arruela que possibilita a deformação da mola mediante ao puxão da corda. Esta por sua vez passará por um furo feito no tampão que será encaixado no cano. Os demais ajustes são feitos de acordo com a figura e com a criatividade de cada um. A experiência: A experiência consiste em montar sobre uma mesa o lançador de projétil e fazer alguns disparos medindo a distância percorrida pelo mesmo e o tempo de queda, para que possamos analisar o seu movimento na direção X (direção horizontal) e seu movimento na direção Y(direção vertical), e assim descobrir a sua velocidade de lançamento, de queda ou a sua velocidade em qualquer ponto da sua trajetória. Procedimentos: PARTE I (movimento horizontal) Primeiramente, vamos começar fazendo algumas medidas. Coloque o lançador em uma mesa de altura H, anotando essa altura; a seguir posicione o lançador de forma que ele fique apontado na direção horizontal. Coloque o fio de prumo posicionado na saída logo abaixo da boca do lançador e marque um ponto no chão onde ele encostar, efetue 5 disparos na mesma posição, medindo o alcance do projétil. Faça uma média desses alcances. Utilizamos o fato de que o projétil ao sair do lançador não sofre qualquer aceleração na direção horizontal (portanto tem velocidade constante nessa direção), para escrever a equação: 266 Ou seja, ele percorre uma distancia na horizontal (que é o seu próprio alcance, em um intervalo de tempo; Como essa velocidade é constante, o seu valor na direção x é o mesmo tanto no instante em que o projétil sai do lançador quanto no instante em que ele chega ao chão. Descobrindo o intervalo de tempo no qual o projétil percorreu a distância, temos a velocidade que ele saiu do lançador. 266

268 Para medirmos esse tempo, tempos que lembrar que o tempo que o projétil demorou para cair no chão após o lançamento de cima de mesa com uma altura H é o mesmo tempo que ele demoraria para chegar até o chão se simplesmente o largássemos a partir do repouso da mesma altura H. A equação que nos dá o tempo é: 267 Considerando Y0 igual a zero no topo da mesa, e sabendo que a velocidade inicial na vertical (Vy0) é zero, temos apenas: (y=h, a altura da mesa) Com essas informações, qual foi a velocidade que o projétil saiu do lançador? PARTE II (movimento vertical) Na parte um, analisamos o movimento do projétil apenas na direção horizontal e vimos que podemos ignorar o seu movimento simultâneo na vertical, pois este não interfere no movimento do projétil na horizontal. Olhando agora o projétil segundo apenas o seu movimento vertical, podemos tirar outras conclusões. A partir do momento que o projétil abandona o lançador ele começa a acelerar para baixo devido a ação da gravidade, e como a aceleração é constante, a velocidade do projétil na direção vertical em qualquer tempo depois do lançamento é dado por: Qual a velocidade vertical quando o projétil atinge o chão? A velocidade do projétil na vertical tem o mesmo módulo em todos os pontos da trajetória assim como ocorre com a velocidade do projétil na direção horizontal? Por quê? PARTE III Vimos nas duas partes anteriores, que os corpos desenvolvem movimentos independentes nas suas respectivas dimensões. Mas como esses movimentos independentes se relacionam? Unindo os dois movimentos em uma representação esquemática temos: 267

269 268 Se fosse perguntado: qual a velocidade do corpo ao atingir o solo?. Essa pergunta pode parecer incompleta agora, pois vimos que um corpo apresenta velocidade em uma direção e ao mesmo tempo apresenta velocidade em outra direção, e essa pergunta não especifica qual delas. O que se sucede é que, quando um corpo tem movimento, ou seja, tem uma velocidade, nós podemos dividir essa velocidade em componentes de velocidade, que aqui nós chamamos de Vy e Vx. Cada uma dessas é a componente da velocidade do projétil na direção vertical e horizontal respectivamente. As duas se somam vetorialmente para compor a velocidade do objeto. Essa velocidade é comumente chamada de velocidade linear. Qual a velocidade linear na posição P representada na figura? 268

270 269 OFICINA DE EMPUXO: APLICAÇÃO E RESULTADOS Bárbara Duarte Franciéli Santanna Kristine Schuster Lucas Narciso Samuel Corvelo 269

271 270 OBJETIVOS Atividade experimental de comprovação; Interação do aluno com: Experimento; Alunos. Visualização direta do empuxo; Associação com cotidiano. 270

272 271 PLANEJAMENTO Primeiro roteiro: Aplicação de perguntas de conhecimento prévio; Revisão do conteúdo; Realização do experimento com perguntas investigativas; Reelaborar respostas das perguntas de conhecimento prévio; Questionário de opinião. ROTEIRO 271

273 272 ROTEIRO OFICINA 1 272

274 RESULTADOS Transformative Research Activities Cultural 273 OFICINA 1 273

275 OPINIÕES Transformative Research Activities Cultural 274 OFICINA 2 274

276 275 OFICINA 2 275

277 276 ANNEX 3.8 Document 3.8 Application s scholar self-assessment PROJETO DE PESQUISA TRACES Atividades de Ensino por Pesquisa: Diversidade Cultural e Educação em Ciências (Transformative Research Activities. Cultural Diversities and Education in Science) Questionário de avaliação da atividade do experimento investigativo a) Relate suas impressões sobre o desenvolvimento da atividade experimental em sala de aula. b) Como foi a participação dos alunos durante o experimento? Quais foram as repercussões da atividade na escola? c) Em que medida a atividade se aproximou de uma perspectiva experimental investigativa? Que reflexões e novas questões o experimento suscitou em sala de aula? d) O que você proporia de diferente para uma próxima aplicação da atividade em sala de aula? IDENTIFICAÇÃO DO EXPERIMENTO: 276

278 277 Sujeito DIMENSION OF META-ANALYSIS 6: RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION UNIT OF INFORMATION - Document 3.8 Unidades de informação Pergunta A Pergunta B Pergunta C Pergunta D F2 F3 F6 F7 A atividade em si foi uma bagunça, não havia materiais suficientes para todos. Foi tudo muito improvisado. Inicialmente a atividade do experimento se mostrou tumultuado. Os alunos queriam utilizar o equipamento sem antes ler o roteiro. No começo foi, tumultuado, ficaram um pouco perdidos (... depois) foram perdendo o interesse ao longo da atividade. Funcionou par aos alunos terem uma análise mais prática do conteúdo. Entretanto houve uma pequena dificuldade dos alunos na montagem do experimento, mas foi resolvido por eles sem problemas. Eles conseguiram enxergar o que se esperava e isto facilitou na compreensão do conteúdo. Foi ativa e direta, tendo em vista que eles eram os protagonistas da atividade experimental. O experimento foi totalmente diferente de tudo que os alunos já tinham feito. Todos os alunos participaram demonstrando interesse (mas) só nos primeiros minutos da oficina. (A participação deles) foi bem ativa. Eles montaram o experimento, coletaram dados e chegaram as suas conclusões respondendo aos problemas do roteiro. A atividade se mostrou de cunho experimental quanto à montagem do experimento, reflexões quanto à análise física e experimental da atividade. Foi solicitado que os alunos investigassem a relação entre o ângulo de lançamento de um projétil e o alcance da trajetória. Propomos uma questão investigativa par determinar o alcance com a variação do ângulo de lançamento. As questões que a aplicação (do experimento) suscitou em sala de aula foram referentes à questão do carrinho seguir em movimento mesmo sem ser submetido a (uma) força. Um melhor planejamento quanto ao material a ser utilizado. Dar aulas de matemática antes de aplicar o roteiro. Aulas sem experimentos mastigados ou com roteiros prontos. Planejamento mais adequado do material a ser utilizado. F8 Foi de fácil realização, os alunos gostaram dos experimentos e não tiveram dificuldade de realizá-los. Eles (...) realizaram as atividades propostas com vontade de saber os resultados que iriam achar. Os alunos investigaram a influência de 3 líquidos diferentes (...) Trocar a densidade do líquido para ver a diferença e acrescentar algum experimento que mostre onde o empuxo age no dia-adia. Sup2 Todos demonstraram interesse em algum momento à atividade experimental. Com o uso da internet, a parte da pesquisa para a elaboração do roteiro e da escolha do experimento foi rápida. Os alunos interagiram entre si. Eles debateram em grupo sobre a teoria para relacionar com o experimento. A maioria dos alunos não percebeu que esta tarefa era de cunho investigativo, apenas realizaram a atarefa. O experimento se baseou em uma experiência confirmatória. O experimento não propiciou novas questões e reflexões. Sup3 Sup4 Os bolsistas conseguiram realizar a atividade melhorando o roteiro apresentado inicialmente. Forma críticos em relação ao desenvolvimento. Foram muito participativos. Fizeram perguntas e levantaram hipóteses. ANNEX 3.9 Na medida em que aconteceram situações que os alunos não sabiam as respostas e não eram encontradas no livro, surgiram questões sobre a montagem do experimento. Os alunos fizeram perguntas sobre a aceleração da gravidade, assuntos que eles não tinham (tido) aula. 277

279 278 Document Banners and abstracts of school groups Banner of School Group 1 (Leopoldo Hoff School) 278

280 279 Banner of School Group 3 (Rio Branco School) Banner of School Group 4 (Tubino School) 279

281 280 Abstract of School Group 1 (Leopoldo Hoff School) CALORÍMETRO: EXPERIMENTO QUE FACILITA A COMPREENSÃO DOS ALUNOS DE ENSINO MÉDIO SOBRE AS TROCAS DE CALOR Gabriela Santos Lopes William Mello Borgonhi Artur Majolo Scheid 280

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