2 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan.-Apr., 2013 Editor Tales Miler Soares Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (Brazil) Assistant Editors Aureo Silva de Oliveira Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (Brazil) Eugênio Ferreira Coelho Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura (Brazil) Hans Raj Gheyi Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (Brazil) Editorial Board Abelardo Antônio de Assunção Montenegro Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (Brazil) Asher Kiperstok Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil) Carlos de Oliveira Galvão Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (Brazil) Eduardo Antonio Holzapfel Hoces Universidad de Concepción (Chile) Fernando Braz Tangerino Hernandez Universidade Estadual Paulista (Brazil) Fernando Falco Pruski Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Brazil) Francisco Adriano de Carvalho Pereira Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia (Brazil) José Carlos Araújo Universidade Federal do Ceará (Brazil) Luciano Mateos Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible (Spain) Marcos Vinícius Folegatti Universidade de São Paulo (Brazil) Max Herbert Agoston Billib Leibniz University of Hannover (Germany) Ragab Ragab Center of Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom) Richard Allen University of Idaho (USA) Salomão de Sousa de Medeiros Instituto Nacional do Semiárido (Brazil) Suzana Maria Gico Lima Montenegro Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Brazil) Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros Universidade Federal da Bahia (Brazil) Executive Secretary Greice Ximena Santos Oliveira Desktop Publishing Byte Systems - Soluções Digitais Cover Wedscley Oliveira de Melo ISSN ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The support received from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Banco do Nordeste (BNB) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPESB) is acknowledged. Governo do Brasil Presidente da República: Dilma Vana Rousseff Vice-Presidente da República: Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia Mistério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (MCTI) Ministro do Estado: Marcos Antonio Raupp Secretário Executivo: Luiz Antonio Rodrigues Elias Subsecretário da SCUP: Arquimedes Diógenes Ciloni Instituto Nacional do Semiárido (INSA) Diretor: Ignacio Hernán Salcedo Vice-Diretor: Salomão de Sousa Medeiros Coordenador de Pesquisa: Aldrin Martin Perez Marin Coordenador Administrativo : Vinicius Sampaio Duarte Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia Reitor: Paulo Gabriel Soledade Nacif Vice-Reitor: Sílvio Luiz de Oliveira Soglia Pró-Reitora de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação: Ana Cristina F. Soares Diretor do CCAAB: Alexandre Américo Almassy Júnior Coordenador do NEAS/PPGEA: Vital Pedro da Silva Paz General Information WRIM - Water Resources and Irrigation Management is edited quarterly by Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia and Instituto Nacional do Semiárido with the objective of disseminating original and unpublished technical and scientific articles written in English, Portuguese or Spanish in the following areas: Climatology and Hydrology, Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Crop and Water Management, Quality and Reuse of Water, Planning and Management of Water Resources, Water Resources and Agriculture and Climate Change. Informações Gerais A revista WRIM - Water Resources and Irrigation Management, periódico editado quadrimestralmente pela Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia e Instituto Nacional do Semiárido destinase a divulgação de artigos técnico-científicos originais e inéditos, elaborados em Inglês, Português ou Espanhol, e contempla as seguintes áreas: Climatologia e Hidrologia, Engenharia de Irrigação e Drenagem, Manejo de Culturas e Água, Qualidade e Reúso de Água, Planejamento e Gestão de Recursos Hídricos, Mudanças Climáticas, Recursos Hídricos e Agricultura. CATALOGUING DATA International Cataloguing in Publication Data Water Resources and Irrigation Management/ Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas/BA, Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande/PB, Quaterly ISSN Water Resources Periodical. 2. Irrigation Management. I. Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA II. Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB CDD: 630,5 CDU: 631 (05) The subject, data and concepts expressed in this periodical are the sole resposability of respective authors. Any citation of products and trademarks does not imply recommendation of use by the Journal.
3 ISSN v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan.- Apr., 2013 The publishing of WRIM has become possible thanks to technical and scientific collaboration between the Brazilian National Institute of the Semiarid and the Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia. The journal s main objective is to share scientific information with the national and international communities, mainly in topics related to water resources management and irrigated agriculture, with a view to the sustainability of crop production under scenarios of limited water availability. A WRIM é resultado da cooperação técnica e científica entre o Instituto Nacional do Semiárido e a Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia. Seu objetivo principal é promover o intercâmbio de informações científicas com as comunidades nacional e internacional, especialmente nas temáticas do manejo dos recursos hídricos e da agricultura irrigada, tendo em vista o desenvolvimento sustentável da produção agrícola em condições de disponibilidade limitada de água.
4 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan.-Apr., 2013 ISSN AUTHOR/AUTOR INSTITUTION/INSTITUIÇÃO Abelardo Antônio de Assunção Montenegro Adriana de Fátima Mendes Oliveira Adriano Rausch Souto Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva Antônio Evaldo Klar Danniely de Oliveira Costa Delfran Batista dos Santos Ênio Farias de França e Silva Eusimio Felisbino Fraga Junior Fabrícia Gratyelli Bezerra Costa Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita Hudson Salatiel Marques Vale Jens Liebe João Batista Tolentino Júnior José Antônio Frizzone José Antônio Lopes de Menezes José Roberto Lopes da Silva Ketson Bruno da Silva Ligia Borges Marinho Lineu Neiva Rodrigues Lucas Melo Vellame Luiz Eduardo Vieira de Arruda Rafael Oliveira Batista Ricardo Ralisch Ronaldo Rossetto Rubens Alves de Oliveira Thais Emanuelle Monteiro dos Santos UFRPE UFERSA IAPAR UNESP UNESP UFERSA IFBAIANO UFPRE ESALQ UFERSA UFERSA UFERSA Center for Development Research UFSC ESALQ UFBA UFRPE UFERSA UNEB Embrapa Cerrados UFG UFERSA UFERSA UEL IAPAR UFV UFRB
5 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan-Apr, 2013 ISSN CONTENTS/SUMÁRIO Foreword/Apresentação Testimonials/Depoimentos Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana/Relação profundidade-área-volume em pequenos reservatórios localizados no Cerrado do Brasil e de Gana Lineu Neiva Rodrigues & Jens Liebe Tabasco pepper transpiration by the heat dissipation probe method/transpiração em pimenta tabasco pelo método da sonda de dissipação térmica Ligia Borges Marinho, Lucas Melo Vellame, José Antônio Frizzone, João Batista Tolentino Júnior & Eusimio Felisbino Fraga Junior Clogging susceptibility of drippers operating with swine wastewater/suscetibilidade ao entupimento de gotejadores operando com água residuária de suinocultura Rafael Oliveira Batista, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Delfran Batista dos Santos, Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita & Ketson Bruno da Silva Water use efficiency in sugarbeet cultivars under different soil water tensions/eficiência de uso da água em cultivares de beterraba submetidas a diferentes tensões da água no solo Alexsandro Oliveira da Silva, Ênio Farias de França e Silva & Antônio Evaldo Klar Removal of oil and total solids in biofilters operating with primary domestic sewage/remoção de óleo e sólidos totais em biofiltros operando com esgoto doméstico primário Rafael Oliveira Batista, Adriana de Fátima Mendes Oliveira, Delfran Batista dos Santos, Francisco de Oliveira Mesquita & Ketson Bruno da Silva Temporal behavior of soil water under Caatinga and bare soil in Experimental Basin of Jatobá, Pernambuco/Comportamento temporal da umidade do solo sob Caatinga e solo descoberto na Bacia Experimental do Jatobá, Pernambuco José Antônio Lopes de Menezes, Thais Emanuelle Monteiro dos Santos, Abelardo Antônio de Assunção Montenegro & José Roberto Lopes da Silva Use of the AGNPS model for identification of agricultural production systems in the Caiuá sandstone subjected to erosion/identificação dos sistemas agrícolas do arenito Caiuá sujeitos à erosão, através do modelo AGNPS Adriano Rausch Souto, Ronaldo Rossetto & Ricardo Ralisch Clogging potential of a drip irrigation system operating with treated domestic sewage/potencial de entupimento de um sistema de irrigação por gotejamento operando com esgoto doméstico tratado Hudson Salatiel Marques Vale, Luiz Eduardo Vieira de Arruda, Danniely de Oliveira Costa, Fabrícia Gratyelli Bezerra Costa & Rafael Oliveira Batista v vii
7 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan.-Apr., 2013 ISSN FOREWORD/APRESENTAÇÃO Water Resources and Irrigation Management, WRIM Journal is a new and unique journal that links the water resources and irrigation management under one umbrella. The high quality papers published so far gives the impression that WRIM is of great interest to water resources and irrigation professionals whether they are academics or practitioners. The Journal is intended to help the scientific community with tools, guidelines, recommendation, case studies and success stories aiming to help solving various issues in the field of water resources and irrigation management. These challenging issues that WRIM will be dealing with in the forthcoming issues are highlighted in the following sections. In managing water resources, one might face some challenges and issues that could make it difficult to achieve the main goal of sustainable water resources management. These issues and challenges could be related to: measurements, quantification of water resources elements, scale and modeling, water policies that deal with issues related to water for food, fuel and the environment the delicate balance. Water is currently classified by its colour as Green Water, Blue Water and Grey Water. Green Water is defined as the water used at the point where rain falls. It is of low cost and usually there is no competition for the use of this water. Blue Water is the water abstracted from rivers, lakes and groundwater. It is taken from the renewable water resources and different users compete to use this water for a variety of uses. Grey Water sometimes named as waste water (sources: domestic, agriculture, industry, etc.). These different waters have different management and different footprints. When Blue Water is in short supply, users are encouraged to use more of the Green Water and to treat, recycle and reuse waste waters. Water resources sometimes present us with some critical problems. Too much could cause flood, while too little could cause drought. Poor distribution could cause famine. Poor quality could cause health hazards. Poor management could lead to competition and conflicts at national and international levels. The world is facing the challenge of the impact of climate and land use changes on water resources management and what strategy needs to be adopted to face these changes. Also, what are the Tools and Guidelines to Promote the Sustainable Water Management, including the application of the integrated management system and appropriate agricultural practices? Water resources management is always associated with the word sustainability. However, sustainability is a difficult term to apply, especially to groundwater resources, as the recharge is difficult to estimate and its forecast over a long period of time is a challenge. Sustainability is not for eternity, it should be associated with a time span. The majority of the scientists like the time span to be rather short, with a maximum of 50 years. Enough attention should be paid to the sustainability in relation to Water Security : the availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production; coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. There is a need to adopt the concept of the Green Economy in water management, where growth in income and employment is driven by investment that reduces carbon emissions and pollution, enhances energy and resource efficiency, and prevents loss of ecosystem services. Supply-led management is unsustainable. A sustainable demand-led approach is required to manage the water resources with focus on conserving water and using it more efficiently and accounting for the need for a healthy fresh water ecosystem. At present there is a continuous increasing demand on fresh water resources due to: population increase, which leads to increased demand for food and subsequently water use; changing diets, there is greater demand for thirsty crops, meat and dairy products; increasing demand for out-of-season crops (e.g. melons, strawberries, etc.) with greater Blue water demand; changing climate, with more frequent drought events; increasing demand for biofuel crops. Proper management of water resources requires greater use efficiency of the resources at field, catchment and regional scales in all sectors. In the field of agriculture, which is the biggest water consumer, the efficiency is the lowest among the sectors. The efficiency drops along the way, from 70% at the reservoir to 40% at the field, due to poor management. At field level, the efficiencies could differ significantly due to the irrigation system and the method of water application strategy. A good example is the alternating subsurface drip/ furrow irrigation to be more efficient in water
8 vi use than normal drip or sprinkler. The alternating subsurface drip irrigation sometimes known as Partial Root Drying method (PRD) is one of the most efficient water use system. There is a great need to improve water use efficiency and productivity. Water use efficiency is a dimensionless term, it is a ratio of output to input, both having the same units. This is different from water productivity, a term that has a unit of yield, e.g. kg per unit of water used e.g. m 3. Sometimes water productivity is wrongly referred to as water use efficiency. There is a critical need to improve the water use efficiency, especially in agriculture. Technical and management options to improve productivity include: switching to crops that consume less water or use water more efficiently; improving the reliability of water supplies at critical crop growth periods, this would encourage farmers to invest more in other inputs and lead to higher output per unit of water; promoting deficit irrigation, which can increase productivity per unit of water by providing less water than full irrigation requirements; promoting supplemental irrigation, which uses limited irrigation at critical periods to supplement rainfall in rainfed agriculture; use of non-conventional water resources such as agriculture drainage water, seawater, brackish groundwater, and domestic wastewater; water savings and increasing water supply through water harvesting at different scales: house roofs, field and catchment scales. The techniques include: Bunds, Zays, underground dams and surface reservoirs. Water resources management requires sound water policies and legislation. The current policies need to have: links between water quality, land use and water resources; a link between water scarcity issues to agricultural policies; a policy with regard to biofuel/energy crops and their impact on water availability and food security; a policy on the use of waste water at the times of shortages, and the use of less water demanding and drought tolerant crops to cope with drought periods; proactive management of drought, which so far was reactive; demand management strategies should be promoted as obligatory measures in the water policy; assessing the risks and impacts of alternative water supply options such as desalination, brackish water and wastewater re-use; a forecast of water scarcity and drought events for the year ahead; there is a need to improve water use efficiency among all users; adoption of a joint policy on water security, food security, energy security and environment security; a shared vision among stakeholders (water users, polluters, scientists, government and private sector) to make collective informed decisions and collectively manage the water resources; raising the awareness of consumers. An Eco-Label regulation will help in choosing products with lower water consumption / water foot print. A water footprint is the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services (expressed as m 3 ). the combination of possible impacts of climate change and land use requires a proper plan for water resources management and mitigation strategies. There is a delicate balance between food security and energy security when changing the land use from crops to biofuel. Land use changes, if coinciding with droughts, could lead to desertification. Water resources management needs to be handled with an integrated approach that takes into account: the water resources availability (quantity and quality), the land use, the water demand, and the climate change. Globally irrigation consumes 70% of the total available fresh water. Any modest increase in irrigation use efficiency will result in significant savings of water for other uses. The world is expected to feed 9 billion persons by Efficient and proper management of water for food is a necessity. At the same time, we need to consider the water-food-energyenvironment nexus. WRIM journal is in unique position to deal with the above mentioned issues through its publication of high quality of peer reviewed papers. The forthcoming issues of WRIM will help the water resources and irrigation professionals with key solutions to the very pressing issues and will guide them to the right track to follow for sustainable use of such limited and life essential water resources. Dr. Ragab Ragab Vice President, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, ICID (www.icid.org) President Hon. British National Committee of ICID-UK Chairman of Water&Crops WG, ICID Chairman of the Permanent Committee on Strategies and Organization, ICID. Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BB United Kingdom
9 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-70, Jan-Apr, 2012 ISSN TESTIMONIALS/DEPOIMENTOS Ana Cristina Fermino Soares (UFRB) The Office of the Pro-Rector of Research and Post Graduate Studies reiterates its satisfaction and acknowledgment for the initiative and dedication shown by the Nucleus of Soil and Water Engineering (NEAS) of the Federal University of Recôncavo of Bahia (UFRB) in collaboration with the National Semi Arid Institute (INSA) for the foundation of the journal of Water Resources and Irrigation Management (WRIM). This journal has an excellent acceptance from the scientific community for its innovative approach to research topics and relevance to scientific and technological advancement in Agricultural Engineering. The fact that its first issue was published simultaneously with the starting of the Post Graduate Program in Agricultural Engineering at UFRB had significant impact on academic and research activities, and scientific publications at this university, as well as in other institutions in Brazil. Wishing success to the editorial team in continuing excellent work! Carlos Alberto Vieira de Azevedo (UFCG) A água por ser um bem precisíssimo para a humanidade merece um periódico que aborde com exclusividade seus diferentes aspectos relacionados à agricultura irrigada, sobretudo, no semiárido brasileiro que passa nos dias atuais por momentos de profunda penúria frente à seca devastadora, reclamando pela geração e divulgação de conhecimentos científicos capazes de alavancar seu desenvolvimento. Com este proposito, pesquisadores do Instituto Nacional do Semiárido e da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia tiveram a ideia brilhante de criar o periódico Water Resources and Irrigation Management (WRIM). Percebe-se que este periódico não se apresenta simplesmente como mais um disponível à comunidade científica, mas sim como um veículo que prima pela qualidade das informações científicas nele publicadas. Resta-nos parabenizar e até mesmo agradecer aos pesquisadores do INSA e da UFRB pelo enorme esforço desprendido na publicação de cada número deste periódico. A Engenharia Agrícola e o semiárido brasileiro se fortalecem com o surgimento da WRIM. Donivaldo Pedro Martins (Secretaria Nacional de Irrigação) Conhecimento gera conhecimento, que gera riquezas, que geram desenvolvimento, que viabilizam a sustentabilidade; isso tudo quando disseminado. Quando guardado, o conhecimento serve para muito pouco. A agricultura irrigada necessita de conhecimento para maximizar seus benefícios, tanto econômicos, como sociais, como ambientais. Nesse sentido, a iniciativa de lançamento da Water Resources and Irrigation Management (WRIM) vem em boa hora, oferecendo um periódico consistente e que se tornará cada vez mais presente e decisivo para o setor, principalmente na sua relação com os recursos hídricos e o meio ambiente. Parabéns pelo desafio e sucesso! José de Arimatea de Matos (UFERSA) O periódico Water Resources and Irrigation Management WRIM é sem dúvida mais um espaço à disposição da comunidade científica que incentiva a divulgação de descobertas do desenvolvimento dos recursos hídricos e da engenharia de água e solo. A exemplo da primeira edição, temos a convicção que esse segundo número irá superar as expectativas, uma consequência do trabalho realizado pelos editores associados, porque conheço a capacidade de trabalho da equipe e sua busca pela valorização da pesquisa e do pesquisador.
10 viii Marcos Vinicius Folegatti (ESALQ/USP) We are pleased to see the emergence of a new international journal Water Resources and Irrigation Management a result of serious and dedicated work of members of the scientific academy. I m even happier because the title of the magazine begins with Water Resources. Without proper understanding of hydrological, economic, social and environmental factors that affect water availability there will be no guarantee of water available for the multiple uses of water, including irrigation. This may have been one of the biggest mistakes of the scientific academy in the past of not giving due weight to the knowledge related to water resources before discussing their different uses. A new international scientific journal that addresses the issue of rational use of water for production of food, fiber and biofuels in Brazil is very timely. Brazil participates with only 1.7% the total irrigated area in the world, despite having a potential for irrigation of about 30 million hectares due to the large availability of land and water. A series of problems that affect the growth of irrigated agriculture in the world need to be studied and adequately discussed. Among them highlight the importance of addressing the river basin as the basic unit of water management. Results of experiments and studies need to be shared so that everyone benefits from modern and efficient techniques to continue to produce as a function of water, which is a finite resource, essential to our lives, and therefore of high value. Welcome WRIM. Mario Monteiro Rolim (UFRPE) A Área da Engenharia Agrícola tem poucos veículos de publicação científica em relação a outras das Ciências Agrárias, isto tem criado dificuldade aos Programas de Engenharia Agrícola a atingir os maiores conceitos. Dessa forma é oportuno a criação de mais um veiculo de divulgação científica disponível e com qualidade. A WRIM - Water Resources and Irrigation Management, embora tenha uma equipe editorial nova, esta é altamente dedicada e qualificada cientificamente, associado a isto tem o apoio de duas instituições de ensino e de pesquisa, INSA e a UFRB; por tudo desejo muito sucesso a revista WRIM. Rafael Oliveira Batista (UFERSA) O periódico Water Resources and Irrigation Management (WRIM) ocupa posição de destaque no Semiárido Brasileiro, em função da divulgação de produtos e processos inovadores que potencializem o uso dos recursos hídricos no sistema solo-água-planta. Além disso, a equipe do período é altamente qualificada e dispõem de parceiros e recursos para garantir o sucesso do periódico. Parabenizo a todos os idealizadores e colaboradores por esta importante conquista para a área de Ciências Agrárias. Suresh A. Kulkarni (ICID) Due to rapid increase in the global demand for freshwater from agriculture, industrial, power, municipal, and environmental sectors, it has become challenging to use the available water resources more prudently and efficiently. Worldwide, irrigation is the major user of the freshwater and in many countries especially in the arid and semi-arid regions the share of irrigation in the total water withdrawals is as high as 90%. There is therefore a need to exchange the best practices, scientific ideas, and research findings pertaining to improved management of water resources, irrigation and drainage engineering, climate change impacts, the use of poor quality waters for crop irrigation, etc., across the regions and countries, globally. At times language becomes a barrier in communication among the scientific community across the world. The Water Resources and Irrigation Management has overcome this barrier and bridged the communication gap among South American countries and rest of the world. I heartily congratulate the esteemed members of the Editorial Board for this excellent initiative and wish a great success in their endeavor.
11 Water Resources and Irrigation Management Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, BA Instituto Nacional do Semiárido, Campina Grande, PB v.2, n.1, p.1-10, Jan.-Apr., 2013 ISSN Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana Lineu Neiva Rodrigues 1 & Jens Liebe 2 Protocol Received: 19/03/ Accepted: 10/04/2013 Abstract: In the last years, hundreds of small reservoirs were built in the Savannah regions of Brazil and Ghana. They play an important role in supporting the local economies. The lack of technical information about the small reservoirs in these regions is endangering the sustainability of agriculture and the livelihood of farmers. The purpose of this study was to establish the volume-area-depth relationship for small reservoirs in the Brazilian and Ghana Savannah regions. Thus, a comprehensive field work was performed. In total, 28.5% and 39.0% of the total number of small reservoirs in the Preto River Basin in Brazil and in the Upper East Region of Ghana, respectively, were visited and measured. The results showed a good-fit for the depth-volume and area-volume relationships for both regions, with coefficient of determination, for both cases and both regions, higher than The mean k and α1 values were lower in Brazil as compared to Ghana and k1 and α were higher. The values of the parameters presented great variability, indicating the importance of performing local measurements. Key words: water resources, dams, bathymetry, storage-volume Relação profundidade-área-volume em pequenos reservatórios localizados no Cerrado do Brasil e de Gana Resumo: Nos últimos anos, centenas de pequenas barragens foram construídas na região do Cerrado do Brasil e de Gana. Eles são de fundamental importância para a economia local. A ausência de informações técnicas sobre eles, que é crucial para o processo de tomada de decisão sobre o planejamento e manejo de recursos hídricos em bacias hidrográficas, entretanto, está colocando em risco a sustentabilidade da agricultura e a qualidade de vida das comunidades rurais nessas regiões. O objetivo deste estudo foi estabelecer relações cota-área-volume para pequenas barragens na região do Cerrado do Brasil e de Gana. Para isto, foi realizado um levantamento bastante detalhado. No total, 28,5% e 29,0% do total de barragens existentes na bacia hidrográfica do Rio Preto e na região superior leste de Gana, respectivamente, foram visitados e avaliados. Os resultados indicaram um bom ajuste das relações cota-volume e área-volume para as duas regiões, com coeficiente de determinação superior a 0,93, para os dois casos e as duas regiões. Os valores médios de k e α1 foram menores para as barragens do Brasil e os de k1 e α maiores. Observou-se uma grande variabilidade dos parâmetros, indicando a importância de se realizar medidas locais. Palavras-chave: recursos hídricos, barragens, batimetria, volume armazenado 1 Embrapa Cerrados, BR 020, km 18, Planaltina, DF. 2 Center for Development Research, Walter-Flex-Str. 3, Bonn, Germany.
12 2 Rodrigues & Liebe Introduction Small reservoirs are a common form of water infrastructure encountered in areas, such as the Preto River Basin, a sub-catchment of the São Francisco watershed, Brazil, or the Upper East Region of Ghana, in the Volta Basin of West Africa. They provide water for a number of different uses, e.g. for dry season irrigation and livestock watering in Brazil, and, additionally, for fishing, building and domestic purposes in Ghana. These reservoirs contribute to reducing the vulnerability of their basin inhabitants to drought and to improving their livelihoods. The reservoirs also have a significant effect on downstream flows, as they can provide a buffer from flooding by delaying and diminishing flash floods by temporarily storing the excess water (Poolman, 2005). They also help recharge groundwater aquifers, thereby increasing the base flow in the downstream part of the catchment area (Adwubi et al., 2009). The sustainability of the reservoirs in Brazil and Ghana, however, is being challenged by problems that directly affect the economic livelihoods and economic development of their basin inhabitants. In Brazil and Ghana, hundreds of small reservoirs were built in the last few decades, to help improve irrigated agriculture in the region. They are an important part of water resource management and their development needs to be pursued in a strategic manner and requires planning of water resources. However, efficient water management and sound reservoir planning and management are hindered by inadequate knowledge of their number, storage capacity and spatial distribution in the basin. Arrays of small reservoirs can potentially have a large impact on the hydrology and the ecology of the surrounding environment. They have a significant effect on the water yield of the strategic reservoir, and this effect is simulated to even increase under disadvantageous climate changes (Krol et al., 2011). Information about reservoir locations and storage volumes is critical for decision-making processes regarding planning and management of water resources. In the recent past, the issue of small reservoirs inventories and regional storage volume assessment has been addressed in a number of different regions. In Brazil, Rodrigues et al. (2007) carried out an inventory and classification of reservoirs by means of remote sensing using three Landsat ETM images taken in 2005 and detected 253 small reservoirs only in the Preto River Basin, which represents 1.6% of the São Francisco Basin area. In the Upper East Region of Ghana, Liebe et al. (2005) mapped 154 small reservoirs using two Landsat ETM images from 1999, and tested the suitability of ENVISAT ASAR, a C-band radar, and ALOS PALSAR, an L-band radar, to measure and monitor small reservoir extents (Liebe et al., 2009; Annor et al. 2009). These satellite based inventories, however, only provide information on the number, location, and the surface extents of small reservoirs. Despite the large number of poorly-defined reservoirs in the Preto River Basin and Upper East Region of Ghana, information about the reservoirs is still a major problem. Liebe et al. (2009) developed a procedure to test a runoff model by remotely sensing reservoir sizes over time and concluded that regarding the applicability of the method used to derive runoff volumes, the most crucial question is whether regional relations can be found that relate surface areas to stored volumes. Presently, we cannot predict such relations on the basis of readily available global data and must rely on bathymetric surveys. Area-capacity curves are of the most important physical characteristics of dams reservoirs. These curves are used for reservoir flood routing, dam operation, determination of water surface area and capacity corresponding to each elevation, reservoir classification and prediction of sediment distribution in reservoirs. As a result, obtaining the area-capacity equations has great significance from a practical aspect (Haghiabi et al., 2013). Besides this, these relations are site specific, and are usually derived from a detailed bathymetry map. To be able to assess the sedimentation rate or to determine sustainable water withdrawal rates, the water level volume reservoir area or stage curve relationships provide invaluable information. While the small reservoir depth-area-volume relationship is important information for water resource planning and managing, hydrology and modeling, it is laborious, time consuming and costly to obtain them, specifically in areas with large number of this infrastructures, as is the case of Brazil and Ghana. The main objective of this study was therefore to establish volume-area-depth relationships for small reservoirs located in the Preto River Basin, in the Brazilian Savannah, and in the Upper East Region of Ghana. This information will be very useful for planers and can help to improve water management in those regions. Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
13 Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana 3 Materials and Methods The study area in Brazil was the Preto River Basin. Located in the central portion of Brazil, on the western side of the Middle portion of the São Francisco Basin, the drainage area of basin is roughly 10,500 km 2. The basin traverses two states, Minas Gerais and Goiás, as well as the Federal District, and encompasses 10 municipalities (6 in Minas Gerais, 4 in Goiás). The basin has a tropical wet and dry climate, with a long dry season lasting from May to September, and a rainy season that usually starts around October and ends in April. The mean annual rainfall is around 1,200 mm, of which 85% occurs during the rainy season. The length of the dry season contributes to various problems with forest fires, water shortages and conflicts, and insecure food production. Viable agriculture in the basin is only possible through irrigation, which depends on the water stored in the small reservoirs. The study area in Ghana was the Upper East Region. The basin drainage area is roughly 8,842 km 2 ; it is located in the White Volta Basin, bordering Burkina Faso and Togo. It is inhabited by one million people and is amongst the poorest of Ghana s Regions. Agriculture plays a major role for both income generation and subsistence, and the pressure on water resources increases due to steep population growth. The semiarid climate is characterized by a three month, monomodal rainy season. The great variability of precipitation, however, frequently leads to crop loss in rainfed agriculture. Also, ninety percent of the Region s total rainfall (986 mm) occurs as thunderstorms, originating from squall lines (Eldridge, 1957; Hayward & Oguntoyinbo, 1987; Friesen, 2002), in which rainfall intensities often exceed the soil s water holding capacity causing surface runoff, without replenishing soil moisture and groundwater. Small reservoirs are therefore an important form of water storage that allows the population to generate a more dependable income from dry season irrigation. Like in Brazil, the small reservoirs are relatively shallow due to the flat topography of the region. For the Preto River Basin the inventory and classification of reservoirs was conducted by means of remote sensing using three Landsat ETM images taken in 2005 (Rodrigues et al., 2007). In the Basin, 252 small dams were identified with reservoir surface areas varying between 1 to 413 ha. In this classification good user accuracy was achieved, with just one misclassification (that of a lagoon listed as a reservoir) detected in the 51% of reservoirs visited. The satellite and ground based surface areas were compared and used as a second quality indicator. A questionnaire-based and semistructured interview was carried out with farming households prior to each reservoir survey, with questions focused on reservoir characteristics such as the existence of technical information (area, depth, maps, etc.), maintenance, age, purpose, etc. (Rodrigues et al., 2012). The initial database consisted of 252 small reservoirs, but only those with surface areas between 1 and 50 ha were considered. There were a total of 147 small reservoirs in this size range (Figure 1A). For information purposes, the reservoirs were split into three categories (Figure 1A): Category 1, with areas of 1-3 ha (68 reservoirs), Category 2 with areas of 3-10 ha (51 reservoirs), and Category 3, with area of 10 to 50 ha (28 reservoirs). To have an extensive sample set and to ensure sufficient A. B. Figure 1. Reservoirs identified in satellite imagery (Landsat) and distribution of the surveyed reservoirs by surface area category (Category 1: 1-3 ha; Category 2: 3-10 ha; and Category 3: ha). (A) Preto River Basin, Brazil; (B) Upper East Region of Ghana Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
14 4 Rodrigues & Liebe coverage for finding surface area-volume relationships, 42 out of the 147 (28.5%) of the total amount of small reservoirs were evaluated. This represented 29.4% of the reservoirs of Categories 1 and 2, and 25.0% of Category 3. The selected reservoirs were visited and measured during three fieldwork periods that were conducted from March to April and October to November of 2006 and from March to May of In the Upper East Region of Ghana, an inventory of small reservoirs was carried out through a classification of two Landsat ETM scenes from October 13 and November 7, 1999, i.e. at the end of the rainy season of a wet year where the reservoirs are expected to be filled to capacity (Liebe et al., 2005). In total, 540 water bodies were detected within the region, of which 154 reservoirs within the size ranged between 1-35 ha were selected for further analysis (Figure 1B). As in the classification of reservoirs in the Sao Francisco Basin, the user accuracy of the reservoir maps was high. All the 61 reservoirs visited existed, indicating good user accuracy. In the Upper East Region of Ghana, similarly to the approach used in the Preto River Basin, the 154 reservoirs within the target range (1-35 ha) were categorized into three approximately equally sized categories (Figure 1B). Category 1 has 51 reservoirs in the range of ha, Category 2 contains 53 reservoirs between 2.88 and 6.93 ha, and Category 3 has 50 reservoirs ranging from 7.02 to 35 ha. A total of 61 reservoirs (39.6% of total population) was randomly selected within the three categories (20 reservoirs each from Categories 1 and 3, and 21 reservoirs from Category 2) to capture the variance over the different reservoir sizes. The bathymetrical surveys were conducted between December 2002 and February At this time of the year, the reservoirs were not filled to capacity anymore. Therefore, in addition to the bathymetric survey, the difference between the actual water level and the spillway level was recorded. The general idea behind depth measurements in reservoirs with the aim of adequate volume estimation is based on finding its deepest point from which it can be interpolated to the shores. The large number of points taken between the deepest point and the shoreline yield an accurate representation of the reservoir shape (Liebe et al., 2005). The collection of the depth data was not done according to a predefined grid. Each reservoir was measured according to unique judgment taking into account the local variation and characteristics. The shape and size of the reservoir surface area were determined by walking around each reservoir with a handheld GPS and taking large numbers of points along the shoreline. Following that step, bathymetric maps were compiled. Water depths were measured in several places inside the reservoirs using a plummet from a boat, with each measurement accompanied with GPS coordinates. Depth measurements of reservoirs were conducted to estimate the volume of a reservoir; the measurement entails finding a reservoir s deepest point from which it can be interpolated to the shores. Care was taken to achieve good coverage of points well spread over the reservoir while focusing on the areas closest to the dam wall, where the deepest points are generally found. The biggest problem turned out to be navigation due to wind-induced boat drift. In order to derive the storage volumes of the surveyed reservoirs and the volume-area-depth relationships, a 3D-Model was created for each of the 103 reservoirs (42 in Brazil and 61 in Ghana), volume and surface area were calculated for different water depths at 5 cm depth intervals, using the script contaarea.bas, developed by Golden software. The volume of reservoirs can be expressed as a function of their surface area, which allows for storage volume assessment from satellite imagery, or as a function of depth, which is often used in conjunction with stage data measured at the reservoirs. Both area-volume and depth-volume curves for reservoirs can be explained with power functions of the form V=θX σ where: V - stored volume, m 3 X - depth, m or surface area, m 2 θ - equal k if X = depth (H) or k1 if X = surface area σ - equal α if X = depth or α1 if X = surface area The equation is valid for 0 depth (H) maximum depth (MD) and 0 surface area maximum surface area (MSA). Results and Discussion Figure 2 shows a 3D-model of a reservoir (Category 3) in Ghana, with the distribution of the depth measurements and the result of the interpolation. It was created from 502 GPSreadings delineating its outline and 126 depth measurements. The inset in the top right corner shows the distribution of the depth measurements, which cluster most densely in close range to the Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
15 Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana 5 Figure 2. 3D-model for one reservoir in Ghana. The inset in the top right corner shows the distribution of the depth measurements dam wall (top edge) to capture its deepest point (3.10 m). The remaining parts of the reservoir are evenly covered. The reservoir had an area of 9.01 ha, and contained 100,435 m³ of water at the time of observation. Figure 3 shows the correlation between logarithms of depth (H) and volume (Figure 3A) and logarithms of surface area and volume of a reservoir in Brazil (Figure 3B). The linearity observed for this specific reservoir was the same verified in all reservoirs evaluated in both regions. For Brazil, R 2 was larger than 0.97 and for Ghana it was greater than Despite the variety of reservoir shapes, the derived equations for all reservoirs, independent of size, for the whole Preto River Basin and the Upper East Region of Ghana fitted the observed data quite well, which give great confidence in their application. This information has importance in hydrology. Besides water level-volume, reservoir area or stage curve relationships, multi temporal comparison between bathymetries can be used as an indicator for environmental changes like lake or reservoir sedimentation. From this information, lake ecosystem functioning, life times of reservoirs or erosion sedimentation rates of catchments can be derived (Dost & Mannaerts, 2008). Locations and values for the parameters k and α, of the relationships between depth and volume, and for k1 and α1, of the relationships between surface area and volume, for the reservoirs in the Preto River Basin, Brazil, are reported in Table 1 and for the Upper East Region of Ghana in Table 2. The equation used to represent the depthvolume relationship is based on the fact that small reservoirs resemble an inverted pyramid. The coefficient k represents the openness of the pyramid. The more open and flatter the valley, the larger is k. Thus, one expects to get high k values in wide and open alluvial valleys (Molle, 1994). According to same author, α, defined as shape coefficient, is related with the hillside concavity. The general shapes of the reservoir curves as shown in Fig. 3 represents the expected curves for small reservoirs and is similar to curves obtained by other authors, like Sawunyama et al. (2006), for area-volume, and Choodegowda (2009), for depth-volume. Figure 4 presents a box plot of k and α and of k1 and α1. It can be observed that the average k and α1 values were lower in Brazil than in Ghana and the k1 and α values were higher. The analysis of the box length gives an indication of data variability. It can be noted, e.g. that the parameter α is more variable than k and that this last one has about the same variability for the reservoirs in Brazil and Ghana. For the Preto River Basin, Brazil, the values of k varied from to , with a mean value of and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 2.04, and α from 1.58 to 3.75, with Figure 3. Correlation between logarithms of depth (H) and volume, (A), and logarithms of area and volume, (B), for one reservoir in Brazil Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
16 6 Rodrigues & Liebe Table 1. Locations, maximum depth (MD), measured surface area (MSA), and coefficients k and α and k1 and α1 of the relationships depth-volumes and area-volumes, respectively, for the reservoirs in the Preto River Basin, Brazil * Range that the equation is valid: 0 depth MD ** Range that the equation is valid: 0 area MSA a mean value of 2.61 and a CV = In the Upper East Region of Ghana the values of k varied from to , with an average of and a CV = 0.98, and a α from 1.83 to 4.08, with a mean value of 2.59 and a CV = k1 varied from to , with a mean value of and a CV = 1.60, and from to , with an average of and a CV = 1.62 in Upper East Region of Ghana and Preto River Basin, Brazil, respectively. α1 varied from 1.18 to 2.23, with an average of 1.67 and a CV = 0.12, and from 1.24 to 1.99, with an average of 1.52 and a CV = 0.11 in Upper East Region of Ghana and Preto River Basin, Brazil, respectively. The results suggest that these relationships are region-specific and as expected depend on several factors like topography, valley shape and geology of the area, being difficult to make direct comparison of the results obtained in this study with other results. The parameters values of the equations area-volume are in the same order of magnitude of the equations obtained by Meigh (1995) that using topographic maps obtained a power relationship between capacity of the reservoir and its surface area measured with k1 = and α1 = 1.25 and R 2 = The values are also comparable in order of magnitude to the ones obtained by Sawunyama et al. (2006). They evaluated 12 small reservoirs and developed Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
17 Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana 7 Table 2. Locations, maximum depth (MD), measured surface area (MSA), coefficients k and α and k1 and α1 of the relationships depth-volumes and area-volumes, respectively, for the reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana * Range that the equation is valid: 0 depth MD ** Range that the equation is valid: 0 area MSA Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
18 8 Rodrigues & Liebe Figure 4. Box plot of k and α and of k1 and α1 parameters for small reservoirs in the Preto River Basin in Brazil (A) and for the Upper East Region of Ghana (B) Figure 5. Log(k)-α, for the relationships between depth and volume, and log(k1)-α1, for the relationships between surface area and volume, for the reservoirs in the Preto River Basin, Brazil (A) and for the Upper East Region of Ghana (B) relationship between capacity of the reservoir and their surface areas and obtained k1 values varying from to and α1 from 1.26 to It would be of high interest for water planners to know how the parameters are correlated among themselves and to have a general equation that could be applied to Brazil and Ghana to estimate reservoir volumes based on both their depth and surface area. Figure 5 (A) and (B) presents the correlation between the parameters log(k) and α and parameters log(k1) and α1, respectively. The first attempt was to find a correlation between the parameters for each study area separately. Following this, a general correlation between the parameters of Brazil and Ghana was investigated. The correlation obtained between log(k)-α, for the relationships between depth and volume, for both areas was not satisfactory (Figure 5A). This correlation was much better for the reservoirs in Brazil (R 2 = 0.46) than for those in Ghana (R 2 = 0.06). On the other hand, the correlation between log(k1)-α1, for the relationships between surface area and volume, for both regions showed a very good-fit (Figure 5B). It indicates that a high potential exists to apply this relationship to estimate reservoir volumes based on their surface area. These results are very promising, once it shows the possibility for using remote sensing techniques to manage water of these infrastructures, which can contribute to minimize water conflicts in the region. Future work should extend the analysis to a wider region and focus on the application of remote sensing to estimate variation in time and space of reservoir volumes based on their surface area. Liebe et al. (2009) state that satellite images for mapping the small reservoirs can be obtained from optical (i.e., Landsat, Spot, Aster, ISS, etc.) or radar satellite systems (ENVISAT, ERS, RADARSAT, etc.). Even though the technology exists, a need exists for improving the accuracy of extracting the water surface area from satellite images. Information obtained from remote sensing could be used by planners in a type of alert system. For the irrigators, it will show the water available in the system and the risk of lack of water for irrigation. For the electric systems it will indicate the capacity of small reservoirs in a watershed to capture and retain water and their potential for flow regularization. Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
19 Small reservoirs depth-area-volume relationships in Savannah Regions of Brazil and Ghana 9 Conclusions 1. For all reservoirs evaluated in the Preto River Basin, Brazil, and in the Upper East Region of Ghana, a linearity between the logarithms of depth (H) and volume and logarithms of surface area (area) and volume was verified, with R 2 greater than 0.93 in all cases which can be used with confidence to plan and manage the water resources in those regions. 2. A great variability in the parameters of the relationships depth-volume was observed, indicating that the equations are site specific and as such their use should not be extrapolated. 3. A high correlation between the parameters of the relationships area-volume for the Preto River Basin, Brazil, for the Upper East Region of Ghana and for both regions together was observed, demonstrating that the generic power equation obtained can be used with confidence by planners to simulate volume in function of surface area in both places. Acknowledgements The presented research was carried out as part of the Small Reservoir Project. We gratefully acknowledge financial support of Advisory Service on Agricultural Research for Development (BEAF) through the Challenge Program on Water and Food. Literature Cited Adwubi, A.; Amegashie, B. K.; Agyare, W. A.; Tamene, L.; Odai, S. N.; Quansah, C.; Vlek, P. Assessing sediment inputs to small reservoirs in Upper East Region, Ghana. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management, v.14, p , Annor, F. O.; van de Giesen, N.; Liebe, J.; van der Zaag, P.; Tilmant, A.; Odai, S. N. Delineation of small reservoirs using radar imagery in a semi-arid environment: A case study in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v.34, p , Choodegowda, B. R. Modeling small reservoirs in the Great Plains to estimate overflow and ground-water recharge p. Manhattan, Kansas: Kansas State University, Ph.D Thesis Dost, R. J. J.; Mannaerts, C. M. M. Generation of lake bathymetry using sonar, satellite imagery and GIS. In: Annual ESRI International User Conference, 28., 2008, [New York]. Proceedings <http://proceedings.esri.com/ library/userconf/proc08/>. 08 Apr Eldridge, R. H. A synoptic study of West African disturbance lines. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, v.83, p , Faulkner, J.; Steenhuis, T.; van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M.; Liebe, J. Water use and productivity of two small reservoir irrigation schemes in Ghana s Upper East Region. Irrigation and Drainage, v.57, p , Friesen, J. Spatio-temporal rainfall patterns in Northern Ghana. Bonn: University of Bonn, p. Diploma Thesis Haghiabi, A. H.; Slamian, S. S.; Mohammadzadeh- Habili, J.; Mousav, S. F. Derivation of reservoir s area-capacity equations based on the shape factor. Transactions of Civil Engineering, v.37, p , Hayward, D.; Oguntoyinho, J. Climatology of West Africa. London: Hutchinson/Barnes & Noble, p. Krol, M. S.; Vries, M. J.; van Oel, P. R.; Araújo, J. C. Sustainability of small reservoirs and large scale water availability under current conditions and climate change. Water Resources Management, v.25, p , DOI /s Liebe, J.; van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M. S. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in a semi-arid environment. A case study in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, v.30, p , Liebe, J.; van de Giesen, N.; Andreini, M. S.; Walter, M. T.; Steenhuis, T. Determining watershed response in data poor environments with remotely sensed small reservoirs as runoff gauges. Water Resources Research, v.45, p.w07410, Meigh, J. The impact of small farm reservoirs on urban water supplies in Botswana. Natural Resources Forum, v.19, p.71 83, Molle, F. Geometria dos pequenos açudes. Recife: SUDENE/TAPI/ORSTOM, p. SUDENE. Hidrologia, 29 Poolman, M. I. Developing small reservoirs: A participatory approach can help. Delft: Technical University of Delft, MSc. Dissertation Rodrigues, L. N.; Sano, E. E.; Azevedo, J. A.; Silva, E. M. Distribuição espacial e área máxima do espelho d água de pequenas barragens de terra na Bacia do Rio Preto. Espaço e Geografia, v.10, p , Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
20 10 Rodrigues & Liebe Rodrigues, L. N.; Sano, E. E.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Passo, D. P. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities with remote sensing in the Brazilian Savannah Region. Water Resources Management, v.26, p , DOI: /s Sawunyama, T.; Senzanje, A.; Mhizha, A. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in Limpopo River Basin using geographical information systems (GIS) and remotely sensed surface areas: Case of Mzingwane catchment. Physics and Chemical of the Earth, v.31, p , Water Resources and Irrigation Management, v.2, n.1, p.1-10, 2013.
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